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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817623/metformin-attenuates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-up-regulation-of-antioxidant-enzymes
#1
Xiaoling Wang, Lei Yang, Licheng Kang, Jing Li, Liang Yang, Jincai Zhang, Jie Liu, Mengmeng Zhu, Qiong Zhang, Yanna Shen, Zhi Qi
The objective was to examine the protective effect of metformin (Met) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and whether the mechanism was related to the AMPK/ antioxidant enzymes signaling pathway. Rat Langendorff test and H2O2-treated rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2) were used in this study. Met treatment significantly improved left ventricular (LV) function, reduced infarct size and CK-MB release in comparison with IR group. Decreased TUNEL staining positive cells were also observed in IR+Met group ex vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815595/sigma-1-receptor-ligands-inhibit-catecholamine-secretion-from-adrenal-chromaffin-cells-due-to-block-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#2
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Nolan D Hartley, Kyle J Horning, Kevin P M Currie
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) are the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system and key mediators of the physiological stress response. Acetylcholine (ACh) released from preganglionic splanchnic nerves activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on chromaffin cells causing membrane depolarization, opening voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC), and exocytosis of catecholamines and neuropeptides. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is expressed in ACCs and interacts with 5-HT1A receptors to control secretion...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814810/amygdala-centred-functional-connectivity-affects-daily-cortisol-concentrations-a-putative-link-with-anxiety
#3
Yuko Hakamata, Shotaro Komi, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Shuhei Izawa, Yuki Motomura, Eisuke Sato, Shinya Mizukami, Yoshiharu Kim, Takashi Hanakawa, Yusuke Inoue, Hirokuni Tagaya
The amygdala plays a critical role in emotion. Its functional coupling with the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex extending to a portion of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is implicated in anxiogenesis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system regulation. However, it remains unclear how amygdala-centred functional connectivity (FC) affects anxiety and cortisol concentrations in everyday life. Here, we investigate the relationship between daily cortisol concentrations (dCOR) and amygdala-centred FC during emotional processing in forty-one healthy humans...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814383/high-resolution-accurate-mass-hram-mass-spectrometry-urine-steroid-profiling-in-the-diagnosis-of-adrenal-disorders
#4
Jolaine M Hines, Irina Bancos, Cristian Bancos, Raman D Singh, Aditya V Avula, William F Young, Stefan K Grebe, Ravinder J Singh
BACKGROUND: Steroid profiling is a promising diagnostic tool for those with adrenal tumors, Cushing syndrome (CS), and disorders of steroidogenesis. Our objective was to develop a multiple-steroid assay using liquid-chromatography, high-resolution, accurate-mass mass spectrometry (HRAM LC-MS) and to validate the assay in patients with various adrenal disorders. METHODS: We collected 24-h urine samples from 114 controls and 71 patients with adrenal diseases. An HRAM LC-MS method was validated for quantitative analysis of 26 steroid metabolites in hydrolyzed urine samples...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811871/do-all-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-need-long-term-anticoagulation
#5
Munish Sharma, Rohit Masih, Daniel A N Mascarenhas
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia worldwide with an estimated number of 2.7-6.1 million cases in the United States (US) alone. The incidence of AF is expected to increase 2.5 fold over the next 50 years in the US. The management of AF is complex and includes mainly three aspects; restoration of sinus rhythm, control of ventricular rate and prevention of systemic thromboembolism. AF as a cause of systemic embolization has been well known for many years, and majority of patients are on oral anticoagulants (OACs) to prevent this...
June 7, 2017: Clinics and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811293/the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-in-the-ventromedial-hypothalamus-reduces-short-term-food-intake-in-male-mice-by-regulating-nutrient-sensor-activity
#6
Melissa A Burmeister, Jacob D Brown, Jennifer E Ayala, Doris A Stoffers, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley, Julio E Ayala
Pharmacological activation of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) reduces food intake. Here, we assessed whether suppression of food intake by GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) in this region is dependent upon AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). We found that pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and, thus, activation of AMPK, in the VMH attenuates the anorectic effect of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), indicating that glucose metabolism and inhibition of AMPK are both required for this effect...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810181/screening-performance-for-callosal-agenesis-in-prenatal-life-single-center-study
#7
Hubert Huras, Magdalena Nowak, Izabela Herman-Sucharska, Malgorzata Radon-Pokracka, Agnieszka Nocun, Marcin Wiechec
OBJECTIVES: 1) To analyze screening performance of second trimester scan for ACC, 2) to evaluate the agreement between ultrasound and MRI and 3) to compare prenatal and postnatal diagnosis. METHODS: It was a prospective observational study. All patients with fetuses suspected of ACC were referred to prenatal MRI (pMRI). RESULTS: One subject was not confirmed by pMRI with the diagnosis of ACC. This case demonstrated partial ACC in neonatal MRI (nMRI)...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806666/doxorubicin-loaded-environmentally-friendly-carbon-dots-as-a-novel-drug-delivery-system-for-nucleus-targeted-cancer-therapy
#8
Yifang Yuan, Bin Guo, Liying Hao, Na Liu, Yunfeng Lin, Wushuang Guo, Xiaoguang Li, Bin Gu
Chemotherapy is widely applied against various kinds of carcinoma. Generally, chemotherapeutic agents, such as Doxorubicin (DOX), Paclitaxel (PTX), 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Methotrexate (MTX), and Vinblastine (VLB) are combined with a view to maximizing their efficacy. Unfortunately, chemotherapeutics are indiscriminate and also kill normal healthy cells, resulting in serious side effects. This non-productive and destructive distribution of chemotherapeutics is regarded as one of the largest problems associated with chemotherapy...
July 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803960/evaluating-impacts-of-different-longitudinal-driver-assistance-systems-on-reducing-multi-vehicle-rear-end-crashes-during-small-scale-inclement-weather
#9
Ye Li, Lu Xing, Wei Wang, Hao Wang, Changyin Dong, Shanwen Liu
Multi-vehicle rear-end (MVRE) crashes during small-scale inclement (SSI) weather cause high fatality rates on freeways, which cannot be solved by traditional speed limit strategies. This study aimed to reduce MVRE crash risks during SSI weather using different longitudinal driver assistance systems (LDAS). The impact factors on MVRE crashes during SSI weather were firstly analyzed. Then, four LDAS, including Forward collision warning (FCW), Autonomous emergency braking (AEB), Adaptive cruise control (ACC) and Cooperative ACC (CACC), were modeled based on a unified platform, the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM)...
August 9, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803847/psychotic-symptoms-influence-the-development-of-anterior-cingulate-bold-variability-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#10
Daniela Zöller, Maria Carmela Padula, Corrado Sandini, Maude Schneider, Elisa Scariati, Dimitri Van De Ville, Marie Schaer, Stephan Eliez
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a broad phenotype of clinical, cognitive and psychiatric features. Due to the very high prevalence of schizophrenia (30-40%), the investigation of psychotic symptoms in the syndrome is promising to reveal biomarkers for the development of psychosis, also in the general population. Since schizophrenia is seen as a disorder of the dynamic interactions between brain networks, we here investigated brain dynamics, assessed by the variability of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals, in patients with psychotic symptoms...
August 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803557/altered-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-cingulate-cortex-in-children-with-severe-temper-outbursts
#11
Amy Krain Roy, Randi Bennett, Jonathan Posner, Leslie Hulvershorn, F Xavier Castellanos, Rachel G Klein
Severe temper outbursts (STO) in children are associated with impaired school and family functioning and may contribute to negative outcomes. These outbursts can be conceptualized as excessive frustration responses reflecting reduced emotion regulation capacity. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in negative affect as well as emotional control, and exhibits disrupted function in children with elevated irritability and outbursts. This study examined the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of a region of the ACC, the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), in 5- to 9-year-old children with STO (n = 20), comparing them to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) without outbursts (ADHD; n = 18)...
August 14, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803518/a-feminist-intervention-that-hurt-women-biological-differences-ergonomics-and-occupational-health-une-intervention-f%C3%A3-ministe-qui-a-nui-aux-femmes-diff%C3%A3-rences-biologiques-%C3%A3-galit%C3%A3-ergonomie-et-sant%C3%A3-au-travail
#12
Karen Messing
The University of Québec in Montréal has agreements with trade unions providing access to university resources. Researchers involved in this program worked in partnership with union women's and health and safety committees for more than twenty years. Not all studies succeeded in improving women's working conditions. One joint project involved observational studies of tasks done by health-care workers, complemented by interviews and questionnaires. We found that task assignments, movements, postures, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders varied by gender/sex and made recommendations for change...
January 1, 2017: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801625/the-tomato-histone-deacetylase-slhda1-contributes-to-the-repression-of-fruit-ripening-and-carotenoid-accumulation
#13
Jun-E Guo, Zongli Hu, Mingku Zhu, Fenfen Li, Zhiguo Zhu, Yu Lu, Guoping Chen
Histone deacetylation is one of the well characterized post-translational modifications related to transcriptional repression in eukaryotes. The process of histone deacetylation is achieved by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Over the last decade, substantial advances in our understanding of the mechanism of fruit ripening have been achieved, but the role of HDACs in this process has not been elucidated. In our study, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector targeting SlHDA1 was constructed and transformed into tomato plants...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801619/repetitive-motor-cortex-stimulation-reinforces-the-pain-modulation-circuits-of-peripheral-neuropathic-pain
#14
Myeounghoon Cha, Sun Woo Um, Minjee Kwon, Taick Sang Nam, Bae Hwan Lee
Recent evidence indicates that motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is a potentially effective treatment for chronic neuropathic pain. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the attenuated hyperalgesia after MCS are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the neural mechanism of the effects of MCS using an animal model of neuropathic pain. After 10 daily sessions of MCS, repetitive MCS reduced mechanical allodynia and contributed to neuronal changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Interestingly, inhibition of protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ), a regulator of synaptic plasticity, in the ACC blocked the effects of repetitive MCS...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801592/dietary-arginine-affects-the-insulin-signaling-pathway-glucose-metabolism-and-lipogenesis-in-juvenile-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#15
Hualiang Liang, Habte-Michael Habte-Tsion, Xianping Ge, Mingchun Ren, Jun Xie, Linghong Miao, Qunlan Zhou, Yan Lin, Wenjing Pan
This study evaluated the mechanisms governing insulin resistance, glucose metabolism and lipogenesis in juvenile fish fed with graded levels of dietary arginine. The results showed that, compared with the control group (0.87%), 2.31% dietary arginine level resulted in the upregulation of the relative gene expression of IRS-1, PI3K and Akt in the insulin signaling pathway, while 2.70% dietary arginine level led to inhibition of these genes. 1.62% dietary arginine level upregulated glycolysis by increasing GK mRNA level; 2...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801373/metformin-and-melatonin-in-adrenocortical-carcinoma-morphoproteomics-and-biomedical-analytics-provide-proof-of-concept-in-a-case-study
#16
Robert E Brown, Jamie Buryanek, Mary F McGuire
Metformin has been proposed as a novel anti-cancer drug for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based upon Poli's recent preclinical studies that 1. "in vitro" metformin modulates the ACC cell model H295R and 2. "in vivo" metformin inhibits tumor growth in a xenograft model as confirmed by a significant reduction of Ki67 [1]. Here we report on our prior clinical case study that provides proof of concept for Poli's studies. We were requested to perform morphoproteomic analysis to further define the biology of, and raise targeted therapeutic options, for a case of post-treatment and chemoresistant ACC metastatic to the liver and the lung...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800729/accd-nuclear-transfer-of-platycodon-grandiflorum-and-the-plastid-of-early-campanulaceae
#17
Chang Pyo Hong, Jihye Park, Yi Lee, Minjee Lee, Sin Gi Park, Yurry Uhm, Jungho Lee, Chang-Kug Kim
BACKGROUND: Campanulaceae species are known to have highly rearranged plastid genomes lacking the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) subunit D gene (accD), and instead have a nuclear (nr)-accD. Plastid genome information has been thought to depend on studies concerning Trachelium caeruleum and genome announcements for Adenophora remotiflora, Campanula takesimana, and Hanabusaya asiatica. RNA editing information for plastid genes is currently unavailable for Campanulaceae. To understand plastid genome evolution in Campanulaceae, we have sequenced and characterized the chloroplast (cp) genome and nr-accD of Platycodon grandiflorum, a basal member of Campanulaceae...
August 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800423/relationship-of-executive-functioning-deficits-to-n-acetyl-aspartate-naa-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-in-youth-with-bipolar-disorder
#18
Rebekah S Huber, Douglas G Kondo, Xian-Feng Shi, Andrew P Prescot, Elaine Clark, Perry F Renshaw, Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd
BACKGROUND: Although cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder (BD) have been repeatedly observed, our understanding of these impairments at a mechanistic level remains limited. Few studies that investigated cognitive impairments in bipolar illness have examined the association with brain biochemistry. This pilot study utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to evaluate the relationship between neurocognitive performance and brain metabolites in youth with BD. METHODS: Thirty participants, twenty depressed BD participants and ten healthy comparison participants, ages 13-21, completed mood and executive function measures...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798762/functional-characterization-of-slsahh2-in-tomato-fruit-ripening
#19
Lu Yang, Guojian Hu, Ning Li, Sidra Habib, Wei Huang, Zhengguo Li
S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) functions as an enzyme catalyzing the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine to homocysteine and adenosine. In the present work we have investigated its role in the ripening process of tomato fruit. Among the three SlSAHH genes we demonstrated that SlSAHH2 was highly accumulated during fruit ripening and strongly responded to ethylene treatment. Over-expression of SlSAHH2 enhanced SAHH enzymatic activity in tomato fruit development and ripening stages and resulted in a major phenotypic change of reduced ripening time from anthesis to breaker...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798296/water-circulation-and-marine-environment-in-the-antarctic-traced-by-speciation-of-129-i-and-127-i
#20
Shan Xing, Xiaolin Hou, Ala Aldahan, Go Ran Possnert, Keliang Shi, Peng Yi, Weijian Zhou
Emissions of anthropogenic (129)I from human nuclear activities are now detected in the surface water of the Antarctic seas. Surface seawater samples from the Drake Passage, Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Ross Seas were analyzed for total (129)I and (127)I, as well as for iodide and iodate of these two isotopes. The variability of (127)I and (129)I concentrations and their species ((127)I(-)/(127)IO3(-), (129)I(-)/(129)IO3(-)) suggest limited environmental impact where ((1.15-3.15) × 10(6) atoms/L for (129)I concentration and (0...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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