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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545166/childhood-predictors-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-adulthood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
O Ajala, F Mold, C Boughton, D Cooke, M Whyte
Childhood obesity predicts the risk of adult adiposity, which is associated with the earlier onset of cardiovascular disease [adult atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, ACVD: hypertension, increased carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD)] and dysglycaemia. Because it is not known whether childhood obesity contributes to these diseases, we conducted a systematic review of studies that examine the ability of measures of obesity in childhood to predict dysglycaemia and ACVD...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544809/robotic-radiosurgery-of-head-and-neck-paragangliomas-a-single-institution-experience
#2
İlker Tosun, Banu Atalar, Bilgehan Şahin, Görkem Güngör, Gökhan Aydin, Bülent Yapici, Enis Özyar
AIM: CyberKnife(®) is a robotic stereotactic radiotherapy system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and the safety of CyberKnife(®) on treating head and neck paragangliomas and to report our results. METHODS: Between March 2009 and June 2014, 12 patients with head and neck paragangliomas have been referred to our clinic: in three cases had jugular paragangliomas, five cases had carotid body paragangliomas and three cases had tympanic paragangliomas...
May 24, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533756/guinea-pig-oxygen-sensing-and-carotid-body-functional-properties
#3
Elvira Gonzalez-Obeso, Inmaculada Docio, Elena Olea, Angel Cogolludo, Ana Obeso, Asuncion Rocher, Angela Gomez-Niño
Mammals have developed different mechanisms to maintain oxygen supply to cells in response to hypoxia. One of those mechanisms, the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors, is able to detect physiological hypoxia and generate homeostatic reflex responses, mainly ventilatory and cardiovascular. It has been reported that guinea pigs, originally from the Andes, have a reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia compared to other mammals, implying that CB are not completely functional, which has been related to genetically/epigenetically determined poor hypoxia-driven CB reflex...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530480/ultrasonographic-and-histological-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-long-term-carotid-catheterization-on-cardiac-function-in-nmri-mice
#4
Anne C Teilmann, Morten B Thomsen, Elizabeth A Ihms, Nathan Pate, Jann Hau, Klas Abelson
Catheterization of laboratory mice is commonly performed in biomedical research to infuse substances and for blood sampling. One approach is to catheterize the right common carotid artery and advance the catheter until the tip is positioned in the aorta or the proximal brachiocephalic trunk. Owing to the small body size of the mouse, a catheter tends to occupy a great part of even the larger vessel lumens, and this may increase vascular resistance with potential pathophysiological impacts on the heart. The present study compared cardiac function of catheterized mice, with catheter tip placement in the brachiocephalic trunk, with sham-operated mice and non-operated control mice...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529199/can-fetuin-a-be-a-marker-for-insulin-resistance-and-poor-glycemic-control-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Ülkü Gül Sıraz, Murat Doğan, Nihal Hatipoğlu, Sabahttin Muhtaroğlu, Selim Kurtoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Backgroud Metabolic impairment in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) with poor glycemic control causes insulin resistance, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and atherosclerosis; thus, increased Carotid-intima media thickness (CIMT). The Fetuin-A has protective effect in cardiovascular disorders, which is increased in hepatosteatosis. We aimed to investigate reliability of Fetuin-A levels in early detection of diabetic complications in children with T1DM and to identify a cut-off value that may show poor metabolic control...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527929/new-predictors-of-complications-in-carotid-body-tumor-resection
#6
Gloria Y Kim, Peter F Lawrence, Rameen S Moridzadeh, Kate Zimmerman, Alberto Munoz, Kuauhyama Luna-Ortiz, Gustavo S Oderich, Juan de Francisco, Jorge Ospina, Santiago Huertas, Leonardo R de Souza, Thomas C Bower, Steven Farley, Hugh A Gelabert, Marcus R Kret, E John Harris, Giovanni De Caridi, Francesco Spinelli, Matthew R Smeds, Christos D Liapis, John Kakisis, Anastasios P Papapetrou, Eike S Debus, Christian-A Behrendt, Edgar Kleinspehn, Joshua D Horton, Firas F Mussa, Stephen W K Cheng, Mark D Morasch, Khurram Rasheed, Matthew E Bennett, Jean Bismuth, Alan B Lumsden, Christopher J Abularrage, Alik Farber
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between two new variables, tumor distance to base of skull (DTBOS) and tumor volume, with complications of carotid body tumor (CBT) resection, including bleeding and cranial nerve injury. METHODS: Patients who underwent CBT resection between 2004 and 2014 were studied using a standardized, multi-institutional database. Demographic, perioperative, and outcomes data were collected. CBT measurements were determined from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound examination...
June 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525388/association-between-body-mass-index-and-presence-of-carotid-plaque-among-low-income-adults-aged-45-years-and-older-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study-in-rural-china
#7
Yongzhong Lou, Bin Li, Lan Su, Zhenhong Mu, Minghao Sun, Hongfei Gu, Jingxian Ni, Yanan Wu, Jun Tu, Jinghua Wang, Xianjia Ning
Carotid plaque is a good surrogate endpoint for assessing arterial atherosclerosis, and atherosclerosis is a reliable predictor of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of body mass index on carotid plaque is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to explore the association between body mass index and carotid plaque in a low-income Chinese population. Residents aged ≥45 years and free of stroke and cardiovascular diseases were enrolled and divided into four groups based on body mass index. B-mode ultrasonography was performed to measure carotid plaque...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525354/the-relationship-between-insulin-resistance-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-obese-adolescents
#8
Preneet Cheema Brar, Payal Patel, Stuart Katz
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction share a reciprocal relationship that links the metabolic and cardiovascular sequelae of obesity. We characterized the brachial artery reactivity testing (BART) and carotid artery-intima media thickness (CIMT) in adolescents categorized as obese insulin resistant (OIR) and obese not insulin resistant (ONIR). Lipoprotein particle (p) analysis and inflammatory cytokines in OIR and ONIR groups were also analyzed. METHODS: Obese adolescents (n=40; mean body mass index [BMI] 35...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523582/first-in-human-radiation-dosimetry-of-68-ga-nodaga-rgdyk
#9
Silvano Gnesin, Periklis Mitsakis, Francesco Cicone, Emmanuel Deshayes, Vincent Dunet, Augusto F Gallino, Marek Kosinski, Sébastien Baechler, Franz Buchegger, David Viertl, John O Prior
BACKGROUND: Integrin-targeting radiopharmaceuticals have potential broad applications, spanning from cancer theranostics to cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported preclinical dosimetry results of (68)Ga-NODAGA-RGDyK in mice. This study presents the first human dosimetry of (68)Ga-NODAGA-RGDyK in the five consecutive patients included in a clinical imaging protocol of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Five male patients underwent whole-body time-of-flight (TOF) PET/CT scans 10, 60 and 120 min after tracer injection (200 MBq)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522760/on-the-existence-of-a-central-respiratory-oxygen-sensor
#10
Alexander V Gourine, Gregory D Funk
A commonly held view that dominates both the scientific and educational literature is that in terrestrial mammals the central nervous system lacks a physiological hypoxia sensor capable of triggering increases in lung ventilation in response to decreases in PO2 of the brain parenchyma. Indeed, a normocapnic hypoxic ventilatory response has never been observed in humans following bilateral resection of the carotid bodies. In contrast, almost complete or partial recovery of the hypoxic ventilatory response after denervation/removal of the peripheral respiratory oxygen chemoreceptors has been demonstrated in many experimental animals when assessed in an awake state...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522758/regulation-of-erythropoiesis-after-normoxic-return-from-chronic-sustained-and-intermittent-hypoxia
#11
Jihyun Song, Krishna Sundar, Radhika Gangaraju, Josef T Prchal
Hypoxia increases erythropoiesis mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF) which regulate erythropoietin (EPO) transcription. Neocytolysis is a physiological mechanism that corrects polycythemia from chronic sustained hypoxemia (CSH) by transient, preferential destruction of young RBCs after normoxia is restored. We showed that neocytolysis is caused by excessive mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in reticulocytes mediated by down-regulation of HIF-controlled BNIP3L regulated mitophagy and a decrease in RBC antioxidant catalase (CAT) in hypoxia-produced erythrocytes...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505045/resistant-hypertension-in-2017
#12
Sartaj Hans, John P Reilly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension (HTN) is a ubiquitous condition and cause for significant morbidity and mortality. Over 400 000 deaths in the United States are related to HTN every year, more than all the Americans who died through all of World War II. As many as half the patients with HTN in the United States have resistant HTN, a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg despite three medications including a diuretic. It appears that the prevalence of HTN and resistant HTN is increasing over time...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500597/blood-pressure-monitoring-using-radio-telemetry-method-in-mice
#13
Yu Wang, Sean E Thatcher, Lisa A Cassis
The TA11PA-C10 implantable transmitter (Data Sciences International, DSI) is designed to measure blood pressure (BP) and activity in freely moving laboratory mice. The fluid filled catheter is placed in the free flowing blood of the systemic artery (inserted into the left carotid artery and extended into the aorta), and the transmitter body is placed in a benign location for long-term biocompatibility. The transmitter can be used to monitor BP in mice (as small as 17 g) under normal physiological and unrestricted conditions 24 h a day while remaining free from stress associated with human interaction...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500271/causal-associations-of-adiposity-and-body-fat-distribution-with-coronary-heart-disease-stroke-subtypes-and-type-2-diabetes-a-mendelian-randomization-analysis
#14
Caroline Dale, Ghazaleh Fatemifar, Tom Palmer, Jonathan White, David Prieto-Merino, Delilah Zabaneh, Jorgen E L Engmann, Tina Shah, Andrew Wong, Helen R Warren, Stela McLachlan, Stella Trompet, Max Moldovan, Richard W Morris, Reecha Sofat, Meena Kumari, Elina Hyppönen, Barbara J Jefferis, Tom R Gaunt, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Ang Zhou, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Andy Ryan, Renée de Mutsert, Raymond Noordam, Mark J Caulfield, J Wouter Jukema, Bradford B Worrall, Patricia B Munroe, Usha Menon, Chris Power, Diana Kuh, Debbie A Lawlor, Steve E Humphries, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, George Davey Smith, Naveed Sattar, Mika Kivimaki, Jacqueline F Price, Frank Dudbridge, Aroon D Hingorani, Michael V Holmes, Juan-Pablo Casas
Background -Implications of different adiposity measures on cardiovascular disease aetiology remain unclear. In this paper we quantify and contrast causal associations of central adiposity (waist:hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI)) and general adiposity (body mass index (BMI)) with cardiometabolic disease. Methods -97 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for BMI and 49 SNPs for WHRadjBMI were used to conduct Mendelian randomization analyses in 14 prospective studies supplemented with CHD data from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D (combined total 66,842 cases), stroke from METASTROKE (12,389 ischaemic stroke cases), type 2 diabetes (T2D) from DIAGRAM (34,840 cases), and lipids from GLGC (213,500 participants) consortia...
May 12, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499385/target-organ-damage-and-incident-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-the-strong-heart-study
#15
Giovanni de Simone, Wenyu Wang, Lyle G Best, Fawn Yeh, Raffaele Izzo, Costantino Mancusi, Mary J Roman, Elisa T Lee, Barbara V Howard, Richard B Devereux
BACKGROUND: Recent analyses in a registry of hypertensive patients suggested that preceding left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) and/or carotid atherosclerosis are associated with incident type 2 diabetes, independent of confounders. We assess the relation between prevalent cardio-renal target organ damage (TOD) and subsequent incident type 2 diabetes in a population-based study with high prevalence of obesity. METHODS: We selected 2887 non-diabetic participants from two cohorts of the Strong Heart Study (SHS)...
May 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498386/atorvastatin-inhibits-cholesterol-induced-caspase-3-cleavage-through-down-regulation-of-p38-and-up-regulation-of-bcl-2-in-the-rat-carotid-artery
#16
Roshanak Bayatmakoo, Nadereh Rashtchizadeh, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Mehdi Farhoudi, Pouran Karimi
AIM: Atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid arteries lead to a broad range of cerebrovascular disorders such as vascular dementia and ischaemic stroke. Recent studies have verified the beneficial role of atorvastatin (AV) in atherosclerosis. Despite a large body of studies, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been completely explained. In this study, several experiments were performed on atherosclerotic rat models to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect of AV in the carotid artery...
May 5, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498145/brief-report-progression-of-atherosclerosis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-prospective-data-from-an-asian-cohort
#17
Grace Lui, Ronald C W Ma, Ping Chook, Chun-Kwok Wong, Claudia H T Tam, Michael H M Chan, Shui-Shan Lee, Rity Y K Wong, Catherine S K Cheung, Kin-Wing Choi, Ping-Chung Leung, Ka-Hing Wong, Kenny C W Chan, Nelson Lee
BACKGROUND: The magnitude and risk factors of progression of atherosclerosis in Asian HIV-infected individuals were unknown. This study aimed to evaluate: (1) the rate of progression of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected individuals, and (2) metabolic and inflammatory parameters that may predict atherosclerosis progression in HIV-infected individuals in an Asian cohort. SETTING: A prospective, longitudinal study was performed among adults attending an HIV Metabolic clinic in Hong Kong...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498000/metastatic-brain-carotid-body-paraganglioma-with-endocrine-activity-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Xiang Wang, Xianglan Zhu, Jinxiu Chen, Yanhui Liu, Qing Mao
A woman with hypertension and hyperglycemia was diagnosed a metastatic brain carotid body paraganglioma. Her blood pressure, glucose, and norepinephrine were normal after craniotomy. Although most carotid body tumors are benign, a few show distant metastasis. This is the first reported case of intracerebral metastases from a carotid body tumor.
May 12, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497668/potential-brain-dead-organ-donation-in-neurocritical-care-mortality
#19
Vera Spatenkova, Ondrej Bradac, Petr Suchomel
BACKGROUND: Mortality is a marker of quality in neurocritical care, but it also provides potential for donors after brain death (DBD) following irreversible acute brain damage. The aim of this study was to analyse the neurointensive care unit (NICU) mortality rate and recovery of potential DBD. METHODS: We performed a 10-year prospective observational cohort computer database analysis of 6138 acute neurological and neurosurgical patients (pts, 58.2% male, mean: age 55...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495453/relative-initial-weight-is-associated-with-improved-survival-without-altering-tumor-latency-in-a-translational-rat-model-of-diethylnitrosamine-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-transarterial-embolization
#20
Ryan M Kiefer, Stephen J Hunt, Santiago Pulido, Stephen Pickup, Emma E Furth, Michael C Soulen, Gregory J Nadolski, Terence P Gade
PURPOSE: To test the hypotheses that (i) heavier rats demonstrate improved survival with diminished fibrosis in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and (ii) transarterial embolization via femoral artery access decreases procedure times versus carotid access. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty-eight male Wistar rats ingested 0.01% DEN in water ad libitum for 12 weeks. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumor surveillance...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
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