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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298727/mandatory-vaccination-understanding-the-common-good-in-the-midst-of-the-global-polio-eradication-campaign
#1
Lawrence O Gostin
BACKGROUND: The detection of wild poliovirus in Israeli sewage in May 2013 led the health authorities to vaccinate children with OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine). Shelly Kamin-Friedman explored the legal and ethical dimensions of this policy. This commentary makes three claims: (1) Mandatory vaccination is a valid exercise of the state's police powers to protect the common good. (2) A disease eradication campaign is a sufficient ground for the exercise of those powers. (3) The state is obliged to use the least restrictive/invasive measure to achieve community-wide vaccine coverage, but need not use less effective measures; further, determining which measure is most effective is a fact-specific determination...
January 3, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289932/vaccination-marketing-by-private-healthcare-sector-glaring-malpractices
#2
Vipin Vashistha
The editorial by Jesani and Johari in this journal raises some contentious yet relevant ethical issues pertaining to vaccination practices in India. Vaccination is one of the most important preventive measures against infectious diseases. The eradication of smallpox in the 70s and near eradication of polio are testimony to this. The Government of India (GoI) has recently added a few new vaccines in its Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP), one of the largest public health programmes across the globe. The number of vaccines delivered through this public health programme has doubled from six in 1985 to twelve in 2017...
December 21, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287587/simulations-for-designing-and-interpreting-intervention-trials-in-infectious-diseases
#3
M Elizabeth Halloran, Kari Auranen, Sarah Baird, Nicole E Basta, Steven E Bellan, Ron Brookmeyer, Ben S Cooper, Victor DeGruttola, James P Hughes, Justin Lessler, Eric T Lofgren, Ira M Longini, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, Berk Özler, George R Seage, Thomas A Smith, Alessandro Vespignani, Emilia Vynnycky, Marc Lipsitch
BACKGROUND: Interventions in infectious diseases can have both direct effects on individuals who receive the intervention as well as indirect effects in the population. In addition, intervention combinations can have complex interactions at the population level, which are often difficult to adequately assess with standard study designs and analytical methods. DISCUSSION: Herein, we urge the adoption of a new paradigm for the design and interpretation of intervention trials in infectious diseases, particularly with regard to emerging infectious diseases, one that more accurately reflects the dynamics of the transmission process...
December 29, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229654/protocol-for-developing-a-database-of-zoonotic-disease-research-in-india-dozoori
#4
Pranab Chatterjee, Soumyadeep Bhaumik, Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan, Manish Kakkar
INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) represent a public health threat that has been acknowledged only recently although they have been on the rise for the past several decades. On an average, every year since the Second World War, one pathogen has emerged or re-emerged on a global scale. Low/middle-income countries such as India bear a significant burden of zoonotic and EIDs. We propose that the creation of a database of published, peer-reviewed research will open up avenues for evidence-based policymaking for targeted prevention and control of zoonoses...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183413/pathogens-collections-biobanks-and-related-data-in-a-one-health-legal-and-ethical-perspective
#5
Claire Lajaunie, Calvin Wai-Loon Ho
Research on emerging infectious diseases calls for a work on collections of pathogens (including hosts or vectors from which the pathogens were isolated), related to human and animal health, to wildlife or on the environmental material. In this respect, the adoption of a One Health perspective is determined by the need for a common approach to consider the collection, storage and use of pathogens coming from human or non-human sources, and particularly when the same pathogen is taken from different environments...
November 29, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162320/controlled-human-infections-a-report-from-the-controlled-human-infection-models-workshop-leiden-university-medical-centre-4-6-may-2016
#6
Meta Roestenberg, Annie Mo, Peter G Kremsner, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
The principle of deliberately infecting humans with infectious agents in a controlled setting, so-called controlled human infections (CHI), is not novel. Many CHI models have a long history and were established decades ago such as the intentional exposure to yellow fever and dengue performed in the 1900's (Reed, 1902) [2]. In these times bioethics and scientific reasoning were in their infancy. Nowadays, clinical trials are highly regulated and CHI are executed worldwide. Controlled human malaria infections and influenza infections are the two most frequently practiced...
November 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146711/ethics-health-policy-and-zika-from-emergency-to-global-epidemic
#7
Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Michael J Selgelid
Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health intervention and urgent scientific research, as well as ethical analysis as a vital element of policy design. In this paper, we summarise the major ethical issues raised during the Zika epidemic, highlighting the PAHO ethics guidance and the role of ethics in emergency responses, before turning to ethical issues that are yet to be resolved...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084290/exploring-differences-in-healthcare-utilization-of-prisoners-in-the-canton-of-vaud-switzerland
#8
Karine Moschetti, Véra Zabrodina, Pierre Stadelmann, Tenzin Wangmo, Alberto Holly, Jean-Blaise Wasserfallen, Bernice S Elger, Bruno Gravier
Prison healthcare is an important public health concern given the increasing healthcare needs of a growing and aging prison population, which accumulates vulnerability factors and suffers from higher disease prevalence than the general population. This study identifies the key factors associated with outpatient general practitioner (GP), nursing or psychiatric healthcare utilization (HCU) within prisons. Cross-sectional data systematically collected by the prison medical staff were obtained for a sample of 1664 adult prisoners of the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, for the year 2011...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071473/west-africa-2013-ebola-from-virus-outbreak-to-humanitarian-crisis
#9
Daniel G Bausch
The 2013 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa constituted a major humanitarian crisis. The outbreak numbered over 28,500 cases, more than 10 times the number cumulatively registered from all previous EVD outbreaks combined, with at least 11,000 deaths, and resulted in billions of dollars of lost economic growth to an already impoverished region. The unprecedented scale of West Africa 2013 took the world by surprise and laid bare deficiencies in our response capacity to complex humanitarian disasters of highly infectious and lethal pathogens...
October 26, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960624/talking-to-the-people-that-really-matter-about-their-participation-in-pandemic-clinical-research-a-qualitative-study-in-four-european-countries
#10
Nina H Gobat, Micaela Gal, Christopher C Butler, Steve A R Webb, Nicholas A Francis, Helen Stanton, Sibyl Anthierens, Hilde Bastiaens, Maciek Godycki-Ćwirko, Anna Kowalczyk, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Enriqueta Pujol-Ribera, Anna Berenguera, Angela Watkins, Prasanth Sukumar, Ronald G Moore, Kerenza Hood, Alistair Nichol
BACKGROUND: Pandemics of new and emerging infectious diseases are unpredictable, recurrent events that rapidly threaten global health and security. We aimed to identify public views regarding provision of information and consent to participate in primary and critical care clinical research during a future influenza-like illness pandemic. METHODS: Descriptive-interpretive qualitative study, using focus groups (n = 10) and semi-structured interviews (n = 16), with 80 members of the public (>18 years) in Belgium, Spain, Poland and the UK...
September 27, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949838/the-interactions-of-canadian-ethics-consultants-with-health-care-managers-and-governing-boards-during-times-of-crisis
#11
Chris Kaposy, Victor Maddalena, Fern Brunger, Daryl Pullman, Richard Singleton
BACKGROUND: Health care organizations can be very complex, and are often the setting for crisis situations. In recent years, Canadian health care organizations have faced large-scale systemic medical errors, a nation-wide generic injectable drug shortage, iatrogenic infectious disease outbreaks, and myriad other crises. These situations often have an ethical component that ethics consultants may be able to address. Organizational leaders such as health care managers and governing boards have responsibilities to oversee and direct the response to crisis situations...
April 2017: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946911/ethical-challenges-for-international-collaborative-research-partnerships-in-the-context-of-the-zika-outbreak-in-the-dominican-republic-a-qualitative-case-study
#12
Julio Arturo Canario Guzmán, Roberto Espinal, Jeannette Báez, Ricardo Elias Melgen, Patricia Antonia Pérez Rosario, Eddys Rafael Mendoza
BACKGROUND: The establishment of international collaborative research partnerships in times of infectious disease outbreaks of international importance has been considered an ethical imperative. Frail health research systems in low- and middle-income countries can be an obstacle to achieve the goal of knowledge generation and the search for health equity before, during and after infectious disease outbreaks. METHODS: A qualitative case study was conducted to identify the challenges and opportunities facing the Dominican Republic with regards to developing international collaborative research partnerships in the context of the Zika outbreak and its ethical implications...
September 25, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929347/an-ethical-assessment-model-for-digital-disease-detection-technologies
#13
Kerstin Denecke
Digital epidemiology, also referred to as digital disease detection (DDD), successfully provided methods and strategies for using information technology to support infectious disease monitoring and surveillance or understand attitudes and concerns about infectious diseases. However, Internet-based research and social media usage in epidemiology and healthcare pose new technical, functional and formal challenges. The focus of this paper is on the ethical issues to be considered when integrating digital epidemiology with existing practices...
September 20, 2017: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904791/brucellosis-in-livestock-and-wildlife-zoonotic-diseases-without-pandemic-potential-in-need-of-innovative-one-health-approaches
#14
Jacques Godfroid
Human brucellosis remains the commonest zoonotic disease worldwide with more than 500 000 new cases annually. Understanding the biology of Brucella infections and the transmission patterns at the wildlife/livestock/human interface is of paramount importance before implementing any brucellosis control or eradication program in animals, even more so should interventions be justified within One Health. In addition to calling for transdisciplinary collaboration, One Health formally aims to conserve the environment and to promote the well-being of animals...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893741/prevention-and-assessment-of-infectious-diseases-among-children-and-adult-migrants-arriving-to-the-european-union-european-economic-association-a-protocol-for-a-suite-of-systematic-reviews-for-public-health-and-health-systems
#15
Kevin Pottie, Alain D Mayhew, Rachael L Morton, Christina Greenaway, Elie A Akl, Prinon Rahman, Dominik Zenner, Manish Pareek, Peter Tugwell, Vivian Welch, Joerg Meerpohl, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Charles Hui, Beverley-Ann Biggs, Ana Requena-Méndez, Eric Agbata, Teymur Noori, Holger J Schünemann
INTRODUCTION: The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control is developing evidence-based guidance for voluntary screening, treatment and vaccine prevention of infectious diseases for newly arriving migrants to the European Union/European Economic Area. The objective of this systematic review protocol is to guide the identification, appraisal and synthesis of the best available evidence on prevention and assessment of the following priority infectious diseases: tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis (polio), Haemophilus influenza disease, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885366/acute-vanishing-bile-duct-syndrome-after-therapy-with-cephalosporin-metronidazole-and-clotrimazole-a-case-report
#16
Zonghao Zhao, Lei Bao, Xiaolan Yu, Chuanlong Zhu, Jing Xu, Yu Wang, Ming Yin, Yi Li, Wenting Li
RATIONALE: Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) consists of a series of diseases characterized by the loss of >50% bile duct in portal areas. Many factors are associated with VBDS including infections, neoplasms, and drugs. Antibiotic is one of the most frequently reported causes of VBDS. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 29-year-old female was admitted because of liver injury for over 3 months. Tests for viruses that can cause hepatitis and autoantibodies were all negative...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859347/a-hospital-based-committee-of-moral-philosophy-to-revive-ethics
#17
Margaux Illy, Pierre Le Coz, Jean-Louis Mege
The Méditerranée Infection Foundation's primary goal is supporting a research hospital for the treatment of infectious diseases in Marseille. The main objective of this innovative center is to understand the mechanisms of contagion and face them. The Foundation will include a committee on moral philosophy that will accompany and supervise biomedical research. This is not a conventional ethics committee, frequently giving rise to a board's bureaucratic excesses, which might slow down creative biomedical clinical research without necessarily restricting abuses...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854138/health-communication-in-the-time-of-ebola-a-culture-centered-interrogation
#18
Shaunak Sastry, Mohan J Dutta
This brief essay is a commentary on how critical health communication theory can contribute to an understanding of the cultural dynamics of infectious disease pandemics. In particular, we focus on a specific trajectory of health communication theorizing-the culture-centered approach-and its heuristic and pragmatic utility in enhancing knowledge about public health crises like infectious disease outbreaks. In the backdrop of the mobilizations against the 2014 Ebola virus disease epidemic in the 3 West African nations of Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, indigenous cultural practices were construed as pathogenic and local agency of affected communities disregarded, even as the global risks of the epidemic were highlighted...
2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830109/mind-the-scales-harnessing-spatial-big-data-for-infectious-disease-surveillance-and-inference
#19
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Lee, Jason M Asher, Sandra Goldlust, John D Kraemer, Andrew B Lawson, Shweta Bansal
Spatial big data have the velocity, volume, and variety of big data sources and contain additional geographic information. Digital data sources, such as medical claims, mobile phone call data records, and geographically tagged tweets, have entered infectious diseases epidemiology as novel sources of data to complement traditional infectious disease surveillance. In this work, we provide examples of how spatial big data have been used thus far in epidemiological analyses and describe opportunities for these sources to improve disease-mitigation strategies and public health coordination...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830104/connecting-mobility-to-infectious-diseases-the-promise-and-limits-of-mobile-phone-data
#20
REVIEW
Amy Wesolowski, Caroline O Buckee, Kenth Engø-Monsen, C J E Metcalf
Human travel can shape infectious disease dynamics by introducing pathogens into susceptible populations or by changing the frequency of contacts between infected and susceptible individuals. Quantifying infectious disease-relevant travel patterns on fine spatial and temporal scales has historically been limited by data availability. The recent emergence of mobile phone calling data and associated locational information means that we can now trace fine scale movement across large numbers of individuals. However, these data necessarily reflect a biased sample of individuals across communities and are generally aggregated for both ethical and pragmatic reasons that may further obscure the nuance of individual and spatial heterogeneities...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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