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Carotid body

Jonathan R Weir-McCall, Liam Brown, Jennifer Summersgill, Piotr Talarczyk, Michael Bonnici-Mallia, Sook C Chin, Faisel Khan, Allan D Struthers, Frank Sullivan, Helen M Colhoun, Angela C Shore, Kunihiko Aizawa, Leif Groop, Jan Nilsson, John R Cockcroft, Carmel M McEniery, Ian B Wilkinson, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, J Graeme Houston
Current distance measurement techniques for pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation are susceptible to intercenter variability. The aim of this study was to derive and validate a formula for this distance measurement. Based on carotid femoral distance in 1183 whole-body magnetic resonance angiograms, a formula was derived for calculating distance. This was compared with distance measurements in 128 whole-body magnetic resonance angiograms from a second study. The effects of recalculation of PWV using the new formula on association with risk factors, disease discrimination, and prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events were examined within 1242 participants from the multicenter SUMMIT study (Surrogate Markers of Micro- and Macrovascular Hard End-Points for Innovative Diabetes Tools) and 825 participants from the Caerphilly Prospective Study...
March 19, 2018: Hypertension
Albert Dahan, Rutger van der Schrier, Terry Smith, Leon Aarts, Monique van Velzen, Marieke Niesters
The ventilatory control system is highly vulnerable to exogenous administered opioid analgesics. Particularly respiratory depression is a potentially lethal complication that may occur when opioids are overdosed or consumed in combination with other depressants such as sleep medication or alcohol. Fatalities occur in acute and chronic pain patients on opioid therapy and individuals that abuse prescription or illicit opioids for their hedonistic pleasure. One important strategy to mitigate opioid-induced respiratory depression is cotreatment with nonopioid respiratory stimulants...
March 19, 2018: Anesthesiology
Aya Ikeda, Kiyoto Shiga, Katsunori Katagiri, Daisuke Saito, Jun Miyaguchi, Shin-Ichi Oikawa, Kodai Tsuchida, Takahiro Asakage, Hiroyuki Ozawa, Ken-Ichi Nibu, Naoki Ohtsuki, Yasushi Fujimoto, Ken-Ichi Kaneko
There has been no attempt to clarify the status of patients with carotid body tumor (CBT) in Japan. This multi-institutional survey analyzed patients with CBT throughout Japan by gathering information on these patients from institutions that performed head and neck surgeries. Information from a total of 150 patients from 25 institutions from the past 20 years was employed in the present survey. There were 87 females and 63 males, and their mean age was 48.0 years old. The most common chief complaint was a neck mass and the mean suffering period was 46...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jiadela Teliewubai, Bin Bai, Yiwu Zhou, Yuyan Lu, Shikai Yu, Chen Chi, Jue Li, Jacques Blacher, Yawei Xu, Yi Zhang
Objective: Secreted frizzled related protein 5 (SFRP5) is a novel anti-inflammatory adipokine that is implicated in metabolic and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, little is known about the relevance of SFRP5 with asymptomatic hypertensive target organ damages (TODs). We aimed to investigate the association between SFRP5 and TOD in a large population. Clinical trial registration: NCT02368938. Methods: A total of 1,745 community-dwelling elderly subjects aged over 65 years from northern Shanghai were recruited in the study...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Dina Vojinovic, Sven J van der Lee, Cornelia M van Duijn, Meike W Vernooij, Maryam Kavousi, Najaf Amin, Ayşe Demirkan, M Arfan Ikram, Aad van der Lugt, Daniel Bos
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increasing evidence shows that intracranial carotid artery atherosclerosis may develop under the influence of a differential metabolic risk factor profile than atherosclerosis in the extracranial part of the carotid artery. To further elucidate these differences, we investigated associations of a wide range of circulating metabolites with intracranial and extracranial carotid artery atherosclerosis. METHODS: From the population-based Rotterdam Study, blood samples from 1111 participants were used to determine a wide range of metabolites by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
March 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
S Helena Taivainen, Heikki Yli-Ollila, Markus Juonala, Mika Kähönen, Olli T Raitakari, Tiina M Laitinen, Tomi P Laitinen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid artery longitudinal wall motion (CALM) is a new biomarker, which can be measured together with carotid intima-media thickness and distensibility measurements in the same session. Our objective was to study the relationship between these indicators of vascular health and cardiovascular risk factors in a large and well-characterized study population. METHODS: The study population consisted of 465 subjects aged 30-45 years. Successful measurements were performed in 287 participants...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Christos Georgakopoulos, Iosif Koutagiar, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects approximately one in five persons older than 70 years of age and it is often present in patients with concomitant vascular disease in different body territories (e.g. coronary artery disease). Diagnosis at an early stage is important in order to achieve improvement in patient's symptoms and prognosis. Remarkable improvements in the field of noninvasive and invasive imaging techniques have led to an advanced level the management of patients with PAD. Throughout this review article, the clinically available diagnostic modalities in PAD are presented...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Timothy M Hughes, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Suzanne Craft, Akiva Mintz, Gerardo Heiss, Priya Palta, Dean Wong, Yun Zhou, David Knopman, Thomas H Mosley, Rebecca F Gottesman
OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness has been associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. These complex relationships have not been examined in racially and cognitively diverse cohorts. METHODS: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)-Neurocognitive Study collected detailed cognitive testing for adjudication of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), brain MRI, and arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV, carotid-femoral [cfPWV] and heart-carotid [hcPWV])...
March 16, 2018: Neurology
Anup Singh, Kapil Sikka, Nishchint Jain, Leve Joseph Devarajan
Endovascular treatment is a standard mode of treatment for traumatic cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysms with good results and relatively low rates of complications. We describe a case of an unusual, potentially fatal, delayed postoperative event happening in a case of post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of ICA, which had been previously managed with endovascular coiling.
March 2018: Neurointervention
Karine C Flor, Elaine F Silva, Miguel F Menezes, Gustavo R Pedrino, Eduardo Colombari, Daniel B Zoccal
Exposure to chronic sustained hypoxia (SH), as experienced in high altitudes, elicits an increase in ventilation, named ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH). We previously showed that rats exposed to short-term (24 h) SH exhibit enhanced abdominal expiratory motor activity at rest, accompanied by augmented baseline sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. In the present study, we investigated whether the respiratory and sympathetic changes elicited by short-term SH are accompanied by carotid body chemoreceptor sensitization...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Evan P Pasha, Alex C Birdsill, Stephanie Oleson, Hirofumi Tanaka, Andreana P Haley
Sex differences in cerebral white matter (WM) aging have been debated extensively over the past 2 decades without unequivocal resolution. We aimed to determine if the effects of age and arterial stiffness on WM microstructure differ between sexes. Artery elasticity via carotid artery compliance (CAC) and WM diffusion metrics via diffusion tensor image-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in 155 (87 females) middle-aged (40-62 years) adults. Males demonstrated poorer water diffusion metrics in WM than women in the corpus callosum body, cingulum, and cingulum (hippocampal)...
February 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Alejandro Diaz, Yanina Zócalo, Daniel Bia, Sandra Wray, Edmundo Cabrera Fischer
There is little information regarding age-related reference intervals (RIs) of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) for large healthy populations in South America. The aims of this study were to determine cfPWV RIs and percentiles in a cohort of healthy children, adolescents, and adults and to generate year-to-year percentile curves and body-height percentile curves for children and adolescents. cfPWV was measured in 1722 healthy participants with no cardiovascular risk factors (9-87 years, 60% men)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Bin Wu, Jingshan Huang, Keisuke Fukuo, Kazuhisa Suzuki, Gen Yoshino, Tsutomu Kazumi
The aim of this study was to assess whether the gender-specific pattern of fat mass (FM) distribution is related to gender differences in cardiometabolic risk factors. 207 healthy middle-aged Japanese were included in the study. We measured FM in the total body, trunk, and lower-body with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The percentage of trunk FM (TFM) and lower-body FM (LFM) is noted as %TFM and %LFM, respectively. Other measurements included glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), leptin, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ), C-reactive protein (CRP), and systemic oxidative stress marker...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Tymoteusz Żera, Jacek Przybylski, Tomasz Grygorowicz, Kaja Kasarełło, Martyna Podobińska, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska
Vasopressin (AVP) maintains body homeostasis by regulating water balance, cardiovascular system and stress response. AVP inhibits breathing through central vasopressin 1a receptors (V1aRs). Chemoreceptors within carotid bodies (CBs) detect chemical and hormonal signals in the bloodstream and provide sensory input to respiratory and cardiovascular centers of the brainstem. In the study we investigated if CBs contain V1aRs and how the receptors are involved in the regulation of ventilation by AVP. We first immunostained CBs for V1aRs and tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of chemoreceptor type I (glomus) cells...
March 7, 2018: Peptides
Colin A Nurse, Erin M Leonard, Shaima Salman
Mammalian carotid bodies (CB) are chemosensory organs that mediate compensatory cardiorespiratory reflexes in response to low blood PO2 (hypoxemia) and elevated CO2 /H+ (acid hypercapnia). The chemoreceptors are glomus or type I cells which occur in clusters enveloped by neighboring glial-like type II cells. During chemoexcitation type I cells depolarize, leading to Ca2+ -dependent release of several neurotransmitters, some excitatory and others inhibitory, which help shape the afferent carotid sinus nerve (CSN) discharge...
March 9, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Lukas Streese, Arne Deiseroth, Juliane Schäfer, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Henner Hanssen
Background: Age is a key determinant for the development of cardiovascular disease and higher age coincides with an increased prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. The study examines the influence of physical activity on aging processes of physiological systems focusing on the mechanisms of vascular aging. Methods/Design: The study consists of two parts. The cross-sectional approach aims at examining the association of physical fitness and cardiovascular risk with large and small artery function in healthy older active (HOA, n = 40) and sedentary (HOS, n = 40) persons as well as older sedentary individuals with increased cardiovascular risk (OSR, n = 80) aged 50-80 years...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Bülent Erdoğan, Barış Eser, Özlem Yayar, Mehmet Deniz Aylı
OBJECTIVE: Recently, the role of hepcidin as a cardiovascular marker in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population has gained interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum hepcidin-25, inflammation, iron parameters, and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. METHODS: A total of 58 patients (30 male, 51.3%; mean age: 46.8±13.6 years; mean dialysis duration: 69.2±39.1 months) were included in this cross-sectional study...
March 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Anastasiya V Snezhkina, Elena N Lukyanova, Dmitry V Kalinin, Anatoly V Pokrovsky, Alexey A Dmitriev, Nadezhda V Koroban, Elena A Pudova, Maria S Fedorova, Nadezhda N Volchenko, Oleg A Stepanov, Ekaterina A Zhevelyuk, Sergey L Kharitonov, Anastasiya V Lipatova, Ivan S Abramov, Alexander V Golovyuk, Yegor E Yegorov, Khava S Vishnyakova, Alexey A Moskalev, George S Krasnov, Nataliya V Melnikova, Dmitry S Shcherbo, Marina V Kiseleva, Andrey D Kaprin, Boris Y Alekseev, Andrew R Zaretsky, Anna V Kudryavtseva
BACKGROUND: Carotid body tumor (CBT) is a form of head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) arising at the bifurcation of carotid arteries. Paragangliomas are commonly associated with germline and somatic mutations involving at least one of more than thirty causative genes. However, the specific functionality of a number of these genes involved in the formation of paragangliomas has not yet been fully investigated. METHODS: Exome library preparation was carried out using Nextera® Rapid Capture Exome Kit (Illumina, USA)...
February 13, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
Yi-Bang Cheng, Qian-Hui Guo, Dong-Yan Zhang, Ying Wang, Qi-Fang Huang, Chang-Sheng Sheng, Ji-Guang Wang, Jan A Staessen, Yan Li
OBJECTIVE: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was associated with serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in untreated Chinese. We investigated in the same cohort whether cfPWV, brachial-ankle (baPWV) and heart-brachial (hbPWV) pulse wave velocity (PWV) were associated with rs6127099 (CYP24A1) and rs4074995 (RGS14). A previously published genome-wide association study demonstrated that each additional copy of the T (rs6127099) or G (rs4074995) allele was associated with a 7% or 3% higher serum PTH, respectively...
March 5, 2018: Blood Pressure
Angela E Rankine-Mullings, Nadine Morrison-Levy, Deanne Soares, Karen Aldred, Lesley King, Susanna Ali, Jennifer M Knight-Madden, Margaret Wisdom-Phipps, Robert J Adams, Russell E Ware, Marvin Reid
This study investigated the association of nutritional and haematological variables with maximum time-averaged mean velocity (TAMV) measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocity and the agreement of classification between two protocols. TCD categories included: normal (<170 cm/s), conditional (170-199 cm/s) and abnormal (≥200 cm/s) based on TAMV in distal internal carotid artery (dICA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), internal carotid bifurcation, anterior and posterior cerebral arteries. Of 358 children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) examined, the mean age (±standard deviation) was 7·4 ± 2·7 years; 13·1% and 6·7% had conditional and abnormal velocities, respectively...
March 5, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
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