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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764887/how-effective-and-cost-effective-are-behaviour-change-interventions-in-improving-the-prescription-and-use-of-antibiotics-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#1
Neha Batura, Carla Cuevas, Mishal Khan, Virginia Wiseman
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance endangers effective prevention and treatment of infections, and places significant burden on patients, families, communities and healthcare systems. Low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are especially vulnerable to antibiotic resistance, owing to high infectious disease burden, and limited resources for treatment. High prevalence of antibiotic prescription and use due to lack of provider's knowledge, prescriber's habits and perceived patient needs further exacerbate the situation...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716584/clinicians-attitude-towards-a-placebo-controlled-randomised-clinical-trial-investigating-the-effect-of-neuraminidase-inhibitors-in-adults-hospitalised-with-influenza
#2
Naomi Bradbury, Jonathan Nguyen-Van-Tam, Wei Shen Lim
BACKGROUND: The value of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) in reducing severe clinical outcomes from influenza is debated. A clinical trial to generate better evidence is desirable. However, it is unknown whether UK clinicians would support a placebo-controlled trial. A survey was conducted to determine the attitude of clinicians towards a clinical trial and their current practice in managing adults admitted to hospital with suspected influenza. METHODS: Senior clinicians (n = 50) across the UK actively involved in the care of patients hospitalised with severe respiratory infections and/or respiratory infection research were invited to participate in an on-line survey...
May 2, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703848/should-empiric-antibiotic-therapy-be-withheld-when-aetiology-of-preterm-birth-is-non-infectious-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#3
Joanna Seliga-Siwecka, Mohammed Toseef Ansari, Judy Aschner, Margaret Sampson, Justyna Romańska
INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth (PTB) at <37 weeks of gestation is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The traditional approach has been based on the assumption that PTB is primarily a result of intrauterine infection, which triggers preterm labour and puts the newborn at risk of early onset sepsis (EOS). We are currently experiencing a rise in prematurity that results from maternal and fetal diseases unrelated to infection. We have designed a systematic review to assess whether chemoprophylaxis should be withheld when the aetiology of preterm birth is non-infectious...
April 27, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668817/adverse-events-of-vaccines-and-the-consequences-of-non-vaccination-a-critical-review
#4
Luana Raposo de Melo Moraes Aps, Marco Aurélio Floriano Piantola, Sara Araujo Pereira, Julia Tavares de Castro, Fernanda Ayane de Oliveira Santos, Luís Carlos de Souza Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risks related to vaccines and the impacts of non-vaccination on the world population. METHODS: This is a narrative review that has considered information present in the bibliographic databases NCBI-PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), between November 2015 and November 2016. For the analysis of outbreaks caused by non-vaccination, we considered the work published between 2010 and 2016. RESULTS: We have described the main components of the vaccines offered by the Brazilian public health system and the adverse events associated with these elements...
2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607463/disease-detection-epidemiology-and-outbreak-response-the-digital-future-of-public-health-practice
#5
Edward Velasco
Inequalities persist when it comes to the attention, resource allocation and political prioritization, and provision of appropriate, adequate, and timely health interventions to populations in need. Set against a complex socio-political backdrop, the pressure on public health science is significant: institutions and scientists are accountable for helping to find the origins of disease, and to prevent and respond effectively more rapidly than ever. In the field of infectious disease epidemiology, new digital methods are contributing to a new 'digital epidemiology' and are seen as a promising way to increase effectivity and speed of response to infectious disease and public health events...
April 1, 2018: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606991/design-of-vaccine-trials-during-outbreaks-with-and-without-a-delayed-vaccination-comparator
#6
Natalie E Dean, M Elizabeth Halloran, Ira M Longini
Conducting vaccine efficacy trials during outbreaks of emerging pathogens poses particular challenges. The "Ebola ça suffit" trial in Guinea used a novel ring vaccination cluster randomized design to target populations at highest risk of infection. Another key feature of the trial was the use of a delayed vaccination arm as a comparator, in which clusters were randomized to immediate vaccination or vaccination 21 days later. This approach, chosen to improve ethical acceptability of the trial, complicates the statistical analysis as participants in the comparison arm are eventually protected by vaccine...
March 2018: Annals of Applied Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599395/exploring-factors-impacting-early-childhood-health-among-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-families-and-communities-protocol-for-a-population-based-cohort-study-using-data-linkage-the-defying-the-odds-study
#7
Bridgette McNamara, Lina Gubhaju, Louisa Jorm, David Preen, Jocelyn Jones, Grace Joshy, Carrington Shepherd, Daniel McAullay, Sandra Eades
INTRODUCTION: Empirical evidence on family and community risk and protective factors influencing the comparatively high rates of potentially preventable hospitalisations and deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants and children is limited. As is evidence on geographical variation in these risks. The 'Defying the Odds' study aims to explore the impact of perinatal outcomes, maternal social and health outcomes and level of culturally secure service availability on the health outcomes of Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal infants and children aged 0-5 years...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573967/human-challenge-trials-in-vaccine-development-rockville-md-usa-september-28-30-2017
#8
Marc F D Baay, Thomas L Richie, Pieter Neels
The International Alliance for Biological Standardization organized the second workshop on human challenge trials (HCT) in Rockville, MD, in September 2017. The objective of this meeting was to examine the use of HCT, in response to the continuing human suffering caused by infectious diseases, preventable by the development of new and improved vaccines. For this, the approach of HCT could be valuable, as HCT can provide key safety, tolerability, immunogenicity, and efficacy data, and can be used to study host-pathogen biology...
March 21, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564162/evaluation-of-a-health-system-strengthening-initiative-in-the-zambian-prison-system
#9
Stephanie M Topp, Anjali Sharma, Clement N Moonga, Chisele Chileshe, George Magwende, German Henostroza
Introduction: In 2013, the Zambian Correctional Service (ZCS) partnered with the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia on the Zambian Prisons Health System Strengthening project, seeking to tackle structural, organisational and cultural weaknesses within the prison health system. We present findings from a nested evaluation of the project impact on high, mid-level and facility-level health governance and health service arrangements in the Zambian Correctional Service. Methods: Mixed methods were used, including document review, indepth interviews with ministry (11) and prison facility (6) officials, focus group discussions (12) with male and female inmates in six of the eleven intervention prisons, and participant observation during project workshops and meetings...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540245/the-potential-impact-of-border-security-upon-prevalence-of-infectious-disease
#10
Christiana R Dallas, Curtis H Harris, Cham E Dallas
In the U.S., migration has been documented to affect the prevalence of infectious disease. As a mitigation entity, border security has been recorded by numerous scholarly works as being essential to the support of the health of the U.S. POPULATION: Consequently, the lack of current health care monitoring of the permeable U.S. border places the U.S. population at risk in the broad sectors of infectious disease and interpersonal violence. Visualizing border security in the context of public health mitigation has significant potential to protect migrant health as well as that of all populations on both sides of the border...
March 15, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536111/-rational-use-of-antibiotics-as-an-ethical-challenge
#11
REVIEW
Jasper Littmann, Alena Buyx
Antibiotics resistance presents one of the major challenges for health care in the twenty-first century. This paper examines the ethical problems that arise as a result of antibiotic resistance. Two main categories of ethical problems in infectious disease control are distinguished: those that are exacerbated by antibiotics resistance, and those that are a direct result of antibiotics resistance. The second category, which is considered in greater detail in this paper, includes, among others, issues of fair distribution of effective antibiotics, if they are considered a scarce resource...
March 13, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524950/human-dignity-as-leading-principle-in-public-health-ethics-a-multi-case-analysis-of-21st-century-german-health-policy-decisions
#12
Sebastian F Winter, Stefan F Winter
BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence that since the turn of the millennium German health policy made a considerable step towards prevention and health promotion, putting the strategies of 'personal empowerment' and 'settings based approach' high on the federal government's agenda. This phenomenon has challenged the role of ethics in health policy. Concurrently, increasing relevance of the Concept of Human Dignity for health and human rights has been discussed. However, a direct relationship between Human Dignity and Public Health Ethics (PHE) has surprisingly not yet been established...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499693/screening-for-infectious-diseases-of-asylum-seekers-upon-arrival-the-necessity-of-the-moral-principle-of-reciprocity
#13
Dorien T Beeres, Darren Cornish, Machiel Vonk, Sofanne J Ravensbergen, Els L M Maeckelberghe, Pieter Boele Van Hensbroek, Ymkje Stienstra
BACKGROUND: With a large number of forcibly displaced people seeking safety, the EU is facing a challenge in maintaining solidarity. Europe has seen millions of asylum seekers crossing European borders, the largest number of asylum seekers since the second world war. Endemic diseases and often failing health systems in their countries of origin, and arduous conditions during transit, raise questions around how to meet the health needs of this vulnerable population on arrival in terms of screening, vaccination, and access to timely and appropriate statutory health services...
March 2, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497995/raising-rates-of-childhood-vaccination-the-trade-off-between-coercion-and-trust
#14
Bridget Haire, Paul Komesaroff, Rose Leontini, C Raina MacIntyre
Vaccination is a highly effective public health strategy that provides protection to both individuals and communities from a range of infectious diseases. Governments monitor vaccination rates carefully, as widespread use of a vaccine within a population is required to extend protection to the general population through "herd immunity," which is important for protecting infants who are not yet fully vaccinated and others who are unable to undergo vaccination for medical or other reasons. Australia is unique in employing financial incentives to increase vaccination uptake, mainly in the form of various childcare payments and tax benefits linked to timely, age-appropriate vaccination...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439003/impact-of-red-and-processed-meat-and-fibre-intake-on-treatment-outcomes-among-patients-with-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-prognostic-factors-and-personalised-medicine
#15
Robin Christensen, Berit L Heitmann, Karina Winther Andersen, Ole Haagen Nielsen, Signe Bek Sørensen, Mohamad Jawhara, Anette Bygum, Lone Hvid, Jakob Grauslund, Jimmi Wied, Henning Glerup, Ulrich Fredberg, Jan Alexander Villadsen, Søren Geill Kjær, Jan Fallingborg, Seyed A G R Moghadd, Torben Knudsen, Jacob Brodersen, Jesper Frøjk, Jens Frederik Dahlerup, Anders Bo Bojesen, Grith Lykke Sorensen, Steffen Thiel, Nils J Færgeman, Ivan Brandslund, Tue Bjerg Bennike, Allan Stensballe, Erik Berg Schmidt, Andre Franke, David Ellinghaus, Philip Rosenstiel, Jeroen Raes, Mette Boye, Lars Werner, Charlotte Lindgaard Nielsen, Heidi Lausten Munk, Anders Bathum Nexøe, Torkell Ellingsen, Uffe Holmskov, Jens Kjeldsen, Vibeke Andersen
INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) are frequently treated with biological medications, specifically tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi)). These medications inhibit the pro-inflammatory molecule TNF alpha, which has been strongly implicated in the aetiology of these diseases. Up to one-third of patients do not, however, respond to biologics, and lifestyle factors are assumed to affect treatment outcomes. Little is known about the effects of dietary lifestyle as a prognostic factor that may enable personalised medicine...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423275/a-roadmap-towards-personalized-immunology
#16
Sylvie Delhalle, Sebastian F N Bode, Rudi Balling, Markus Ollert, Feng Q He
Big data generation and computational processing will enable medicine to evolve from a "one-size-fits-all" approach to precise patient stratification and treatment. Significant achievements using "Omics" data have been made especially in personalized oncology. However, immune cells relative to tumor cells show a much higher degree of complexity in heterogeneity, dynamics, memory-capability, plasticity and "social" interactions. There is still a long way ahead on translating our capability to identify potentially targetable personalized biomarkers into effective personalized therapy in immune-centralized diseases...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388675/influenza-vaccines-in-immunosuppressed-adults-with-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Roni Bitterman, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Inbal Vinograd, Anca Zalmanovici Trestioreanu, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the Cochrane review published in 2013, Issue 10.Immunosuppressed cancer patients are at increased risk of serious influenza-related complications. Guidelines, therefore, recommend influenza vaccination for these patients. However, data on vaccine effectiveness in this population are lacking, and the value of vaccination in this population remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in immunosuppressed adults with malignancies...
February 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298727/mandatory-vaccination-understanding-the-common-good-in-the-midst-of-the-global-polio-eradication-campaign
#18
Lawrence O Gostin
BACKGROUND: The detection of wild poliovirus in Israeli sewage in May 2013 led the health authorities to vaccinate children with OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine). Shelly Kamin-Friedman explored the legal and ethical dimensions of this policy. This commentary makes three claims: (1) Mandatory vaccination is a valid exercise of the state's police powers to protect the common good. (2) A disease eradication campaign is a sufficient ground for the exercise of those powers. (3) The state is obliged to use the least restrictive/invasive measure to achieve community-wide vaccine coverage, but need not use less effective measures; further, determining which measure is most effective is a fact-specific determination...
January 3, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289932/vaccination-marketing-by-private-healthcare-sector-glaring-malpractices
#19
LETTER
Vipin M Vashishtha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287587/simulations-for-designing-and-interpreting-intervention-trials-in-infectious-diseases
#20
M Elizabeth Halloran, Kari Auranen, Sarah Baird, Nicole E Basta, Steven E Bellan, Ron Brookmeyer, Ben S Cooper, Victor DeGruttola, James P Hughes, Justin Lessler, Eric T Lofgren, Ira M Longini, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, Berk Özler, George R Seage, Thomas A Smith, Alessandro Vespignani, Emilia Vynnycky, Marc Lipsitch
BACKGROUND: Interventions in infectious diseases can have both direct effects on individuals who receive the intervention as well as indirect effects in the population. In addition, intervention combinations can have complex interactions at the population level, which are often difficult to adequately assess with standard study designs and analytical methods. DISCUSSION: Herein, we urge the adoption of a new paradigm for the design and interpretation of intervention trials in infectious diseases, particularly with regard to emerging infectious diseases, one that more accurately reflects the dynamics of the transmission process...
December 29, 2017: BMC Medicine
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