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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920977/neurochemical-changes-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain-detected-by-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Xianjing Zhao, Maosheng Xu, Kristen Jorgenson, Jian Kong
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a highly prevalent health problem around the world, affecting 50% to 85% of people at some point in life. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the previous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies on brain chemical changes in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: We identified relevant studies from a literature search of PubMed and EMBASE from 1980 to March 2016. Data extraction was performed on the subjects' characteristics, MRS methods, spectral analyses, cerebral metabolites and perceptual measurements...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920490/a-randomized-double-masked-study-to-compare-the-ocular-safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-bromfenac-0-075-compared-with-vehicle-in-cataract-surgery-subjects
#2
Kamran Hosseini, Thomas Walters, Robert DaVanzo, Richard L Lindstrom
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a low-dose version of bromfenac 0.075% in DuraSite(®) (bromfenac 0.075%) compared with DuraSite(®) vehicle (vehicle) alone for the treatment of postoperative inflammation and ocular pain after cataract surgery. METHODS: A multicenter, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial of 240 subjects randomized in a 2:1 ratio to bromfenac 0.075% or vehicle was conducted...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919831/neural-representation-of-cost-benefit-selections-in-rat-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-self-paced-decision-making
#3
Shuai Wang, Yi Shi, Bao-Ming Li
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is crucial for decision making which involves the processing of cost-benefit information. Our previous study has shown that ACC is essential for self-paced decision making. However, it is unclear how ACC neurons represent cost-benefit selections during the decision-making process. In the present study, we trained rats on the same "Do More Get More" (DMGM) task as in our previous work. In each trial, the animals stand upright and perform a sustained nosepoke of their own will to earn a water reward, with the amount of reward positively correlated to the duration of the nosepoke (i...
December 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917562/putamen-functional-connectivity-during-inhibitory-control-in-smokers-and-non-smokers
#4
Sophie E A Akkermans, Maartje Luijten, Daan van Rooij, Ingmar H A Franken, Jan K Buitelaar
The putamen has been shown to play a key role in inhibitory control and addiction, and consists of distinct subregions associated with distinct functions. The anterior putamen is thought to be specialized in goal-directed control or response-monitoring in connection with frontal regions, whereas the posterior part is specialized in habitual or automatic responding in connection with sensorimotor regions. The present study is the first to delineate functional networks of the anterior and posterior putamen in a Go-NoGo response inhibition task, and to examine differences between smokers (n = 25) and non-smokers (n = 23) within these networks...
December 5, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917474/germacrone-inhibits-adipogenesis-and-stimulates-lipolysis-via-the-amp-activated-protein-kinase-signalling-pathway-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#5
Yuan-Ri Guo, Se-Young Choung
OBJECTIVES: In a previous study, we reported that Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Of the components in ASE, germacrone (GM) was identified as a potent bioactive constituent. GM is known for its anticancer and antiviral activity. However, the effects of GM and the molecular mechanism by which GM regulates adipogenesis and lipolysis were not reported. Therefore, we investigated the effect of GM on adipogenesis and lipolysis and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanism...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916288/small-non-coding-rna-expression-from-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-schizophrenia-shows-sex-specific-regulation
#6
Chikako Ragan, Kalpana Patel, Janette Edson, Zong-Hong Zhang, Jacob Gratten, Bryan Mowry
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate the expression of genes that are important for brain development and function, but the roles of other classes of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are less well understood. Additionally, although miRNA expression studies have been conducted in post-mortem brain samples from schizophrenia (SCZ) patients, other classes of sncRNAs are yet to be investigated in SCZ. We profiled the expression of miRNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) in SCZ by applying small RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to sncRNA isolated from post-mortem anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of SCZ-affected individuals (n=22) and matched controls (n=22)...
December 1, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915203/adjuvant-radiation-therapy-and-survival-for-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-of-the-breast
#7
Jia-Yuan Sun, San-Gang Wu, Shan-Yu Chen, Feng-Yan Li, Huan-Xin Lin, Yong-Xiong Chen, Zhen-Yu He
PURPOSE: The assess the clinical value of different types of surgical procedures and further analyze the effect of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast. METHODS: Patients with ACC of the breast were identified using a population-based national registration database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results, SEER). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models were performed to determine the impact of the surgical procedures and adjuvant RT associated with cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS)...
December 1, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914812/protective-effects-of-gomisin-n-against-hepatic-steatosis-through-ampk-activation
#8
Ye-Rang Yun, Ji-Hyun Kim, Ji Ha Kim, Myeong Ho Jung
Gomisin N (GN) is a phytochemical derived from Schisandra chinensis. It has been reported to exert a protective effect against hepatic steatosis by attenuating endoplasmic recticulum (ER) stress. However, the detailed mechanism by which GN inhibits hepatic steatosis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined whether GN activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and exerts therapeutic effects on liver X receptor (LXR)- or palmitic acid (PA)-induced triglyceride (TG) accumulation in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, in vivo protective effects of GN against hepatic steatosis were assessed in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914630/uterine-blood-flow-in-sheep-and-goats-during-the-peri-parturient-period-assessed-by-transrectal-doppler-sonography
#9
Mohammed Elmetwally, Heinrich Bollwein
The aim of the present study was to evaluate uterine blood flow (UBF) during the postpartum period in small ruminants. The study involved measures of UBF in 5 ewes and 5 goats during the first 4 weeks after parturition. Transrectal quantification of UBF was assessed by determining the diameter (DM), time averaged mean velocity (TAMEAN), blood flow volume (BFV), blood flow acceleration (ACCE) and pulsatility index (PI) in the uterine arteries ipsilateral to the previously gravid uterine horn(s) at Wk 20 of gestation and every 3days from the day of parturition (D 0) until Day 27 postpartum (D 27)...
November 25, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914042/perfectionism-mediated-the-relationship-between-brain-structure-variation-and-negative-emotion-in-a-nonclinical-sample
#10
Di Wu, Kangcheng Wang, Dongtao Wei, Qunlin Chen, Xue Du, Junyi Yang, Jiang Qiu
In maladaptive respects, perfectionism reflects an individual's concern over making mistakes and doubting the quality of his or her own actions excessively, which would affect one's emotion. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms associated with the perfectionism and negative affect. In this study, voxel-based morphometry was performed to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in perfectionism, which was measured by the Chinese Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (CFMPS), in a large sample of nonclinical young adults...
December 2, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913948/branched-chain-amino-acids-administration-suppresses-endurance-exercise-related-activation-of-ubiquitin-proteasome-signaling-in-trained-human-skeletal-muscle
#11
Evgeny A Lysenko, Tatiana F Vepkhvadze, Egor M Lednev, Olga L Vinogradova, Daniil V Popov
We tested whether post exercise ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA < 10 g) is sufficient to activate signaling associated with muscle protein synthesis and suppress exercise-induced activation of mechanisms associated with proteolysis in endurance-trained human skeletal muscle. Nine endurance-trained athletes performed a cycling bout with and without BCAA ingestion (0.1 g/kg). Post exercise ACC(Ser79/222) phosphorylation (endogenous marker of AMPK activity) was increased (~3-fold, P < 0...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912736/citrus-junos-tanaka-peel-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-hepg2-cells-and-in-mice-fed-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#12
Eun Ju Shin, Jae Ho Park, Mi Jeong Sung, Min-Yu Chung, Jin-Taek Hwang
BACKGROUND: Citrus junos Tanaka (yuja), a yellow-coloured citrus fruit has traditionally been consumed in Korea, Japan, and China and has been found effective in preventing certain diseases. However, the inhibitory effect of yuja on hepatic lipid accumulation has not been clearly elucidated thus far. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of yuja on hepatic lipid accumulation was investigated in both cell culture and mouse models. We investigated the inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of yuja peel (YE) using HepG2 cells...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909683/fronto-striatal-glutamate-in-children-with-tourette-s-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
Jilly Naaijen, Natalie J Forde, David J Lythgoe, Sophie E A Akkermans, Thaira J C Openneer, Andrea Dietrich, Marcel P Zwiers, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jan K Buitelaar
OBJECTIVE: Both Tourette's disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been related to abnormalities in glutamatergic neurochemistry in the fronto-striatal circuitry. TD and ADHD often co-occur and the neural underpinnings of this co-occurrence have been insufficiently investigated in prior studies. METHOD: We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in children between 8 and 12 years of age (TD n = 15, ADHD n = 39, TD + ADHD n = 29, and healthy controls n = 53) as an in vivo method of evaluating glutamate concentrations in the fronto-striatal circuit...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909432/volatile-mediated-effects-predominate-in-paraburkholderia-phytofirmans-growth-promotion-and-salt-stress-tolerance-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Thomas Ledger, Sandy Rojas, Tania Timmermann, Ignacio Pinedo, María J Poupin, Tatiana Garrido, Pablo Richter, Javier Tamayo, Raúl Donoso
Abiotic stress has a growing impact on plant growth and agricultural activity worldwide. Specific plant growth promoting rhizobacteria have been reported to stimulate growth and tolerance to abiotic stress in plants, and molecular mechanisms like phytohormone synthesis and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deamination are usual candidates proposed to mediate these bacterial effects. Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is able to promote growth of several plant hosts, and improve their tolerance to chilling, drought and salinity...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909413/sex-effects-on-smoking-cue-perception-in-non-smokers-smokers-and-ex-smokers-a-pilot-study
#15
Davide Zanchi, Arthur Brody, Stefan Borgwardt, Sven Haller
INTRODUCTION: Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. METHODS: First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 8 males), smokers (10 females and 8 males), and ex-smokers (10 females and 7 males)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907035/exendin-4-inhibits-hepatic-lipogenesis-by-increasing-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#16
Mi Hae Seo, Jinmi Lee, Seok-Woo Hong, Eun-Jung Rhee, Se Eun Park, Cheol Young Park, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Won-Young Lee
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the beneficial effect of exendin-4 on hepatic steatosis is mediated by β-catenin signaling. After the HepG2 human hepatoma cells were treated with PA for 24 hours, total triglycerides levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the expression levels of perilipin family members were upregulated in cells treated with 400 μM PA. For our in vitro model of hepatic steatosis, HepG2 cells were treated with 400 μM palmitic acid (PA) in the presence or absence of 100 nM exendin-4 for 24 hours...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906119/degrading-traumatic-memories-with-eye-movements-a-pilot-functional-mri-study-in-ptsd
#17
Kathleen Thomaes, Iris M Engelhard, Marit Sijbrandij, Danielle C Cath, Odile A Van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs). Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality of traumatic memories, but the underlying mechanism has been unclear. Recent studies support a "working-memory" (WM) theory, which states that the two tasks (recall and EMs) compete for limited capacity of WM resources...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904449/tracheal-cancer-treatment-results-prognostic-factors-and-incidence-of-other-neoplasms
#18
Aleksandra Napieralska, Leszek Miszczyk, Sławomir Blamek
BACKGROUND: Tracheal cancers (TC) are rare and treatment results that are reported are typically not satisfactory. The purpose of this research was assessment of the results of treatment of TC patients, identification of potential additional surgery candidates, evaluation of prognostic factors, and assessment of the occurrence of other malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Regional Cancer Database and the Hospital Database were searched for patients with tracheal neoplasms...
December 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902936/how-restful-is-it-with-all-that-noise-comparison-of-interleaved-silent-steady-state-isss-and-conventional-imaging-in-resting-state-fmri
#19
J Andoh, M Ferreira, I R Leppert, R Matsushita, B Pike, R J Zatorre
Resting-state fMRI studies have become very important in cognitive neuroscience because they are able to identify BOLD fluctuations in brain circuits involved in motor, cognitive, or perceptual processes without the use of an explicit task. Such approaches have been fruitful when applied to various disordered populations, or to children or the elderly. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the consequences of the loud acoustic scanner noise associated with conventional fMRI acquisition, which could be an important confounding factor affecting auditory and/or cognitive networks in resting-state fMRI...
November 27, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902859/evaluation-of-velocity-sensitized-and-acceleration-sensitized-nce-mra-for-below-knee-peripheral-arterial-disease
#20
Nadeem Shaida, Andrew N Priest, T C See, Andrew P Winterbottom, Martin J Graves, David J Lomas
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of velocity- and acceleration-sensitized noncontrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA) of the infrageniculate arteries using contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) as a reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with symptoms of peripheral arterial disease were recruited. Each patient's infrageniculate arterial tree was examined using a velocity-dependent flow-sensitized dephasing (VEL-FSD) technique, an acceleration-dependent (ACC-FSD) technique, and our conventional CE-MRA technique performed at 1...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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