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Carotid body

Helen L MacLaughlin, Iain C Macdougall, Wendy L Hall, Tracy Dew, Konstantinos Mantzoukis, Jude A Oben
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of intragastric balloon (IGB) placement to achieve weight loss in obese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not been reported to date. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the IGB as a weight-loss treatment among this patient population. METHODS: A prospective, single-arm, 'first in CKD' interventional study was conducted in patients with a body mass index >35 kg/m2 and CKD stages 3-4, referred for weight loss...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Laura E K Ratcliffe, Emma C Hart, Linford J B Briant, Marzena Chrostowska, Jacek Wolf, Anna Szyndler, Dagmara Hering, Ana P Abdala, Nathan Manghat, Amy E Burchell, Claire Durant, Melvin D Lobo, Paul A Sobotka, Nikunj K Patel, James C Leiter, Zoar J Engelman, Angus K Nightingale, Julian F R Paton
Animal and human data indicate pathological afferent signaling emanating from the carotid body that drives sympathetically mediated elevations in blood pressure in conditions of hypertension. This first-in-man, proof-of-principle study tested the safety and feasibility of unilateral carotid body resection in 15 patients with drug-resistant hypertension. The procedure proved to be safe and feasible. Overall, no change in blood pressure was found. However, 8 patients showed significant reductions in ambulatory blood pressure coinciding with decreases in sympathetic activity...
August 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
Christina M Cromwell, Kristin R Aichele, Joyann E Oakman, Michael P Neal, Jessica M Lenzo, Avery N Perez, Naomi L Bye, Erica L Santaniello, Jessica A Hill, Rachel C Evans, Karla A Thiele, Lauren N Chavis, Allyson K Getty, Tia R Wisdo, Deborah L Feairheller
Previous studies have investigated carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and blood pressure and found a direct correlation between the two. It is known that adult females have better cardiovascular health than males until a certain stage of life, yet limited research has examined gender differences in vascular function. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate vascular structure and function, blood pressure, and blood glucose/cholesterol levels in relation to gender differences in young healthy adults...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
M Barburoglu, A Arat
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is very limited data concerning utilization of flow diverters in children. Our aim is to report results for the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms and carotid cavernous fistulas by using flow diverters in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of children (17 years of age or younger) treated with flow diverters between May 2011 and July 2014 was performed. Clinical and laboratory data and angiographic findings were extracted...
October 20, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Vahit Mutlu, Hayri Ogul
Carotid body tumors originate from paraganglionic tissue in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. Magnetic resonance imaging is a frequently used diagnostic method in the preoperative diagnosis of these tumors and provides appropriate information for surgical planning. In this study, the authors emphasize magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography findings of the external carotid artery aneurysm associated with carotid body tumor. This highlights that the diagnosis of carotid artery aneurysms is essential to avoid accidental injury to the vessel during tumor surgery...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Seung Won Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yong-Ho Lee, Hansol Choi, Ji Hye Park, Yumie Rhee, Chang Oh Kim
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether HbA1c is associated with carotid atherosclerosis in a community-dwelling elderly Korean population with normal fasting glucose. DESIGN AND METHOD: Using data from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly study, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis in 1,133 participants (335 men and 798 women) with mean age 71.8 years. All participants had fasting blood glucose less than 100   mg/dL (5.6mmol/L) and a level of HbA1c below 6.5% (48 mmol/mol)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yi Zhang, Yuyan Lu, Bin Bai, Shikai Yu, Jing Xiong, Dela Jia, Yawei Xu
OBJECTIVE: To compare of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and brachial-ankle PWV (ba-PWV) in the association with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damages (TODs). DESIGN AND METHOD: 1599 community-dwelling elderly subjects (age > 65 years old) in the northern Shanghai were recruited from June 2014 to August 2015. Cf-PWV and ba-PWV were measured by SphygmCor (AtCor, Australia) and VP1000 (Omron, Japan), respectively. Under the framework of comprehensive cardiovascular examinations, cardiovascular risk factors were assessed, and hypertensive TODs, including left ventricular mass index (LVMI), peak transmitral pulsed Doppler velocity/early diastolic tissue Doppler velocity (E/Ea), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI), creatinine clearance rate (CCR) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR), were all evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yi-Bang Cheng, Li-Hua Li, Qian-Hui Guo, Chang-Sheng Sheng, Qi-Fang Huang, Fei-Ka Li, Dong-Yan Zhang, Ji-Guang Wang, Yan Li
OBJECTIVE: Disorders of mineral metabolism predicted incidence of cardiovascular events in various clinical settings, possibly because that arterial stiffness mediate this pathway in part. We investigated the interrelationship between mineral metabolism factors and carotid-femoral PWV, and compared the effect sizes of blood pressure (BP) and mineral factors with carotid-femoral PWV in untreated Chinese. DESIGN AND METHOD: Consecutive untreated outpatients referred for ambulatory BP monitoring were recruited...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Wioletta Pijacka, Fiona McBryde, Anthony P Ford, Julian F R Paton
OBJECTIVE: Arterial hypertension is associated with increases in both peripheral chemoreceptor reflex sensitivity and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). We have shown that CB resection in SH rats reduces arterial pressure (AP; McBryde et al. 2013). Since P2X3 receptors exist in the rat CB and P2X3 receptor activity is associated with afferent hyperreflexia (Ford et al. 2015), we hypothesized that P2X3 receptor would be upregulated in the CB of SH vs normotensive (Wistar) control rats and that a selective P2X3 receptor antagonist (AF-219) would reduce chemoreflex hypersensitivity, AP and SNA in SH rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yasuharu Tabara, Michiya Igase, Tetsuro Miki, Yasumasa Ohyagi, Fumihiko Matsuda, Katsuhiko Kohara
OBJECTIVE: Loss of the nocturnal blood pressure (BP) drop is a risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. However, clinical parameters that predispose to changes in nocturnal BP are currently uncertain. Given the possible involvement of salt sensitivity in nocturnal BP levels, we investigated a hypothesized association between plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels - a marker of body fluid retention - and nocturnal BP in a general population. METHODS: Study participants were 1020 general individuals...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
I M Zeitoun, G H Borhamy, M M Fata, A M Salloum
Tumour infiltration of the carotid arteries, especially the common carotid artery (CCA) and the internal carotid artery (ICA), is a great challenge in maxillofacial surgery. Cases in which the malignant tumour and/or lymph node is stuck to the carotid artery, especially the ICA, have previously been considered inoperable. Four such cases, two with recurrent metastatic nodal neck masses encasing the ICA, one with aggressive fibromatosis, and one with a carotid body tumour, are described herein. Successful resection of the mass along with the ICA was performed in all cases after a positive balloon occlusion test...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Joana F Sacramento, Maria J Ribeiro, Tiago Rodrigues, Elena Olea, Bernardete F Melo, Maria P Guarino, Rui Fonseca-Pinto, Cristiana R Ferreira, Joana Coelho, Ana Obeso, Raquel Seiça, Paulo Matafome, Sílvia V Conde
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We recently described that carotid body (CB) over-activation is involved in the aetiology of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension in animal models of the metabolic syndrome. Additionally, we have demonstrated that CB activity is increased in animal models of insulin resistance, and that carotid sinus nerve (CSN) resection prevents the development of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension induced by high-energy diets. Here, we tested whether the functional abolition of CB by CSN transection would reverse pre-established insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, obesity, autonomic dysfunction and hypertension in animal models of the metabolic syndrome...
October 16, 2016: Diabetologia
Jianguo Zhuang, Xiuping Gao, Franklin Gao, Fadi Xu
We tested the hypothesis that mu-opioid receptors (MORs) in the caudomedial nucleus tractus solitarius (cmNTS) are important for the ventilatory responses to stimulation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs), the carotid body-mediated hypoxia, and hypercapnia independent of the carotid body. First, we used immunohistochemistry to map MORs distribution in the caudal medulla. Then we compared the effects of intra-cmNTS microinjection of DAMGO (a MOR agonist) with or without a combination of CTAP (a MOR antagonist) on the ventilatory responses to: 1) right atrial injection of capsaicin (to stimulation of PCFs) and 2) acute hypoxia (HVR, to stimulate the carotid body) in awake intact rats; and 3) hypercapnia (HCVR) in the carotid body ablated rats...
October 12, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Muyesser Sayki Arslan, Esra Tutal, Mustafa Sahin, Melia Karakose, Bekir Ucan, Gulfer Ozturk, Erman Cakal, Zeynep Biyikli Gencturk, Mustafa Ozbek, Tuncay Delibasi
Osteoprotegerin has been shown to be increased in cardiovascular disorders and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prediabetes represents a high risk condition for diabetes and diabetic complications. Therefore, we aimed to find the relationship between prediabetes and osteoprotegerin with nuclear factor-B ligand, carotid intima media thickness, and metabolic markers. A total of 54 participants with prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (n = 21), impaired glucose tolerance (n = 8), impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance (n = 25), and 60 healthy individuals as a control were admitted to the study...
October 15, 2016: Endocrine
Aneesh Mohimen, Santhosh Kumar, E R Jayadevan
PURPOSE: To describe a rare clinical entity of intra-osseous skull base arterio-venous fistula managed with transvenous fistula embolization. CASE DETAILS: 57 year old lady presented with complaints of headache and episodic tinnitus with progressive left sided visual deterioration. Cross sectional imaging of the head revealed multiple vascular channels in the sphenoid bone and in bilateral masticator spaces. Catheter angiography showed presence of a large osseous arterio-venous fistula (AVF) epicentered in the body of sphenoid and left pterygoid plates with arterial feeders from bilateral external carotid arteries and venous drainage...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Chang-Ki Hong, Yu Shik Shim, Yong Cheol Lim, Yong Sam Shin, Hyeonseon Park, Joonho Chung
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) was reported to decrease significantly after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid stenting (CAS) up to the 1-year follow-up. We evaluated changes in BP for 3 years after treating hypertensive patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis by either CEA or CAS and determined predisposing factors for normotensive BP at the 3-year follow-up. METHODS: A total of 123 hypertensive patients with at least 3 years of clinical and radiographic follow-up after treatment were included in this study and placed in the CEA (n = 65) or CAS group (n = 58)...
October 13, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Quratulane Gillani, Muhammad Ali, Furhan Iqbal
Interleukin (IL) 6 and 18 plays an important role in inflammatory response following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Present study was designed to demonstrate the effect of two GABAB receptor antagonists (CGP 35348 and 55845), respectively, on the serum IL6 and IL 18 concentrations in albino mice. Albino mice pups (of both genders) were subjected to Murine model of hypoxia-ischemia encephalopathy on postnatal day 10 (right common carotid artery was ligated followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes). After neonatal brain damage and following weaning, mice were divided in three groups, in gender specific manner, and fed on normal rodent diet till they were 13 week old...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Neeraj Garg, Mala Dharmalingam, Vinay Prabhu, N S Murthy
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine problem, which is now recognized as not only a reproductive but also a metabolic disorder with long-term effects on women's health, it has a prevalence of 5-10% in India. Among PCOS, it has been reported to have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disorders. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between an increase in the carotid intimo-medial wall thickness (CIMT) and cardiovascular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to compare the CIMT of PCOS with normal women...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jorge Soliz, Rose Tam, Richard Kinkead
Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Shun Watanabe, Takayuki Matsumoto, Makoto Ando, Shota Kobayashi, Maika Iguchi, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that males and females differ in vascular function in arteries under pathophysiological states. In this study, we tested whether there was a sex difference associated with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)-mediated contraction in the carotid arteries of long-term streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats [viz. 23 or 24 weeks after STZ (65 mg/kg, intravenously (i.v.)) injection starting at 8 weeks old of rats]. In the control group, the 5-HT- and high-K(+)-induced contractions were greater in females than in males...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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