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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706038/improving-vaccine-trials-in-infectious-disease-emergencies
#1
REVIEW
Marc Lipsitch, Nir Eyal
Unprecedented global effort is under way to facilitate the testing of countermeasures in infectious disease emergencies. Better understanding of the various options for trial design is needed in advance of outbreaks, as is preliminary global agreement on the most suitable designs for the various scenarios. What would enhance the speed, validity, and ethics of clinical studies of such countermeasures? Focusing on studies of vaccine efficacy and effectiveness in emergencies, we highlight three needs: for formal randomized trials-even in most emergencies; for individually randomized trials-even in many emergencies; and for six areas of innovation in trial methodology...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662751/considerations-for-infectious-disease-research-studies-using-animals
#2
Lesley A Colby, Lauriane E Quenee, Lois A Zitzow
Animal models are vital in understanding the transmission and pathogenesis of infectious organisms and the host immune response to infection. In addition, animal models are essential in vaccine and therapeutic drug development and testing. Prior to selecting an animal model to use when studying an infectious agent, the scientific team must determine that sufficient in vitro and ex vivo data are available to justify performing research in an animal model, that ethical considerations are addressed, and that the data generated from animal work will add useful information to the body of scientific knowledge...
June 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617263/vaccine-hesitancy-parental-professional-and-public-responsibility
#3
Maria Luisa Di Pietro, Andrea Poscia, Adele Anna Teleman, Davide Maged, Walter Ricciardi
The opposition to vaccinations is a well-known phenomenon that dates back to the Victorian age when it was self-limited by the awareness of the importance to be protected against fearsome infectious diseases. In the XX century, the mass use of vaccination has - instead - consented to eradicate or drastically reduce the burden of diseases such as smallpox and polio. These positive effects of the vaccination campaigns have blurred out, if not erased, the memory of the tragic consequences of the past's widespread diseases, leading people to underestimate the severity of the harm that vaccinations prevent...
April 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604319/establishing-an-academic-biobank-in-a-resource-challenged-environment
#4
Cassandra Claire Soo, Freedom Mukomana, Scott Hazelhurst, Michele Ramsay
Past practices of informal sample collections and spreadsheets for data and sample management fall short of best-practice models for biobanking, and are neither cost effective nor efficient to adequately serve the needs of large research studies. The biobank of the Sydney Brenner Institute for Molecular Bioscience serves as a bioresource for institutional, national and international research collaborations. It provides high-quality human biospecimens from African populations, secure data and sample curation and storage, as well as monitored sample handling and management processes, to promote both non-communicable and infectious-disease research...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601833/targeted-simplification-versus-antipseudomonal-broad-spectrum-beta-lactams-in-patients-with-bloodstream-infections-due-to-enterobacteriaceae-simplify-a-study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-open-label-phase-iii-randomised-controlled-non-inferiority-clinical-trial
#5
Luis Eduardo López-Cortés, Clara Rosso-Fernández, María Núñez-Núñez, Lucía Lavín-Alconero, José Bravo-Ferrer, Ángel Barriga, Mercedes Delgado, Carmen Lupión, Pilar Retamar, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
INTRODUCTION: Within the context of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy is one of the proposed strategies for reducing the unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSA). The empirical treatment of nosocomial and some healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (BSI) frequently includes a beta-lactam with antipseudomonal activity as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs, so there is a great opportunity to optimise the empirical therapy based on microbiological data...
June 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556800/disease-prevention-an-opportunity-to-expand-edible-plant-based-vaccines
#6
REVIEW
Christopher Concha, Raúl Cañas, Johan Macuer, María José Torres, Andrés A Herrada, Fabiola Jamett, Cristian Ibáñez
The lethality of infectious diseases has decreased due to the implementation of crucial sanitary procedures such as vaccination. However, the resurgence of pathogenic diseases in different parts of the world has revealed the importance of identifying novel, rapid, and concrete solutions for control and prevention. Edible vaccines pose an interesting alternative that could overcome some of the constraints of traditional vaccines. The term "edible vaccine" refers to the use of edible parts of a plant that has been genetically modified to produce specific components of a particular pathogen to generate protection against a disease...
May 30, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527664/a-new-hdv-mouse-model-identifies-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-mavs-as-a-key-player-in-ifn-%C3%AE-induction
#7
Lester Suárez-Amarán, Carla Usai, Marianna Di Scala, Cristina Godoy, Yi Ni, Mirja Hommel, Laura Palomo, Víctor Segura, Cristina Olagüe, Africa Vales, Alicia Ruiz-Ripa, Maria Buti, Eduardo Salido, Jesús Prieto, Stephan Urban, Francisco Rodríguez-Frias, Rafael Aldabe, Gloria González-Aseguinolaza
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studying hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and developing new treatments is hampered by the limited availability of small animal models. Here a description of a robust mouse model of HDV infection that mimics several important characteristics of the human disease is presented. METHODS: HDV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication competent genomes were delivered to the mouse liver using adeno-associated viruses (AAV; AAV-HDV and AAV-HBV). Viral load, antigen expression and genomes were quantified at different time points after AAV injection...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455239/minimally-invasive-microbiopsies-a-novel-sampling-method-for-identifying-asymptomatic-potentially-infectious-carriers-of-leishmania-donovani
#8
Oscar David Kirstein, Ibrahim Abbasi, Ben Zion Horwitz, Laura Skrip, Asrat Hailu, Charles Jaffe, Lynlee L Li, Tarl W Prow, Alon Warburg
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially lethal, sand fly-borne disease caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the Leishmania donovani species complex. There are several adequate methods for diagnosing VL, but the majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic, comprising potential parasite reservoirs for transmission of the disease. The gold standard for assessing host infectiousness to biting vector insects is xenodiagnosis (i.e. scoring infection rates among insectary-reared insects that had fed on humans suspected of being infected)...
April 26, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399128/creation-of-an-immunodeficient-hla-transgenic-mouse-humamice-and-functional-validation-of-human-immunity-after-transfer-of-hla-matched-human-cells
#9
Yang Zeng, Bingrun Liu, Marie-Thérèse Rubio, Xinyue Wang, David M Ojcius, Ruoping Tang, Antoine Durrbach, Zhitao Ru, Yusen Zhou, Yu-Chun Lone
Research on human immunology has been hindered by the lack of optimal small animal models, given that the protective immune responses of human and non-human species show significant differences. However, due to ethical constraints[1] and the high cost of clinical trials, it is urgent to improve the current animal models that can mimic faithfully human physiology, particularly the human immune system (HIS). HIS mice had been generated recently by engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) or human peripheral mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) into highly immuno-deficient mice such as NSG, NOG or NRG mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391236/study-on-the-utility-of-a-statewide-counselling-programme-for-improving-mortality-outcomes-of-patients-with-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-in-thuringia-support-a-study-protocol-of-a-cluster-randomised-crossover-trial
#10
S Weis, S Hagel, R P H Schmitz, A Scherag, F M Brunkhorst, C Forstner, B Löffler, M W Pletz
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is a frequent infection with high mortality rates. It requires specific diagnostic and therapeutic management such as prolonged intravenous administration of antibiotics and aggressive search for and control of infectious sources. Underestimation of disease severity frequently results in delayed or inappropriate management of patients with SAB leading to increased mortality rates. According to observational studies, patient counselling by infectious disease consultants (IDC) improves survival and reduces the length of hospital stay as well as complication rates...
April 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343208/legal-features-of-the-drug-advertising
#11
REVIEW
Vitalii M Pashkov, Andrii A Olefir, Oleksiy Y Bytyak
INTRODUCTION: In the article discribed current trends of advertising in the pharmaceutical market and foreign experience of legal regulation of these relations. As for the advertising of medicines identified it's symptoms, types, basic rules and prohibitions. Modern pharmaceutical companies can not successfully carry out economic activities without advertising. Besides we can mention some fundamental changes in society (information overload, universal access to internet, social media, freedom of movement of goods, labor and finance), also self-medication becomes more popular...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288355/time-required-to-initiate-outbreak-and-pandemic-observational-research
#12
Asgar H Rishu, Nicole Marinoff, Lisa Julien, Mariana Dumitrascu, Nicole Marten, Shauna Eggertson, Su Willems, Stacy Ruddell, Dan Lane, Bruce Light, Henry T Stelfox, Philippe Jouvet, Richard Hall, Steven Reynolds, Nick Daneman, Robert A Fowler
PURPOSE: Observational research focused upon emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and Zika virus has been challenging to quickly initiate. We aimed to determine the duration of start-up procedures and barriers encountered for an observational study focused upon such infectious outbreaks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At 1 pediatric and 5 adult intensive care units, we measured durations from protocol receipt to a variety of outbreak research milestones, including research ethics board (REB) approval, data sharing agreement (DSA) execution, and patient study screening initiation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276842/different-views-on-treatment-decisions-by-first-year-interprofessional-healthcare-students
#13
N Nagao, Y Tamura, P Bontje, Y Takimoto, M Hirai, Y Ishikawa
This study explored ethical treatment decisions of healthcare professional students beginning their education. As part of a first-semester modern medicine and bioethics course, 311 students watched and discussed, in interprofessional groups, a video titled Dax's Case: Who Should Decide? regarding the treatment of a life-threatening infectious disease against Dax's wish. The students then discussed and made their decision regarding treating or not. Their decisions, recorded on a worksheet, were classified as "will treat" or "won't treat...
May 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262553/global-health-ethics-the-case-of-maternal-and-neonatal-survival
#14
REVIEW
Frank W J Anderson, Timothy R B Johnson, Raymond de Vries
Through their Sustainable Development Goals the United Nations recognizes the moral significance of health, stating that the elimination of maternal and early neonatal mortality are health outcomes that should be available to all women in the world. Complete prevention requires addition of a skill set for maternal care teams that is a magnitude greater than what we have today. As universities, individuals, institutions and NGO's engage in initiatives to end preventable maternal and neonatal mortality, an expanded context of ethical imperatives becomes increasingly important...
February 10, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260832/justifications-for-non-consensual-medical-intervention-from-infectious-disease-control-to-criminal-rehabilitation
#15
Jonathan Pugh, Thomas Douglas
A central tenet of medical ethics holds that it is permissible to perform a medical intervention on a competent individual only if that individual has given informed consent to the intervention. Yet it occasionally seems morally permissible to carry out non-consensual medical interventions on competent individuals for the purpose of infectious disease control (IDC). We describe two different moral frameworks that have been invoked in support of non-consensual IDC interventions and identify five desiderata that might be used to guide assessments of the moral permissibility of such interventions on either kind of fundamental justification...
September 1, 2016: Criminal Justice Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207080/infectious-diseases-an-ethical-challenge-for-physicians
#16
Edward J Sherwood
Infectious diseases are different. Not only are there more of them than other types of disease, but also more is known about them. Of all human afflictions, those that can be cured are, for the most part, infectious diseases. The outstanding authors contributing to the Symposium on Infectious Diseases in Medicine provide a big-picture perspective relevant to physicians practicing in every specialty of medicine.
February 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202091/isolation-unit-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-a-low-endemic-country-a-step-towards-the-world-health-organization-end-tb-strategy
#17
M C Payen, J P VAN Vooren, O Vandenberg, N Clumeck, S DE Wit
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a threat to public health and is the second cause of death due to a single infectious agent after HIV/AIDS. The worldwide distribution of TB is heterogeneous. The incidence is decreasing in most high-income regions, but the situation remains worrying in many parts of the world. The emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to key agents used in treatment (rifampin and isoniazid) contributes to TB transmission around the world. To achieve TB elimination, both high and low endemic countries must upscale their efforts to decrease disease transmission and improve cure rates...
May 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190403/using-typing-techniques-in-a-specific-outbreak-the-ethical-reflection-of-public-health-professionals
#18
B Rump, C Cornelis, F Woonink, J VAN Steenbergen, M Verweij, M Hulscher
Typing techniques are laboratory methods used in outbreak management to investigate the degree to which microbes found within an outbreak are related. Knowledge about relational patterns between microbes benefits outbreak management, but inevitably also tells us something about the relational patterns of the people hosting them. Since the technique is often used without explicit consent of all individuals involved, this may raise ethical questions. The aim of this study was to unravel the complex ethical deliberation of professionals over the use of such techniques...
May 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187137/controlling-viral-outbreaks-quantitative-strategies
#19
Anna Mummert, Howard Weiss
Preparing for and responding to outbreaks of serious livestock infectious diseases are critical measures to safeguard animal health, public health, and food supply. Almost all of the current control strategies are empirical, and mass culling or "stamping out" is frequently the principal strategy for controlling epidemics. However, there are ethical, ecological, and economic reasons to consider less drastic control strategies. Here we use modeling to quantitatively study the efficacy of different control measures for viral outbreaks, where the infectiousness, transmissibility and death rate of animals commonly depends on their viral load...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166482/post-exposure-rabies-prophylaxis-in-humans-exposed-to-animals-in-lublin-province-eastern-poland-in-2012-2015-a-retrospective-study
#20
Joanna Krzowska-Firych, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Agata Kozøowska
Rabies continues to be one of the most important viral diseases and remains a significant threat to public health across the globe. The post-exposure prophylaxis in humans can effectively prevent death after exposure to a potentially infected animal. In Poland, recommendations for rabies PEP followed the national guidelines which recommend that people should receive PEP when bitten by an animal suspected to be infected by rabies. PEP in humans includes cleansing and disinfecting the wound or point of contact, and administering anti-rabies immunization...
June 3, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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