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Carotid body

Corinna Binder-Heschl, Kelly Crossley, Arjan Te Pas, Graeme Polglase, Douglas Blank, Valerie Zahra, Alison Moxham, Karyn Rodgers, Stuart Hooper
BACKGROUND: Caffeine is routinely given to preterm infants hours after birth to treat apnea of prematurity. In view of it's success, earlier administration in the delivery room is being considered, but little is known about how caffeine may effect the cardiovascular changes during the fetal to neonatal transition. Our aim was to determine the effect of prenatal caffeine administration on haemodynamic parameters in ventilated preterm lambs immediately after birth. METHODS: Catheters (carotid artery and jugular vein) and ultrasonic flow probes (pulmonary artery and carotid artery) were implanted in preterm lambs (~126 ±2 days of gestation; term is 147 days), immediately before delivery by caesarean section...
2018: PloS One
Michael F Tweedle, Haiming Ding, William T Drost, Joshua Dowell, James Spain, Mathew Joseph, Said M Elshafae, Maria-Isabela Menendez, Li Gong, Shankaran Kothandaraman, Wessel P Dirksen, Chadwick L Wright, Robert Bahnson, Michael V Knopp, Thomas J Rosol
BACKGROUND: Ace-1 canine prostate cancer cells grow orthotopically in cyclosporine immunosuppressed laboratory beagles. We previously transfected (human Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor, huGRPr) into Ace-1 cells and demonstrated receptor-targeted NIRF imaging with IR800-G-Abz4-t-BBN, an agonist to huGRPr. Herein, we used the new cell line to develop the first canine prostate cancer model expressing a human growth factor receptor. METHODS: Dogs were immunosuppressed with cyclosporine, azathioprine, prednisolone, and methylprednisolone...
July 11, 2018: Prostate
Piyamas Ieamtairat, Sukree Soontrapa, Srinaree Kaewrudee, Julaluck Promsorn, Wittawat Takong, Woraluk Somboonporn
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), the prevalence of increased CIMT, and the presence of carotid plaque differ according to menopausal status. METHODS: In this analytical cross-sectional study, we enrolled 61 premenopausal women and 61 postmenopausal women. We matched the two groups for age. Participants were classified as either premenopausal or postmenopausal according to menstrual history and follicular-stimulating hormone level...
July 2, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Ilkka S Junttila, Alpo Vuorio, Bruce Budowle, Tanja Laukkala, Antti Sajantila
Diabetes mellitus (DM) could cause pilot incapacitation and result in aviation fatalities. The mechanisms could be directly as a consequence of acute hypoglycemia/subacute diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or indirectly as an acute cardiovascular event by contributing to the development of atherosclerosis in coronary or carotid and cerebral arteries. In this study, DM-related fatal flight accidents in the US National Transport Bureau's database between years 2011-2016 were analyzed with special emphasis on postmortem (PM) glucose levels and correlation of toxicological reports with anamnestic information on DM...
July 4, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Tamami Yoshida, Motomu Hashimoto, Rie Kawahara, Hiroko Yamamoto, Masao Tanaka, Hiromu Ito, Izuru Masuda, Kiminori Hosoda, Wataru Yamamoto, Ryuji Uozumi, Satoshi Morita, Yasutomo Fujii, Tsuneyo Mimori, Kazuko Nin
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients often have altered body composition including reduced muscle mass and increased fat mass. Some RA patients are likely to increase visceral fat without obesity [Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 25]. The objective of the study was to determine the association between obesity and/or visceral adiposity and the risk for atherosclerosis in Japanese RA patients. Obesity was evaluated using the BMI, with visceral adiposity evaluated using the visceral fat area (VFA) and the visceral/subcutaneous fat ratio (V/S ratio), quantified using the dual bioelectrical impedance method...
July 4, 2018: Rheumatology International
Priscila Valéria do Carmo Carvalho, Júlia Fonseca de Morais Caporali, Érica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Nathalia Sernizon Guimarães, Marise Oliveira Fonseca, Unai Tupinambás
INTRODUCTION: Mortality among HIV patients is 3-15 times higher than that among the general population. Currently, most deaths are due to non-infectious diseases. Chronic inflammation and adverse events due to antiretroviral therapy play crucial roles in increasing cardiovascular risk (CVR). METHODS: This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and inflammatory biomarkers (D-dimer, ADAMTS13, GDF-15, sICAM-1, MPO, myoglobin, NGAL, SAA, sVCAM-1, and p-selectin) among naïve patients...
May 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Victoria Garcia-Espinosa, Daniel Bia, Juan Castro, Agustina Zinoveev, Mariana Marin, Gustavo Giachetto, Pedro Chiesa, Yanina Zócalo
AIM: The aim was to analyze and compare the associations between body mass index (BMI) and structural and functional cardiovascular variables measured in children and adolescents. METHODS: 609 healthy subjects (mean age/range 12/4-18 years, 45% females) were studied. Subjects' BMI and the corresponding z-scores (z-BMI) were determined. Cardiovascular measurements: peripheral and aortic blood pressure (BP), aortic wave-derived parameters, common carotid, femoral and brachial artery diameters and stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid-radial and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (crPWV, cfPWV) and cfPWV/crPWV ratio...
July 2, 2018: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Amit Nautiyal, Anirban Mukherjee, Deepanjan Mitra, Piyali Chatterjee, Anindya Roy
Carotid body tumors, although representing about 65% of head and neck paragangliomas, are rare neoplasms. Doppler ultrasonography, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT), and MRI have been routinely used in the diagnosis of carotid body tumor. We hereby represent a case of 56-year-old male suspected to have lymph node metastasis from carcinoma pyriform sinus detected as carotid body tumor in fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography-CECT imaging and subsequently confirmed by histopathology.
July 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
C K Suhail, Nandini Dave, Raylene Dias, Madhu Garasia
Background and Aims: Core temperature monitoring is essential in children under general anaesthesia as they are more susceptible to hypothermia. We aimed to use skin temperature over the carotid artery (Tsk -carotid) with correction factors (Cf) to estimate core temperature. Primary outcome measure was to assess the sensitivity of Tsk -carotid with Cf for detecting hypothermia. Secondary outcome measure was to assess the specificity of Tsk -carotid with Cf for detecting hypothermia. Methods: First consecutive 50 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in modelling group and next 60 in the validation group...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
S Demir, G Erten, B Artım-Esen, Y Şahinkaya, Ö Pehlivan, N Alpay-Kanıtez, G Deniz, M Inanç
Aim To assess subclinical atherosclerosis and the role of inflammatory mediators, vascular endothelial cell activation markers and adipocytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods We studied 66 premenopausal female SLE patients (20 with MetS) and 28 female healthy controls (HCs) without history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Subclinical atherosclerosis was screened by measuring carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). Serum levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble E-selectin, leptin and visfatin were measured...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
Davi J A Moraes, Melina P da Silva, Pedro F Spiller, Benedito H Machado, Julian F R Paton
The carotid bodies are peripheral chemoreceptors and contribute to the homeostatic maintenance of arterial levels of O2 , CO2 and [H+ ]. They have attracted much clinical interest recently because of the realisation that aberrant signalling in these organs is associated with several pathologies including hypertension. Herein, we describe data suggesting that sympathetic overactivity in neurogenic hypertension is, at least in part, dependent on carotid body tonicity and hyperreflexia that is related to changes in the electrophysiological properties of chemoreceptive petrosal neurons...
June 27, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Midori Tanaka, Motoaki Sugawara, Kiyomi Niki, Yasuo Ogasawara
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: Estimation of the contractility of the left ventricle during exercise is an important part of the rehabilitation protocol. It is known that cardiac contractility increases with an increase in heart rate. This phenomenon is called the force-frequency relation (FFR). Using wave intensity, we aimed to evaluate FFR noninvasively during graded exercise. METHODS: We enrolled 83 healthy subjects. Using ultrasonic diagnostic equipment, we measured wave intensity (WD), which was defined in terms of blood velocity and arterial diameter, in the carotid artery and heart rate (HR) before and during bicycle ergometer exercise...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Veronica Macchi, Edgardo Enrico Edoardo Picardi, Andrea Porzionato, Aldo Morra, Lineo Tabarin, Flaviano Gusella, Bruno Grignon, Raffaele De Caro
PURPOSE: In forensic clinical anatomy computed tomography (CT) is used in post-mortem radiological investigation as an objective nondestructive documentation of the body surface and of the interior of the body. This technique is applied also in paleopathology, in particular in mummy studies, with the aim of providing a permanent record of the mummy's features, investigating the embalming procedure employed and analyzing the extent of the preservation in detail. METHODS: For the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy, the mortal remains of Saint Leopold Mandic and Saint Pio da Pietralcina, as examples of Mercy known by everyone, have been brought to Rome in February 2016...
June 13, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Emilia Sforza, Sandrine Millasseau, David Hupin, Jean-Claude Barthélémy, Frédéric Roche
INTRODUCTION: Several studies suggest in middle-aged subjects a relationship between arterial stiffness, a cardiovascular risk marker, and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). No extensive data are present in older subjects. This study explores this association in a sample of healthy older subjects suffering OSA. METHODS: A total of 101 volunteers aged 75.3 ± 0.7 years were examined at the hospital sleep center. Each subject was assessed for medical history, body mass index and 24-h blood pressure measures, biological blood samples, and home polygraphy in 2002-2003 (P2) as well as in 2009-2010 (P4)...
June 26, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Natasha G Boyes, Michael K Stickland, Stephanie Fusnik, Elizabeth Hogeweide, Josie T J Fries, Mark J Haykowsky, Chantelle L Baril, Shonah Runalls, Ashok Kakadekar, Scott Pharis, Charissa Pockett, Timothy J Bradley, Kristi D Wright, Marta Erlandson, Corey R Tomczak
Children with congenital heart disease are at risk for developing increased arterial stiffness and this may be modulated by physical activity. OBJECTIVE: To compare arterial stiffness in high- and low-physically active children with congenital heart disease and healthy age- and sex-matched controls. PATIENTS: Seventeen children with congenital heart disease (12 ± 2 years; females = 9), grouped by low- and high-physical activity levels from accelerometry step count values, and 20 matched controls (11 ± 3 years; females = 9) were studied...
June 25, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
Halil Basel, Nazim Bozan
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: To report a single center experience with carotid body paraganglioma cases that were treated by the same surgeon in a city with high prevalence of paragangliomas due to high altitude. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the demographic, clinicopathological and radiological data of 104 patients diagnosed with cervical paragangliomas between 2003 and 2017. The patients were classified according to the Shamblin classification. RESULTS: In this study a total of 104 patients (33 male and 71 female, with a mean age of 54...
June 11, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Javier Villadiego, Sonia Romo-Madero, Roberto García-Swinburn, Nela Suárez-Luna, Alfonso Bermejo-Navas, Miriam Echevarría, Juan J Toledo-Aral
BACKGROUND: The use of long-term immunosuppressive treatments on neural transplantation has been controversial during the last decades. Although nowadays there is a consensus about the necessity of maintaining a permanent state of immunosuppression to preserve the survival of cerebral grafts, little is known about the effects that chronic immunosuppression produces both on the neurodegenerative process and on transplants function. METHODS: Here, we establish a new immunosuppressive protocol, based on the discontinuous administration of CsA (15 mg/kg; s...
June 22, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Andrea Porzionato, Elena Stocco, Diego Guidolin, Luigi Agnati, Veronica Macchi, Raffaele De Caro
In the carotid body (CB), a wide series of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been identified. They are mainly produced and released by type I cells and act on many different ionotropic and metabotropic receptors located in afferent nerve fibers, type I and II cells. Most metabotropic receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In other transfected or native cells, GPCRs have been demonstrated to establish physical receptor-receptor interactions (RRIs) with formation of homo/hetero-complexes (dimers or receptor mosaics) in a dynamic monomer/oligomer equilibrium...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
R A Vinogradov, V V Matusevich
The carotid glomus is an anatomical structure located in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and consisting of chemo and baroreceptors. It is an important reflexogenic zone participating in provision of constancy of arterial pressure. Performing eversion carotid endarterectomy is accompanied by damage of the structures of the carotid glomus, which is followed by persistent arterial hypertension in the early postoperative period. This complication remains one of the unsolved tasks in surgery of carotid arteries...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
D F Beloiartsev, O L Talybly
BACKGROUND: It is known that namely long-term presence of suture material as the only foreign body in autologous conditions may lead to restenosis in the remote period. Such hypothesis was put forward based on good results of reconstructive cardiovascular operations in case of using absorbable suture material. OBJECTIVE: Our study was aimed at comparative analysis of remote results of using absorbable suture material polydioxanone and non-absorbable suture material polypropylene in eversion carotid endarterectomy...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
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