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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922594/dose-dependent-response-to-3-nitrobenzanthrone-exposure-in-human-urothelial-cancer-cells
#1
Mario Pink, Nisha Verma, Anna Zerries, Simone Schmitz-Spanke
A product of incomplete combustion of diesel fuel, 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), has been classified as a cancer-causing substance. It first gained attention as a potential urinary bladder carcinogen due to the presence of its metabolite in urine and formation of DNA adducts. The aim of the present study was to characterise the dose-response relationship of 3-NBA in human urothelial cancer cell line (RT4) exposed to concentrations ranging from 0.0003 µM (environmentally relevant) to 80 µM by utilising toxicological and metabolomic approaches...
September 18, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921948/baf180-its-roles-in-dna-repair-and-consequences-in-cancer
#2
Sarah Hopson, Martin J Thompson
In 2011, Varela et al. reported that the PBRM1 gene is mutated in approximately 40% of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases. Since then, the number of studies relating PBRM1 mutations to cancers has substantially increased. BAF180 has now been linked to more than 30 types of cancers, including ccRCC, cholangiocarcinomas, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, and breast cancer. The mutations associated with BAF180 are most often truncations, which result in loss of protein expression. This loss has been shown to adversely affect the expression of genes, likely because BAF180 is the chromatin recognition subunit of PBAF...
September 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921833/guideline-of-guidelines-asymptomatic-microscopic-haematuria
#3
REVIEW
Brian J Linder, Edward J Bass, Hugh Mostafid, Stephen A Boorjian
OBJECTIVE: To review major organizational guidelines on the evaluation and management of asymptomatic microscopic haematuria (AMH). METHODS: This is a review of the haematuria guidelines from 1.) American Urological Association (AUA), 2.) consensus statement from the Canadian Urological Association, Canadian Urologic Oncology Group, and Bladder Cancer Canada, 3.) American College of Physicians (ACP), 4.) Joint Consensus Statement of the Renal Association (RA) and British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS), and 5...
September 16, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920525/can-urologists-accurately-stage-and-grade-urothelial-bladder-cancer-by-assessing-endoscopic-photographs
#4
Snir Dekalo, Haim Matzkin, Nicola J Mabjeesh
Introduction Assessment of urothelial bladder cancer during cystoscopy or transurethral resection of bladder tumour has a significant impact on the urologist's decision-making: treatment with simple outpatient fulguration, required depth of resection, and need of immediate post-surgical intravesical therapy. These choices depend heavily on the urologist's ability to accurately assess pre-biopsy tumour stage and grade. The aim of the study was to determine whether evaluation of photographs taken during transurethral resection of bladder tumour can reliably characterize a tumour's stage and grade...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919521/treatment-patterns-and-survival-outcomes-for-patients-with-small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-bladder
#5
Benjamin W Fischer-Valuck, Yuan James Rao, Lauren E Henke, Soumon Rudra, Caressa Hui, Brian C Baumann, Hiram A Gay, Jeff M Michalski
BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCaB) is a rare tumor without a standard treatment algorithm. Treatment patterns and survival outcomes from the National Cancer Database (NCDB) may provide insight into optimal treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between overall survival (OS) and treatment strategy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was an observational study of treatment-naïve patients who received treatment from 2004 to 2013...
September 14, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917711/crocodiles-and-alligators-antiamoebic-and-antitumor-compounds-of-crocodiles
#6
Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Shareni Jeyamogan, Salwa Mansoor Ali, Fatima Abbas, K A Sagathevan, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Crocodiles exist in unsanitary environments, feed on rotten meat, are often exposed to heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead, selenium, tolerate high levels of radiation, and are amid the very few species to survive the catastrophic Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event, nonetheless they can live for up to a 100 years. Moreover, as they live in unhygienic conditions, they regularly come across pathogens. Logically, we postulate that crocodiles have established mechanisms to defend themselves from noxious agents as well as protecting themselves from pathogens...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917596/response-rate-to-chemotherapy-after-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-metastatic-urothelial-cancer
#7
Bernadett Szabados, Nick van Dijk, Yen Zhi Tang, Michiel van der Heijden, Akhila Wimalasingham, Alfonso Gomez de Liano, Simon Chowdhury, Simon Hughes, Sarah Rudman, Mark Linch, Thomas Powles
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are active in metastatic urothelial carcinoma (MUC). They have joined chemotherapy (CT) as a standard of care. Here, we investigate the activity of CT after progression on ICIs. Two cohorts of sequential patients with MUC were described (n=28). Cohort A received first-line ICIs followed by CT after progression. Cohort B received CT after failure of first-line platinum-based CT followed by ICIs. Response rate (RR) to CT was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST v1...
September 13, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917544/effects-on-the-incidence-of-cardiovascular-events-of-the-addition-of-pioglitazone-versus-sulfonylureas-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-inadequately-controlled-with-metformin-tosca-it-a-randomised-multicentre-trial
#8
Olga Vaccaro, Maria Masulli, Antonio Nicolucci, Enzo Bonora, Stefano Del Prato, Aldo P Maggioni, Angela A Rivellese, Sebastiano Squatrito, Carlo B Giorda, Giorgio Sesti, Paolo Mocarelli, Giuseppe Lucisano, Michele Sacco, Stefano Signorini, Fabrizio Cappellini, Gabriele Perriello, Anna Carla Babini, Annunziata Lapolla, Giovanna Gregori, Carla Giordano, Laura Corsi, Raffaella Buzzetti, Gennaro Clemente, Graziano Di Cianni, Rossella Iannarelli, Renzo Cordera, Olga La Macchia, Chiara Zamboni, Cristiana Scaranna, Massimo Boemi, Ciro Iovine, Davide Lauro, Sergio Leotta, Elisabetta Dall'Aglio, Emanuela Cannarsa, Laura Tonutti, Giuseppe Pugliese, Antonio C Bossi, Roberto Anichini, Francesco Dotta, Antonino Di Benedetto, Giuseppe Citro, Daniela Antenucci, Lucia Ricci, Francesco Giorgino, Costanza Santini, Agostino Gnasso, Salvatore De Cosmo, Donatella Zavaroni, Monica Vedovato, Agostino Consoli, Maria Calabrese, Paolo di Bartolo, Paolo Fornengo, Gabriele Riccardi
BACKGROUND: The best treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes in whom treatment with metformin alone fails to achieve adequate glycaemic control is debated. We aimed to compare the long-term effects of pioglitazone versus sulfonylureas, given in addition to metformin, on cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: TOSCA.IT was a multicentre, randomised, pragmatic clinical trial, in which patients aged 50-75 years with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy (2-3 g per day) were recruited from 57 diabetes clinics in Italy...
September 12, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916862/monitoring-the-response-of-urothelial-precancerous-lesions-to-bacillus-calmette-guerin-at-the-proteome-level-in-an-in-vivo-rat-model
#9
Kerem Teke, Nil Guzel, Ali Kemal Uslubas, Murat Kasap, Hasan Yilmaz, Gurler Akpinar, Demir Kursat Yildiz, Ozdal Dillioglugil
Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the best treatment modality for progression of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. We aimed to monitor changes at the proteome level to identify putative protein biomarkers associated with the response of urothelial precancerous lesions to intravesical BCG treatment. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 10/group): control, non-treated, and BCG-treated groups. The non-treated and BCG-treated groups received N-methyl-N-nitrosourea intravesically. BCG Tice-strain was instilled into bladder in BCG-treated group...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916750/comprehensive-multiregional-analysis-of-molecular-heterogeneity-in-bladder-cancer
#10
Mathilde Borg Houlberg Thomsen, Iver Nordentoft, Philippe Lamy, Søren Vang, Line Reinert, Christophe Kamungu Mapendano, Søren Høyer, Torben F Ørntoft, Jørgen Bjerggaard Jensen, Lars Dyrskjøt
Genetic alterations identified in adjacent normal appearing tissue in bladder cancer patients are indicative of a field disease. Here we assessed normal urothelium transformation and intra-tumour heterogeneity (ITH) in four patients with bladder cancer. Exome sequencing identified private acquired mutations in a lymph node metastasis and local recurrences. Deep re-sequencing revealed presence of at least three and four subclones in two patients with multifocal disease, while no demarcation of subclones was identified in the two patients with unifocal disease...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916273/identification-of-recurrence-sites-following-post-prostatectomy-treatment-for-prostate-cancer-using-11-c-choline-positron-emission-tomography-and-multiparametric-pelvic-mri
#11
Avinash Nehra, William P Parker, Rimki Haloi, Sean S Park, Lance A Mynderse, Val J Lowe, Brian J Davis, J Fernando Quevedo, Geoffrey B Johnson, Eugene D Kwon, R Jeffrey Karnes
PURPOSE: To describe anatomic sites of recurrence among prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy (RP) and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and/or androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) using (11)C-Choline PET/CT and multiparametric-MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RP patients evaluated with (11)C-Choline PET/CT and multiparametric-MRI following RT and/or ADT were evaluated for patterns of recurrence and clinicopathologic features...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916254/development-of-a-natural-language-processing-engine-to-generate-bladder-cancer-pathology-data-for-health-services-research
#12
Florian R Schroeck, Olga V Patterson, Patrick R Alba, Erik A Pattison, John D Seigne, Scott L DuVall, Douglas J Robertson, Brenda Sirovich, Philip P Goodney
OBJECTIVE: To take a first step towards assembling population based cohorts of bladder cancer patients with longitudinal pathology data, we developed and validated a natural language processing (NLP) engine that abstracts pathology data from full text pathology reports. METHODS: Using 600 bladder pathology reports randomly selected from the Department of Veterans Affairs, we developed and validated an NLP engine to abstract data on histology, invasion (presence versus absence and depth), grade, presence of muscularis propria, and presence of carcinoma in situ...
September 12, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916253/the-place-of-transanal-endoscopic-surgery-in-the-treatment-of-recto-urethral-fistula
#13
X Serra-Aracil, M Labro-Ciurans, L Mora-Lopez, J Muñoz-Rodriguez, R Martos-Calvo, J Prats-López, S Navarro-Soto
OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of TEO/TEM in recto-urethral fistulas (RUF). RUF may appear after radical prostatectomy. Their treatment represents a challenge; many therapies have been proposed, from conservative to aggressive surgical approaches. Transanal endoscopic surgery (TEO/TEM) is a minimally invasive technique to access the site of the RUF to perform repair. METHODS: Observational study with prospective data collection, conducted between September 2006 and December 2015...
September 12, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915710/insights-from-animal-models-of-bladder-cancer-recent-advances-challenges-and-opportunities
#14
REVIEW
Bincy Anu John, Neveen Said
Bladder cancer (urothelial cancer of the bladder) is the most common malignancy affecting the urinary system with increasing incidence and mortality. Treatment of bladder cancer has not advanced in the past 30 years. Therefore, there is a crucial unmet need for novel therapies, especially for high grade/stage disease that can only be achieved by preclinical model systems that faithfully recapitulate the human disease. Animal models are essential elements in bladder cancer research to comprehensively study the multistep cascades of carcinogenesis, progression and metastasis...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915699/biological-effects-and-epidemiological-consequences-of-arsenic-exposure-and-reagents-that-can-ameliorate-arsenic-damage-in-vivo
#15
REVIEW
Chinthalapally V Rao, Sanya Pal, Altaf Mohammed, Mudassir Farooqui, Mark P Doescher, Adam S Asch, Hiroshi Y Yamada
Through contaminated diet, water, and other forms of environmental exposure, arsenic affects human health. There are many U.S. and worldwide "hot spots" where the arsenic level in public water exceeds the maximum exposure limit. The biological effects of chronic arsenic exposure include generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage, epigenetic DNA modification, induction of genomic instability, and inflammation and immunomodulation, all of which can initiate carcinogenesis...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915630/casp8-652-6n-insertion-deletion-polymorphism-and-overall-cancer-risk-evidence-from-49-studies
#16
Jiarong Cai, Qingjian Ye, Suling Luo, Ze Zhuang, Kui He, Zhen-Jian Zhuo, Xiaochun Wan, Juan Cheng
The CASP8 -652 6N insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism reduces expression of caspase 8. We conducted a meta-analysis to clarify the relationship between this polymorphism and cancer risk. Eligible articles were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, and WANFANG databases through February 2017. A total of 33 articles with 49 studies, including 33,494 cases and 36,397 controls, were analyzed. We found that the CASP8 -652 6N ins/del polymorphism was associated with decreased overall cancer risk in five genetic models [DD vs...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915599/copy-number-variations-of-circulating-cell-free-dna-in-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-bladder-patients-treated-with-radical-cystectomy-a-prospective-study
#17
Armin Soave, Felix K-H Chun, Timo Hillebrand, Michael Rink, Lars Weisbach, Bettina Steinbach, Margit Fisch, Klaus Pantel, Heidi Schwarzenbach
The aim of the present study was to establish a rapid profiling method using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and characterize copy number variations (CNV) in circulating, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in 85 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC). MLPA was tested for the use of cfDNA extracted from serum and plasma by various commercial extraction kits. Eighteen probes served as reference to control denaturation, ligation and amplification efficiency...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914998/clinicopathological-characteristics-of-distant-metastases-of-adenocarcinoma-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-urothelial-carcinoma-an-autopsy-study-of-older-japanese-patients
#18
Yoko Matsuda, Atsuko Seki, Keisuke Nonaka, Mototsune Kakizaki, Tan Wang, Junko Aida, Naoshi Ishikawa, Yuta Nakano, Daita Kaneda, Tadayuki Takata, Junko Takahashi-Fujigasaki, Shigeo Murayama, Kaiyo Takubo, Toshiyuki Ishiwata, Motoji Sawabe, Tomio Arai
AIM: We aimed to clarify the characteristics of malignancies in older adults focusing on distant metastasis in the whole body. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 7710 cases of autopsies (4011 men, 3699 women, median age of 80 years), and analyzed the characteristics of metastasis of adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma in each organ. RESULTS: The total number of cases with adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or urothelial carcinoma was 2856, and most of them were adenocarcinomas...
September 15, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914192/current-trends-in-cancer-biomarker-discovery-using-urinary-metabolomics-achievements-and-new-challenges
#19
Casey Burton, Yinfa Ma
The development of effective screening methods for early cancer detection is one of the foremost challenges facing modern cancer research. Urinary metabolomics has recently emerged as a potentially transformative approach to cancer biomarker discovery owing to its noninvasive sampling characteristics and robust analytical feasibility. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of new developments in urinary metabolomics, cover the most promising aspects of hyphenated techniques in untargeted and targeted metabolomics, and to discuss technical and clinical limitations in addition to the emerging challenges in the field of urinary metabolomics and its application to cancer biomarker discovery...
September 13, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913657/radical-cystectomy-for-recurrent-urothelial-carcinoma-after-prior-partial-cystectomy-perioperative-and-oncologic-outcomes
#20
Ross J Mason, Igor Frank, Bimal Bhindi, Matthew K Tollefson, R Houston Thompson, R Jeffrey Karnes, Robert Tarrell, Prabin Thapa, Stephen A Boorjian
PURPOSE: To evaluate perioperative and oncologic outcomes of patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) for recurrence of urothelial carcinoma (UC) after prior partial cystectomy (PC), and to compare these outcomes to patients undergoing primary RC. METHODS: Patients who underwent RC for recurrence of UC after prior PC were matched 1:3 to patients undergoing primary RC based on age, pathologic stage, and decade of surgery. Perioperative and oncologic outcomes were compared using Wilcoxon sign-rank test, McNemars test, the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses...
September 14, 2017: World Journal of Urology
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