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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898673/towards-equity-in-health-researchers-take-stock
#1
EDITORIAL
Annette Rid, Michael A Johansson, Gabriel Leung, Hannah Valantine, Esteban G Burchard, Sam S Oh, Cathy Zimmerman
For the 2016 end-of-the-year editorial, the PLOS Medicine editors asked 7 global health leaders to discuss developments relevant to the equitable provision of medical care to all populations. The result is a collection of expert views on ethical trial design, research during outbreaks, high-burden infectious diseases, diversity in research and protection of migrants.
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854532/twitter-as-a-tool-for-health-research-a-systematic-review
#2
Lauren Sinnenberg, Alison M Buttenheim, Kevin Padrez, Christina Mancheno, Lyle Ungar, Raina M Merchant
BACKGROUND: Researchers have used traditional databases to study public health for decades. Less is known about the use of social media data sources, such as Twitter, for this purpose. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the use of Twitter in health research, define a taxonomy to describe Twitter use, and characterize the current state of Twitter in health research. SEARCH METHODS: We performed a literature search in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and CINAHL through September 2015...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848225/-science-in-a-crisis-medical-countermeasures-in-ebola-virus-disease-2016-lessons-learned-and-perspectives
#3
D Malvy
In 2013, the world began to witness an unprecedented Ebola epidemic in West Africa that was smoldering by early 2016. Under this urgent circumstance, the global scientific community organized and made progress in identifying potential preventive countermeasures and therapeutics and accelerated the development of those promising interventions. Trials of experimental interventions soon emerged as a key component of the global response. Hence, an interdisciplinary issue ensued concerning how best to assess clinical safety and effectiveness of potential interventions prior to or concurrent with their broad use in humans...
October 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790290/culling-and-the-common-good-re-evaluating-harms-and-benefits-under-the-one-health-paradigm
#4
Chris Degeling, Zohar Lederman, Melanie Rock
One Health (OH) is a novel paradigm that recognizes that human and non-human animal health is interlinked through our shared environment. Increasingly prominent in public health responses to zoonoses, OH differs from traditional approaches to animal-borne infectious risks, because it also aims to promote the health of animals and ecological systems. Despite the widespread adoption of OH, culling remains a key component of institutional responses to the risks of zoonoses. Using the threats posed by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses to human and animal health, economic activity and food security as a case exemplar, we explore whether culling and other standard control measures for animal-borne infectious disease might be justified as part of OH approaches...
November 2016: Public Health Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743440/migrants-health-in-iran-from-the-perspective-of-social-justice-a-systematic-literature-review
#5
Ehsan Shamsi Gooshki, Raheleh Rezaei, Verina Wild
This paper presents a systematic literature review of studies that shed light on the health of migrants in Iran from the perspective of social justice. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Iranian databases, including IranMedex, Magiran, and SID, in June 2012. All studies that were published until June 2012 describing the health status of migrants - including refugees - in Iran were included. The search results were categorisoyed according to an adapted version of the six dimensions of well-being in Madison Powers' and Ruth Faden's theory of social justice in health...
October 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626913/is-it-time-for-vaccination-to-go-viral
#6
Roy K Philip, Marla Shapiro, Pauline Paterson, Steffen Glismann, Pierre Van Damme
To promote and sustain excellent vaccination coverage, while preserving the key core values of ethics, truth, transparency, and trust, the vaccine community should adopt modern digital communication strategies. This article summarizes our views - as experts in multidisciplinary field of vaccinology, which were presented at a satellite symposium held at the 33 European Society of Paediatric Infectious Disease (ESPID) conference in Leipzig, Germany, in May 2015. This article aims to suggest and recommend strategies to promote vaccination awareness and highlight proactive measures for building, maintaining, and enhancing trust in vaccination through innovative communication and evidence-based interaction with the end-user...
September 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584854/infectious-disease-physicians-perceptions-about-ebola-preparedness-early-in-the-us-response-a-qualitative-analysis-and-lessons-for-the-future
#7
Scott Santibañez, Philip M Polgreen, Susan E Beekmann, Mark E Rupp, Carlos Del Rio
On September 30, 2014, the first US patient with Ebola virus disease was diagnosed. Hospitals and healthcare systems identified many complex issues that needed to be addressed to prepare for possible future outbreaks. Here we summarize themes identified in free text responses from a query of infectious disease physicians from the Infectious Disease Society of America's (IDSA) Emerging Infections Network (EIN) early in the domestic Ebola response and place them into the context of biopreparedness for possible future events...
September 2016: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573087/medical-versus-nonmedical-immunization-exemptions-for-child-care-and-school-attendance
#8
(no author information available yet)
Routine childhood immunizations against infectious diseases are an integral part of our public health infrastructure. They provide direct protection to the immunized individual and indirect protection to children and adults unable to be immunized via the effect of community immunity. All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have regulations requiring proof of immunization for child care and school attendance as a public health strategy to protect children in these settings and to secondarily serve as a mechanism to promote timely immunization of children by their caregivers...
September 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525701/the-theoretical-construction-of-a-classification-of-clinical-somatic-symptoms-in-psychosomatic-medicine-theory
#9
Fanmin Zeng, Xueli Sun, Bangxiang Yang, Hong Shen, Ling Liu
OBJECTIVE: This article adopts the perspective of psychosomatic medicine to present and test a theoretical model of the classification of clinical somatic symptoms. The theoretical model consists of four dimensions: emotional somatic symptoms, biological somatic symptoms, imaginative somatic symptoms, and cognitive somatic symptoms. METHOD: A clinical somatic symptom classification scale was developed according to the theoretical model. A total of 542 participants completed the clinical somatic symptoms classification scale...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497812/closing-the-evidence-gap-in-infectious-disease-point-of-care-randomization-and-informed-consent
#10
Angela Huttner, Leonard Leibovici, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Benedikt Huttner, Mical Paul
The informed consent document is intended to provide basic rights to patients but often fails to do so. Patients' autonomy may be diminished by virtue of their illness; evidence shows that even patients who appear to be ideal candidates for understanding and granting informed consent rarely are-particularly those with acute infections. We argue that, for low-risk trials whose purpose is to evaluate non-experimental therapies or other measures toward which the medical community is in a state of equipoise, ethics committees should play a more active role in a more standardized fashion...
August 3, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473951/assessing-sex-differences-and-the-effect-of-timing-of-vaccination-on-immunogenicity-reactogenicity-and-efficacy-of-vaccines-in-young-children-study-protocol-for-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#11
Merryn Voysey, Andrew J Pollard, Rafael Perera, Thomas R Fanshawe
INTRODUCTION: Disease incidence differs between males and females for some infectious or inflammatory diseases. Sex-differences in immune responses to some vaccines have also been observed, mostly to viral vaccines in adults. Little evidence is available on whether sex-differences occur in response to immunisation in infancy even though this is the age group in which most vaccines are administered. Factors other than sex, such as timing or coadministration of other vaccines, can also influence the immune response to vaccination...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458074/inequality-and-ethics-in-paediatric-hiv-remission-research-from-mississippi-to-south-africa-and-back
#12
Johanna T Crane, Theresa M Rossouw
In 2013, physician-researchers announced that a baby in Mississippi had been 'functionally cured' of HIV [Persaud, D., Gay, H., Ziemniak, C. F., Chen, Y. H., Piatak, M., Chun, T.-W., … Luzuriaga, K. (2013b, March). Functional HIV cure after very early ART of an infected infant. Paper presented at the 20th conference on retroviruses and opportunistic infections, Atlanta, GA]. Though the child later developed a detectable viral load, the case remains unprecedented, and trials to build on the findings are planned [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...
July 25, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428063/deworming-delusions-mass-drug-administration-in-east-african-schools
#13
Tim Allen, Melissa Parker
Recent debates about deworming school-aged children in East Africa have been described as the 'Worm Wars'. The stakes are high. Deworming has become one of the top priorities in the fight against infectious diseases. Staff at the World Health Organization, the Gates Foundation and the World Bank (among other institutions) have endorsed the approach, and school-based treatments are a key component of large-scale mass drug administration programmes. Drawing on field research in Uganda and Tanzania, and engaging with both biological and social evidence, this article shows that assertions about the effects of school-based deworming are over-optimistic...
September 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417867/beyond-primates-research-protections-and-animal-moral-value
#14
Rebecca L Walker
Should monkeys be used in painful and often deadly infectious disease research that may save many human lives? This is the challenging question that Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin G. Miller take on in their carefully argued and compelling article "The Ethics of Infection Challenges in Primates." The authors offer a nuanced and even-handed position that takes philosophical worries about nonhuman primate moral status seriously and still appreciates the very real value of such research for human welfare...
July 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406638/randomised-controlled-trial-testing-the-effect-of-cotrimoxazole-prophylaxis-on-morbidity-and-mortality-outcomes-in-breastfed-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-study-protocol
#15
Anna Coutsoudis, Brodie Daniels, Eshia Moodley-Govender, Noluthando Ngomane, Linda Zako, Elizabeth Spooner, Photini Kiepiela, Shabashini Reddy, Louise Kuhn, Gita Ramjee
INTRODUCTION: No randomised controlled trial (RCT) has examined the efficacy of cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants during the breastfeeding period, in this new era of effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) prophylaxis. The efficacy of CTX prophylaxis has presently been demonstrated only in HIV-infected children. The absence of proven benefits in HEU breastfed infants associated with infectious diseases justifies an RCT as proposed...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362761/galleria-mellonella-as-a-model-host-for-microbiological-and-toxin-research
#16
Olivia L Champion, Sariqa Wagley, Richard W Titball
Mammals are widely used by microbiologists as a model host species to study infectious diseases of humans and domesticated livestock. These studies have been pivotal for our understanding of mechanisms of virulence and have allowed the development of diagnostics, pre-treatments and therapies for disease. However, over the past decade we have seen efforts to identify organisms which can be used as alternatives to mammals for these studies. The drivers for this are complex and multifactorial and include cost, ethical and scientific considerations...
October 2, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337474/west-africa-2013-re-examining-ebola
#17
Daniel G Bausch, Amanda Rojek
The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) that occurred from 2013 to 2016 in the West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, with imported cases to three neighboring African countries as well as to the United States and Europe, constituted a major humanitarian disaster. The outbreak numbered over 28,500 cases, more than 10 times the number cumulatively registered from all previous EVD outbreaks combined, with at least 11,000 deaths, and resulted in billions of dollars of lost economic growth to an already impoverished region...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284578/addressing-future-epidemics-historical-human-rights-lessons-from-the-aids-pandemic-understanding-human-rights-lessons-from-the-early-aids-pandemic-can-aid-policy-makers-in-addressing-future-epidemics-of-infectious-diseases
#18
Ambar Mehta, Thomas C Quinn
INTRODUCTION: The Ebola epidemic in West Africa sparked many ethical and polarizing public health questions on how to adequately control transmission of the virus. These deliberations had and will continue to influence patients, healthcare workers, public perceptions of disease, and governmental responses. Such extensive and potential ramifications warranted an analysis of prior epidemics to sufficiently inform policy makers and prepare them and other authorities for future epidemics...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235103/guidelines-for-risk-reduction-when-handling-gametes-from-infectious-patients-seeking-assisted-reproductive-technologies
#19
REVIEW
Sangita K Jindal, Richard G Rawlins, Charles H Muller, Erma Z Drobnis
According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), couples with blood-borne viruses that lead to infectious disease cannot be denied fertility treatment as long as the direct threat to the health and safety of others can be reduced or eliminated by a modification of policies or procedures. Three types of infectious patients are commonly discussed in the context of fertility treatment: those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C or hepatitis B. Seventy-five per cent of hepatitis C or HIV positive men and women are in their reproductive years, and these couples look to assisted reproductive techniques for risk reduction in conceiving a pregnancy...
August 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216828/factors-influencing-emergency-nurses-ethical-problems-during-the-outbreak-of-mers-cov
#20
Jeong-Sil Choi, Ji-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Whenever there has been a worldwide contagious disease outbreak, there have been reports of infection and death of healthcare workers. Particularly because emergency nurses have contact with patients on the front line, they experience ethical problems in nursing while struggling with infectious diseases in an unfavorable environment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore emergency nurses' ethical problems and to identify factors influencing these problems during the outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus in Korea...
May 23, 2016: Nursing Ethics
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