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child ,neonatal

Naomi M Saville, Bhim P Shrestha, Sarah Style, Helen Harris-Fry, B James Beard, Aman Sengupta, Sonali Jha, Anjana Rai, Vikas Paudel, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brannstrom, Andrew Copas, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Bishnu Bhandari, Rishi Neupane, Joanna Morrison, Lu Gram, Raghbendra Sah, Machhindra Basnet, Jayne Harthan, Dharma S Manandhar, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW, < 2500 g) affects one third of newborn infants in rural south Asia and compromises child survival, infant growth, educational performance and economic prospects. We aimed to assess the impact on birth weight and weight-for-age Z-score in children aged 0-16 months of a nutrition Participatory Learning and Action behaviour change strategy (PLA) for pregnant women through women's groups, with or without unconditional transfers of food or cash to pregnant women in two districts of southern Nepal...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Laura Olbrich, Eva Schmidt, Ertan Mayatepek, Markus Vogel
BACKGROUND: We report the case of a 6 year old boy suffering from adenohypophysis aplasia as well as ectopic neurohypophysis and delayed diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). CASE PRESENTATION: The boy was diagnosed with panhypopituitarism during the neonatal period and suffered from recurrent episodes during the following years suggesting infections. He also showed signs of adrenal insufficiency. Finally, at the age of 6 years, an additional diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) was clinically suspected and later confirmed by molecular analysis...
2016: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
Talia Orr, Marsha Campbell-Yeo, Britney Benoit, Brenda Hewitt, Jennifer Stinson, Patrick McGrath, Donna Dowling
BACKGROUND: Despite an abundance of research that identifies the benefits for both parent and child when parents are actively involved in their infant's care, challenges related to the best methods to engage families persist. PURPOSE: To conduct a feasibility study that aims to understand the preferences of smartphone and Internet use by parents of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) related to information seeking and active participation in infant care, with a focus on pain management interventions...
October 18, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Abebe Bimerew, Muluken Teshome, Getachew Mullu Kassa
BACKGROUND: Early initiation of breastfeeding is a simple and cost effective intervention to advance the health of mothers and newborn babies. A large number of neonatal deaths could be prevented if infants were breastfed. However, there is poor practice related to breastfeeding initiation within the first one hour of birth, and the factors affecting it are not well understood. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of timely breastfeeding initiation and associated factors in Dembecha district, North West Ethiopia...
2016: International Breastfeeding Journal
Pedro Pallangyo, Isaac Mawenya, Paulina Nicholaus, Henry Mayala, Amida Kalombola, Godwin Sharau, Naiz Majani, Mohamed Janabi
BACKGROUND: Congenital complete heart block is a life-threatening condition which is highly associated with autoimmune and connective tissue disorders. Presence of maternal autoantibodies for associated conditions increases the risk of delivering a child with congenital complete heart block, however, less than a half of all women with such antibodies are symptomatic even after delivery. Mortality rate is highest during the neonatal period (45 %) and about two-thirds of all cases will require permanent pacing at some point in their lives...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Tilahun Tewabe
BACKGROUND: Timely initiation of breastfeeding within one hour after birth and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six months of infant life along with continuation of breastfeeding up to two years. Timely initiation of breastfeeding has the potential to prevent 22 % of neonatal deaths. The objective of this study was to assess timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers who have infants less than six months of age in Motta town, East Gojjam, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia...
October 19, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Chloe A Smith, Cong Sun, Angela Pezic, Christine Rodda, Fergus Cameron, Katie Allen, Maria E Craig, John Carlin, Terry Dwyer, Robyn M Lucas, Darryl W Eyles, Andrew S Kemp, Justine A Ellis, Anne-Louise Ponsonby
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is linked to adverse childhood health outcomes, yet data on the distribution and quantifiable determinants of neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) concentration, a vitamin D biomarker, are limited. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify determinants of neonatal 25OHD concentration, measured using neonatal dried blood spots (DBS). METHODS: A total of 259 ethnically diverse children aged 0-16 years born in Victoria, Australia, were recruited...
October 19, 2016: Neonatology
Fengcai Zhu, Henri Deckx, Raphaele Roten, Bart Michiels, Michal Sarnecki
AIM: Compare efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of Hepavax-Gene TF (thimerosal free) vaccine with comparator in Chinese neonates. METHODS: Double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, stratified study was conducted at multiple sites in China in healthy neonates, consisting of three doses of Hepavax-Gene TF or Engerix-B vaccines administered at birth, one and six months of age, with a six month follow-up after vaccination. Based on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection status of mothers, infants were assigned to one of two study strata for mothers positive for HBV infection (Stratum 1), with or without active replicating virus (Substrata 1a, 1b) and for HBV negative mothers (Stratum 2)...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Zhangmin Tan, Yuzhu Yin, Jin Zhou, Lingling Wu, Chengfang Xu, Hongying Hou
This prospective study evaluated the viability of telbivudine for blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.Pregnant women positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen began telbivudine treatment before 14 weeks of gestation (i.e., early), between 14 and 28 weeks of gestation (late), or not at all (control). In the late-treatment group, 55 women terminated telbivudine therapy within puerperium. All neonates underwent routine hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus vaccination...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sajan Agarwal, Bikrant Bihari Lal, Dinesh Rawat, Archana Rastogi, Kishore G S Bharathy, Seema Alam
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and laboratory profile of children with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) and evaluate their outcome. METHODS: The study is a retrospective review of all cases diagnosed with PFIC between January 2011 and July 2015. All children underwent histopathological examination and immunostaining. Management was done as per institute's protocol. RESULTS: There were a total of 24 PFIC cases (PFIC 1-2, PFIC 2-19, PFIC 3-3)...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Sari Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Zack Boukydis, Anna Margareta Axelin, Liisa Lehtonen
Parents of preterm infants commonly experience separation from their infant or exclusion from their role as primary caregivers during the hospital care of their infant, which may impair parent-infant bonding and parents' psychological well-being. Therefore, we developed the Close Collaboration with Parents™ intervention to improve staff skills in communicating and collaborating with parents in neonatal intensive care units (NICU), to increase parents' presence and participation into infant care, and to improve parent-infant bonding and, thereby, parents' psychological well-being and later child development...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Jotam Pasipanodya, Eric Nuermberger, Soumya Swaminathan, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  When treated with the same antibiotic dose, children achieve different 0- to 24-hour area under the concentration-time curves (AUC0-24) because of maturation and between-child physiological variability on drug clearance. Children are also infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with different antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Thus, each child will achieve different AUC0-24/MIC ratios when treated with the same dose. METHODS:  We used 10 000-subject Monte Carlo experiments to identify the oral doses of linezolid, moxifloxacin, and faropenem that would achieve optimal target exposures associated with optimal efficacy in children with disseminated tuberculosis...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Giridhara R Babu, Gvs Murthy, R Deepa, Yamuna, Prafulla, H Kiran Kumar, Maithili Karthik, Keerti Deshpande, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, D Prabhakaran, Anura Kurpad, Sanjay Kinra
BACKGROUND: India is experiencing an epidemic of obesity-hyperglycaemia, which coincides with child bearing age for women. The epidemic can be sustained and augmented through transgenerational transmission of adiposity and glucose intolerance in women. This presents an opportunity for exploring a clear strategy for the control of this epidemic in India. We conducted a study between November 2013 and May 2015 to inform the design of a large pregnancy cohort study. Based on the findings of this pilot, we developed the protocol for the proposed birth cohort of 5000 women, the recruitment for which will start in April 2016...
October 14, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Lynn M Yee, Grecio Sandoval, Jennifer Bailit, Uma M Reddy, Ronald J Wapner, Michael W Varner, Steve N Caritis, Mona Prasad, Alan T N Tita, George Saade, Yoram Sorokin, Dwight J Rouse, Sean C Blackwell, Jorge E Tolosa
OBJECTIVE: To describe factors associated with delayed pushing and evaluate the relationship between delayed pushing and perinatal outcomes in nulliparous women with singleton term gestations. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Assessment of Perinatal Excellence cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 U.S. hospitals from 2008 to 2011. Nulliparous women with singleton, cephalic, nonanomalous term births who achieved 10-cm cervical dilation were included...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Elisabeth Leirgul, Kristoffer Brodwall, Gottfried Greve, Stein E Vollset, Henrik Holmstrøm, Grethe S Tell, Nina Øyen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between pregestational or gestational diabetes and offspring risk of congenital heart defects and the association between large-for-gestational-age birth weight and risk of cardiac defects in offspring of diabetic women. METHODS: Information on pregestational and gestational diabetes, cardiac defects, and birth weight among all births in Norway in 1994-2009 was ascertained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, national health registries, and the Cardiovascular Disease in Norway project...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Isabelle Bragard, Marie-Christine Seghaye, Nesrine Farhat, Marie Solowianiuk, Mariane Saliba, Anne-Marie Etienne, Katharina Schumacher
OBJECTIVES: Residents beginning their specialization in pediatrics and emergency medicine (EM) are rapidly involved in oncall duties. Early acquisition of crisis resource management by novice residents is essential for patient safety, but traditional training may be insufficient. Our aim was to investigate the impact of a 2-day simulation-based course on residents to manage pediatric and neonatal patients. METHODS: First year residents participated in the course...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Kristen Lyall, Meredith Anderson, Martin Kharrazi, Gayle C Windham
Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical in early neurodevelopment, but few studies have examined whether neonatal TH levels influence risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study linked California neonatal screening data with live birth and Department of Developmental Services records to examine newborn TH levels in relation to ASD. Thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured in newborn bloodspots as part of routine screening, in 1996 and 2002, respectively. Mean levels of T4 and TSH were compared between ASD cases and non-cases...
October 14, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Eivind Kolstad, Gyri Veiby, Nils Erik Gilhus, Marte Bjørk
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether prepregnancy overweight in women with epilepsy increases their risk for complications during pregnancy and delivery. METHODS: This study is based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A diagnosis of epilepsy was reported in 706 pregnancies. Overweight was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 prepregnancy. Overweight women with epilepsy (n = 259) were compared to normal-weight women with epilepsy (n = 416), and to women without epilepsy with and without overweight (n = 30,516 and n = 67,977, respectively)...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsia
Y Liu, L-B Guo, J-K Xu
OBJECTIVE: These case series present a retrospective analysis of clinical effects that an allogeneic amniotic cell transplantation can have in treating 4 patients with type 2 diabetes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible diabetic patients were onset within 3 years, with fasting blood glucose > 7.0 mmol/l. Stem - cells that are collected from neonatal amniotic membrane when a child is born (2 x 107 cells) - are used for the treatment of these patients. Measured by the flow cytometry, stem cells transfer clusters of differentiation CD113 and CD34 at a high level, and through the femoral artery on the left, they are administered into the patient's pancreatic dorsal artery...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Established in 2000, Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) catalysed extraordinary political, financial, and social commitments to reduce under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. At the country level, the pace of progress in improving child survival has varied markedly, highlighting a crucial need to further examine potential drivers of accelerated or slowed decreases in child mortality. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides an analytical framework to comprehensively assess these trends for under-5 mortality, age-specific and cause-specific mortality among children under 5 years, and stillbirths by geography over time...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
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