Read by QxMD icon Read


Xiuqing Tian, Rui Guo, Yujiao Zhang, Lingling Xu, Xianbing Liu, Yinglong Hou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of sympathetic overactivity on the immune system involved in the imbalance of T helper (Th) lymphocytes, we investigated the correlation between autonomic dysregulation and the generation of regulatory T (Treg) and Th1 chemokines in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Blood samples obtained from patients with coronary artery disease and controls were analyzed for levels of Th1 and Treg cells and their associated cytokines by flow cytometry...
October 21, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Andrew J Flannery, Aaron M Luebbe, Stephen P Becker
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have examined sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in college students even though extant research suggests a higher prevalence rate of SCT symptoms in this population compared to general adult or youth samples. The current study examined SCT symptoms in relation to two domains related to college student's academic success, study skills and daily life executive functioning (EF), as well as specific domains of functional impairment. METHOD: 158 undergraduate students (Mage = 19...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Krishan Kant Agarwal, Anirban Mukherjee, ArunRaj St, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrasekhar Bal
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incremental value of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) over planar bone scintigraphy (BS) and SPECT for the diagnosis of active condylar hyperplasia (CH). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 21 patients (mean age: 21.9±5.3 years, 10 males, 11 females) who underwent Tc-MDP BS along with regional SPECT/CT for the diagnosis of active CH were retrospectively evaluated...
October 19, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
R D Goodwin, M Robinson, P D Sly, P G Holt
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have suggested a relationship between atopy and mental health, although methodological barriers have limited the generalizability of these findings. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between early-life atopy and vulnerability to mental health problems among youth in the community. METHOD: Data were drawn from the Raine Study (N = 2868), a population-based birth cohort study in Western Australia. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between atopy at ages 1-5 years [using parent report and objective biological confirmation (sera IgE)], and the range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems at ages 5-17 years...
October 20, 2016: Psychological Medicine
David Gloss, Jay K Varma, Tamara Pringsheim, Marc R Nuwer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence for EEG theta/beta power ratio for diagnosing, or helping to diagnose, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We identified relevant studies and classified them using American Academy of Neurology criteria. RESULTS: Two Class I studies assessing the ability of EEG theta/beta power ratio and EEG frontal beta power to identify patients with ADHD correctly identified 166 of 185 participants...
October 19, 2016: Neurology
Cristina Matthewman, Tyne W Miller-Fleming, David M Miller, Laura Bianchi
Hyperactivated DEG/ENaC channels cause neuronal death mediated by intracellular Ca(2+) overload. Mammalian ASIC1a and C. elegans MEC-4(d) neurotoxic channels conduct both Na(+) and Ca(2+) raising the possibility that direct Ca(2+) influx through these channels contributes to the intracellular Ca(2+) overload. However, we showed that homologous C. elegans DEG/ENaC channel UNC-8(d) is not Ca(2+) permeable yet it is neurotoxic, suggesting that Na(+) influx is sufficient to induce cell death. Interestingly, UNC-8(d) shows small currents due to extracellular Ca(2+) block in the Xenopus oocytes expression system...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Stephanie M Morris, Maria T Acosta, Shruti Garg, Jonathan Green, Susan Huson, Eric Legius, Kathryn N North, Jonathan M Payne, Ellen Plasschaert, Thomas W Frazier, Lauren A Weiss, Yi Zhang, David H Gutmann, John N Constantino
Importance: Recent reports have demonstrated a higher incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substantially elevated autistic trait burden in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). However, important discrepancies regarding the distribution of autistic traits, sex predominance, and association between ASD symptoms and attentional problems have emerged, and critical features of the ASD phenotype within NF1 have never been adequately explored. Establishing NF1 as a monogenic cause for ASD has important implications for affected patients and for future research focused on establishing convergent pathogenic mechanisms relevant to the potential treatment targets for ASD...
October 19, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Hai-Qiang Dai, Bang-An Wang, Lu Yang, Jia-Jia Chen, Guo-Chun Zhu, Mei-Ling Sun, Hao Ge, Rui Wang, Deborah L Chapman, Fuchou Tang, Xin Sun, Guo-Liang Xu
Mammalian genomes undergo epigenetic modifications, including cytosine methylation by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Oxidation of 5-methylcytosine by the Ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of dioxygenases can lead to demethylation. Although cytosine methylation has key roles in several processes such as genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation, the functional significance of cytosine methylation and demethylation in mouse embryogenesis remains to be fully determined. Here we show that inactivation of all three Tet genes in mice leads to gastrulation phenotypes, including primitive streak patterning defects in association with impaired maturation of axial mesoderm and failed specification of paraxial mesoderm, mimicking phenotypes in embryos with gain-of-function Nodal signalling...
October 19, 2016: Nature
Giuseppe Pastura, Tadeu Takao Almodovar Kubo, Maria Angélica Regalla, Cíntia Machado Mesquita, Gabriel Coutinho, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto, Otávio Figueiredo, Paulo Mattos, Alexandra Prüfer de Queiroz Campos Araújo
Objective: To perform a pilot study to investigate the association between working memory and cortical thickness in a sample of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Methods: Seventeen children aged 7-10 years diagnosed with ADHD and 16 healthy children underwent a magnetic resonance scan for cortical thickness measurements. Data was correlated with working memory performance using the Backwards Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Dirk Alexander Wittekind, Janek Spada, Alexander Gross, Tilman Hensch, Philippe Jawinski, Christine Ulke, Christian Sander, Ulrich Hegerl
OBJECTIVES: The arousal regulation model of affective disorders attributes an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders to dysregulation of brain arousal regulation. According to this model, sensation avoidance and withdrawal in depression and sensation seeking and hyperactivity in mania can be explained as auto-regulatory attempts to counteract a tonically high (depression) or unstable (mania) arousal. The aim of this study was to compare brain arousal regulation between manic and depressive bipolar patients and healthy controls...
September 2016: Bipolar Disorders
Onder Ozturk, Burge Kabukcu Basay, Ahmet Buber, Omer Basay, Huseyin Alacam, Ali Bacanlı, Şenay Görücü Yılmaz, Mehmet Emin Erdal, Hasan Herken, Eyup Sabri Ercan
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that negatively affects different areas of life. We aimed to evaluate the associations between the Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ADHD and to assess the effect of the BDNF polymorphism on the neurocognitive profile and clinical symptomatology in ADHD. METHODS: Two hundred one ADHD cases and 99 typically developing subjects (TD) between the ages of 8 and 15 years were involved in the study...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Aleš Hnízda, Jana Škerlová, Milan Fábry, Petr Pachl, Martina Šinalová, Lukáš Vrzal, Petr Man, Petr Novák, Pavlína Řezáčová, Václav Veverka
BACKGROUND: Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the main causes of mortality in childhood malignancies. Previous genetic studies demonstrated that chemoresistant ALL is driven by activating mutations in NT5C2, the gene encoding cytosolic 5´-nucleotidase (cN-II). However, molecular mechanisms underlying this hyperactivation are still unknown. Here, we present kinetic and structural properties of cN-II variants that represent 75 % of mutated alleles in patients who experience relapsed ALL (R367Q, R238W and L375F)...
October 19, 2016: BMC Biology
Michitaka Funayama, Motoichiro Kato, Masaru Mimura
BACKGROUND: Although post-stroke depression is a well-characterized disorder, there is less understanding of how pre-existence of depression is affected by a stroke. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a patient with treatment-resistant major depression, which had been ongoing for 14 years but disappeared shortly after onset of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Her cognitive function and functional status were mostly unaffected by the stroke. However, she no longer excessively regretted past events...
October 19, 2016: BMC Neurology
Danella Hafeman, Genna Bebko, Michele A Bertocci, Jay C Fournier, Henry W Chase, Lisa Bonar, Susan B Perlman, Michael Travis, Mary Kay Gill, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Jeffrey L Sunshine, Scott K Holland, Robert A Kowatch, Boris Birmaher, David Axelson, Sarah M Horwitz, L Eugene Arnold, Mary A Fristad, Thomas W Frazier, Eric A Youngstrom, Robert L Findling, Mary L Phillips
OBJECTIVE: Both bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present with emotion-regulation deficits, but require different clinical management. We examined how the neurobiological underpinnings of emotion regulation might differentiate youth with BPSD versus ADHD (and healthy controls, HCs), specifically assessing functional connectivity (FxC) of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry during an implicit emotion processing task. METHODS: We scanned a subset of the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) sample, a clinically recruited cohort with elevated behavioral and emotional dysregulation, and age/sex-ratio matched HCs...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Thomas M Kapellen, Rebecca Reimann, Wieland Kiess, Karel Kostev
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Germany. METHODS: Two different representative German databases - IMS®-Disease Analyzer, a database that includes diagnoses as well as other information, and IMS®-LRx, a database that documents prescriptions - were used to conduct a retrospective analysis. We searched the LRx database for patients who received both insulin and ADHD-specific medication...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Judith Owens, Margaret Weiss, Earl Nordbrock, Greg Mattingly, Sharon Wigal, Laurence L Greenhill, Wei-Wei Chang, Ann Childress, Robert J Kupper, Akwete Adjei
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate measures of sleep (exploratory endpoints) in two pivotal studies of a multilayer bead extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-MLR) treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. METHODS: Study 1 evaluated the time course of response to MPH-MLR (n = 26) patients in an analog classroom setting through four phases: screening (≤28 days), open label (OL) dose optimization (4 weeks), double-blind (DB) crossover (2 weeks; placebo vs...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
T Zayats, K K Jacobsen, R Kleppe, C P Jacob, S Kittel-Schneider, M Ribasés, J A Ramos-Quiroga, V Richarte, M Casas, N R Mota, E H Grevet, M Klein, J Corominas, J Bralten, T Galesloot, A A Vasquez, S Herms, A J Forstner, H Larsson, G Breen, P Asherson, S Gross-Lesch, K P Lesch, S Cichon, M B Gabrielsen, O L Holmen, C H D Bau, J Buitelaar, L Kiemeney, S V Faraone, B Cormand, B Franke, A Reif, J Haavik, S Johansson
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood-onset neuropsychiatric condition, often persisting into adulthood. The genetic architecture of ADHD, particularly in adults, is largely unknown. We performed an exome-wide scan of adult ADHD using the Illumina Human Exome Bead Chip, which interrogates over 250 000 common and rare variants. Participants were recruited by the International Multicenter persistent ADHD CollaboraTion (IMpACT). Statistical analyses were divided into 3 steps: (1) gene-level analysis of rare variants (minor allele frequency (MAF)<1%); (2) single marker association tests of common variants (MAF⩾1%), with replication of the top signals; and (3) pathway analyses...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Michal Behuliak, Michal Bencze, Anna Vavrinova, Ivana Vaneckova, Josef Zicha
OBJECTIVE: Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) play an important role in two major abnormalities observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) - hyperactivity of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and enhanced Ca influx to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). α2δ subunit of VDCC, which promotes surface trafficking and modulates the biophysical properties of VDCC, was identified as a critical component of increased L-type VDCC calcium currents in arterial myocytes of SHR. On the other hand, N-type VDCCs control a neurotransmitter release in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system and play an important role in sympathetic hyperactivity in SHR...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Masatsugu Horiuchi
Hypertensive patients have greater chances of such cardiovascular events as stroke, coronary heart disease, heart or renal failure, peripheral artery disease, and dementia. It is also well recognized that diabetes increases the cardiovascular risks in concert with hypertension. Therefore, main goals for an innovation of anti-hypertensive therapy would be to achieve further risk reduction by targeting the functional, metabolic, and structural alterations associated with hypertension. Professors Dzau and Braunwald et al proposed the concept of "the cardiovascular disease continuum" in 1991, and that hypertension may trigger the chain of events, leading to end-stage heart disease; however, this concept was quite new at that time, and there was some discussion whether "the cardiovascular disease continuum" is true or not...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"