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Keita Omote, Tetsuo I Kohyama, Chizuko Nishida, Keisuke Saito, Satoshi Fujimoto, Ryuichi Masuda
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) includes many genes that are essential for the adaptive immune system, and variation in the antigen binding site (ABS) is related to resistance against pathogens. In the present study, quantitative real-time PCR indicated a larger number of MHC gene copies in the endangered population of Blakiston's fish owl (Bubo blakistoni) than in five other owl species, and massively parallel pyrosequencing detected more MHC class IIβ per individual alleles in B. blakistoni than in the other species...
December 2017: Zoological Science
Alison J Gareau, Chris Wiebe, Denise Pochinco, Ian W Gibson, Julie Ho, David N Rush, Peter W Nickerson
Studies investigating the potential pathogenic effects of non-HLA antibodies (Ab) have identified Ab against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R-Ab) as a risk factor for rejection and kidney graft loss. This study sought to validate the risk of AT1R-Ab for acute rejection and to explore the role of other non-HLA Abs in this capacity. Pre- and post-transplant sera from a cohort of 101 patients (n=453 samples total) were tested for AT1R-Ab and other non-HLA Ab using a commercially available ELISA kit and the Luminex platform, respectively...
December 4, 2017: Transplant Immunology
Bi Shi, Jianlin Geng, Yin-Hu Wang, Hairong Wei, Beth Walters, Wei Li, Xuerui Luo, Anna Stevens, Melanie Pittman, Bin Li, Sunnie R Thompson, Hui Hu
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play an essential role in the formation of germinal centers (GC) and generation of high-affinity Abs. The homing of activated CD4+ T cells into B cell follicles and the involvement of key costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules are critical in controlling both the initiation and the magnitude of GC responses. Meanwhile, studies have shown that a high number of single clone B cells leads to intraclonal competition, which inhibits the generation of high-affinity Abs. Our previous work has shown that transcription factor Foxp1 is a critical negative regulator of Tfh cell differentiation...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Luzia M Mayr, Bin Su, Christiane Moog
B cells produce a plethora of anti-HIV antibodies (Abs) but only few of them exhibit neutralizing activity. This was long considered a profound limitation for the enforcement of humoral immune responses against HIV-1 infection, especially since these neutralizing Abs (nAbs) are extremely difficult to induce. However, increasing evidence shows that additional non-neutralizing Abs play a significant role in decreasing the viral load, leading to partial and sometimes even total protection. Mechanisms suspected to participate in protection are numerous...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Giannina Arru, Elia Sechi, Sara Mariotto, Alessia Farinazzo, Chiara Mancinelli, Daniela Alberti, Sergio Ferrari, Alberto Gajofatto, Ruggero Capra, Salvatore Monaco, Giovanni A Deiana, Elisa Caggiu, Giuseppe Mameli, Leonardo A Sechi, Gian Pietro Sechi
Background: A specific humoral immune response against HERV-W envelope surface (env-su) glycoprotein antigens has been reported in serum of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it has not been evaluated to date in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate whether antibody (Ab) response against HERV-W env-su antigenic peptides differs between NMOSD and MS. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 36 patients with NMOSD, 36 patients with MS and 36 healthy control individuals (HCs)...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
A Vera-Ibañez, D Colomer-Poveda, S Romero-Arenas, M Viñuela-García, G Márquez
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the neural adaptations associated with a low-volume Wingate-based High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT). METHODS: Fourteen recreationally trained males were divided into an experimental (HIIT) and a control group to determine whether a short-term (4 weeks) Wingate-based HIIT program could alter the Hoffmann (H-) reflex, volitional (V-) wave and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the plantar-flexor muscles, and the peak power achieved during a Wingate test...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Serdar Kuru, Kemal Kismet, Yusuf Murat Bag, Aziz Mutlu Barlas, Mehmet Senes, Murat Durak, Nihat Yumusak, Mustafa Kemal Urhan, Turgut Cavusoglu, Recep Pekcici
The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the potential effects on the healing of colorectal anastomoses of the rectal administration of Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS). Thirty Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly separated into 3 groups. In the sham group, only laparotomy and colonic mobilization was performed. In the other 2 groups, colon transection and anastomosis were carried out. Saline (2 mL, 0.9% NaCl) was given rectally via a feeding tube for 10 days after the surgical procedure in the sham and control groups...
November 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Lotte Kramer Schmidt, Anders Bo Bojesen, Anette Søgaard Nielsen, Kjeld Andersen
BACKGROUND: The recommendations in clinical guidelines for duration of therapy for alcohol use disorder (AUD) are based on consensus decisions. In reality, we do not know the optimal duration of an alcohol treatment course. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials of psychosocial treatment in alcohol outpatient treatment centers. The population consisted of adults suffering from AUD, treated in an outpatient facility with at least two sessions of therapy...
January 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Mang Cai, Hui Li, Shengnan Shen, Yu Wang, Quan Yang
Filtering Facepiece Respirator (FFR) is the most common respirator users in the health care environment utilize for personal protection from outside particles. Comfort and fit are important while wearing an FFR. This paper proposes a novel technology to produce customized face seal design for improving the wearing comfort and fit of FFR wearers. In order to customize the design of face seals, we scanned faces of three subjects using three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning method. A customized face seal for a 3M 8210 N95 FFR for each headform was designed using reverse engineering technique...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Natsuki Hannya, Hiromi Ogita-Nakanishi, Ryuji Kato, Yoshio Ijiri, Tetsuya Hayashi, Kazuhiko Tanaka, Ryo Kawata, Hiroshi Takenaka, Takahiro Kubota, Ryotaro Yoshida
There was a significant amount of non-specific, but not of allergen (e.g., papain, mite feces, and 4 kinds of pollen)-specific, IgE antibodies (Abs) in the serum of normal mice. An intranasal (i.n.) injection of each allergen without adjuvant into mice caused an increase in total IgE Ab titers with a similar time course in the serum; but the stage in the initiation of allergy varied from allergen to allergen. Submandibular lymph node cells from normal mice contained papain-, but not mite feces- or pollen-specific IgE+ cells; and an i...
November 29, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Magnus Kaffarnik, Caroline Isner, Uwe Hamsen
Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are common causes of diarrhoea in hospitalised medical and surgical patients. Clinical presentation ranges from mild diarrhoea to pseudomembraneous enterocolitis of the colon and sometimes the small intestines, with development of a toxic megacolon. Recurrent infections are common. Early diagnosis is necessary because of high rates of complications and mortality. Knowledge of risk factors for the development of CDI is recommended. Early initiation of therapy is recommended to avoid complications and standard therapy is antibiotics, while therapy with monoclonal antibodies and vaccination is under research and development...
November 30, 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Flora Veltri, Pierre Kleynen, Lidia Grabczan, Alexandra Salajan, Serge Rozenberg, Thierry Pepersack, Kris Gustave Poppe
OBJECTIVE: In the recently revised guidelines on the management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy, treatment with thyroid hormone (LT4) is not recommended in women without thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) and TSH levels in the range 2.5-4.0 mIU/L, and in a recent study in that particular group of pregnant women, more complications were observed when a treatment with LT4 was given. The objective of the study was therefore to investigate whether variation in thyroid function within the normal (non-pregnant) range in women free of thyroid disease was associated with altered pregnancy outcomes? DESIGN: Cross-sectional data analysis of 1321 pregnant women nested within an ongoing prospective collection of pregnant women's data in a single centre in Brussels, Belgium...
November 29, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
Roberto Mioni, Giuseppe Mioni
According to usual literature, the diet-dependent endogenous production of titratable acidity (TA) is contributed by sulphuric and phosphoric acids (NA) and by metabolizable acids (MAs), representing 'net-endogenous acid production' (NEAP). NEAP is mainly neutralised by diet-dependent [Formula: see text] salts of inorganic cations ([Formula: see text]), estimated in foods, faeces and urine from inorganic cation-anion difference (NB). It is claimed that urinary loss of organic acids' anions, '[Formula: see text]', induces metabolizable H+ ions' retention...
November 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Kevin J Clerkin, Sarah B See, Maryjane A Farr, Susan W Restaino, Geo Serban, Farhana Latif, Lingzhi Li, Paolo C Colombo, George Vlad, Bryan Ray, Elena R Vasilescu, Emmanuel Zorn
Background: Allospecific anti-HLA antibodies (Abs) are associated with rejection of solid organ grafts. The 2 main kits to detect anti-HLA Ab in patient serum are commercialized by Immucor and One Lambda/ThermoFisher. We sought to compare the performance of both platforms. Methods: Background-adjusted mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values were used from both platforms to compare sera collected from 125 pretransplant and posttransplant heart and lung transplant recipients...
November 2017: Transplantation Direct
Pengwei Xing, Yuan Chen, Jun Gao, Lianyang Bai, Zheming Yuan
Selecting informative genes, including individually discriminant genes and synergic genes, from expression data has been useful for medical diagnosis and prognosis. Detecting synergic genes is more difficult than selecting individually discriminant genes. Several efforts have recently been made to detect gene-gene synergies, such as dendrogram-based I(X 1; X 2; Y) (mutual information), doublets (gene pairs) and MIC(X 1; X 2; Y) based on the maximal information coefficient. It is unclear whether dendrogram-based I(X 1; X 2; Y) and doublets can capture synergies efficiently...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniela Giordano, Kevin E Draves, Lucy B Young, Kelsey Roe, Marianne A Bryan, Christiane Dresch, Justin M Richner, Michael S Diamond, Michael Gale, Edward A Clark
B cell activating factor receptor (BAFFR)-/- mice have a profound reduction in mature B cells, but unlike μMT mice, they have normal numbers of newly formed, immature B cells. Using a West Nile virus (WNV) challenge model that requires antibodies (Abs) for protection, we found that unlike wild-type (WT) mice, BAFFR-/- mice were highly susceptible to WNV and succumbed to infection within 8 to 12 days after subcutaneous virus challenge. Although mature B cell were required to protect against lethal infection, infected BAFFR-/- mice had reduced WNV E-specific IgG responses and neutralizing Abs...
November 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Cong-Cong Tang, Yu Tian, Heng Liang, Wei Zuo, Zhen-Wei Wang, Jun Zhang, Zhang-Wei He
This study proposed a potential strategy for enhancement of nutrients removal from domestic wastewater by adding algae to sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) to form a novel algal-bacterial symbiosis (ABS) system. Results indicated that the algae-assisted SBBR increased the total nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies from 38.5% to 65.8%, and from 31.9% to 89.3%, respectively. The carriers fixed at the top of the reactor were favorable for both formation of ABS system and algae enrichment. The chlorophyll-a increased to 3...
November 11, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Teresa R Franklin, Kanchana Jagannathan, Nathan Hager, Zhuo Fang, Sihua Xu, Joyce Wong, Anna Rose Childress, John A Detre, Hengyi Rao, Reagan Wetherill
INTRODUCTION: Research indicates that overnight nicotine abstinence disrupts neural activity in the mesocorticolimbic reward network; however, less is known about the time course of abstinence-induced brain changes. To examine the potential neural effects of early abstinence, we used arterial spin labeling perfusion fMRI, to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in the resting brain induced by 4h of nicotine abstinence. METHODS: In a repeated measures design, 5min of resting perfusion fMRI data were acquired in awake nicotine-dependent individuals (eyes open) during 'smoking as usual' (SMK) and following 4h of monitored nicotine abstinence (ABS) conditions (N=20)...
November 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Daniel Himmel, Valentin Radtke, Burkhard Butschke, Ingo Krossing
We report on a unified view on Brønsted acidity introduced by our group in this journal in 2010, its perception in the view of a synthetic/materials chemist contrasted by that of a physical or a theoretical chemist, and the discrepancy between both views. For this purpose, we provide a brief overview of the concepts acidity, acid strengths, and pH value, including problems, proposed solutions, and the pH_abs/pH_abs^H2O scale as a unifying concept developed in our group. Thereafter, we give some examples for accessibility and applications of unified pH_abs values...
November 24, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Shuya Liu, Zhiming Yu, Xiuxian Song, Xihua Cao
Among the strategies for treating harmful algal blooms, flocculation using modified clay (MC) has been widely applied in the field. This paper studied the mitigation of MC on Amphidinium carterae Hulburt, finding that MC could not only effectively remove A. carterae, but also affect the physiological activities of the residual algae and inhibit their normal growth. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the residual algae significantly increased compared with the control, indicating that MC stimulated the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in algal cells...
December 2017: Harmful Algae
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