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cutaneous manifestations of hiv aids

Alexandro Bonifaz, Andrés Tirado-Sánchez
Sporotrichosis is an implantation or inoculation mycosis caused by species of Sporothrix schenckii complex; its main manifestations are limited to skin; however, cutaneous-disseminated, disseminated (visceral) and extracutaneous variants of sporotrichosis can be associated with immunosuppression, including HIV-AIDS, chronic alcoholism or more virulent strains. The most common extracutaneous form of sporotrichosis includes pulmonary, osteoarticular and meningeal. The laboratory diagnosis requires observing yeast forms and isolating the fungus; the two main causative agents are Sporothrix schenckii ( ss ) and Sporothrix brasiliensis ...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Sonal Lahoti, Kavita Rao, H S Umadevi, Lakshmi Mishra
BACKGROUND: As the search for reliable clinical indicators for management of human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS continues, mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV are considered among key clinical indicators for prediction of underlying degree of immunosuppression, systemic opportunistic infections, and disease progression. OBJECTIVES: (1) To study the prevalence of mucocutaneous manifestations in HIV-seropositive patients attending the ART center of our hospital (2) To correlate mucocutaneous manifestations with CD4 cell counts...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Aixin Li, Qunhui Li, Caiping Guo, Yulin Zhang
BACKGROUND Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) infection is one of the most common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. C. neoformans usually infects the central nervous system (CNS) and/or lungs with typical clinical manifestation. CASE REPORT Here, we report the case of a 52-year-old HIV-1-infected man with disseminated cryptococcosis, including subacute meningitis, pulmonary, and cutaneous cryptococcosis, but only skin lesion served as the chief complaint. Moreover, the results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests and lung computed tomography (CT) scan were atypical...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
Jason Ramsingh, Carol Watson
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well known to be associated with various neoplasms and opportunistic infections. Kaposi sarcoma (KS), associated with human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) infection, is the most common tumour in HIV positive patients and is also an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illness. Cutaneous manifestations are the most common presenting symptom; however, visceral involvement is also recognized. We present the case of a 55-year-old male who was diagnosed with AIDS-related KS, who was referred to our surgical unit with an indeterminate left adrenal lesion...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Pierre-Olivier Grenier, Isabelle Auger
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) among the pediatric population is a rare entity in North America and Europe, and its cutaneous manifestations are not well defined in the literature. The investigators report the case of a boy with an AIDS-associated KS presenting as an infiltrated hyperkeratotic plaque of the plantar arch. METHODS AND RESULTS: An 11-year-old African boy with congenital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) had a skin biopsy of the plantar lesion that was consistent with a KS...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Jenna Blah Bhattacharya, Poonam Rani, Radhika Aggarwal, Seema Kaushal
Histoplasmosis is a genus of dimorphic fungi having various varieties of which the commonest one causing infection is Histoplasma capsulatum known to cause histoplasmosis. It has a varied disease spectrum ranging from an acute infection to chronic disease especially in lungs, disseminated disease and cutaneous disorder. Histoplasma capsulatum usually causes subclinical infection and serious infections only manifest in immunocompromised patients. Frank cases of infection are seen in pulmonary histoplasmosis...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Adriana G López Daneri, Alicia Arechavala, Cristina A Iovannitti, María Teresa Mujica
A retrospective study was carried out on 171 cases of disseminated histoplasmosis diagnosed in HIV/AIDS patients during the period 2009-2014. Although HIV diagnosis rates remained stable over the study period, a sensible increase in the number of histoplasmosis cases was observed in the last three years. Disseminated histoplasmosis was prevalent in males with an average age of 37.8 years. At diagnosis, only 54/171 (31.6%) were receiving HAART, and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts ranged from 4 to 264 cells/upsilon...
2016: Medicina
Balaji Govindan
Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is one of the clinical forms of KS. KS is caused by human herpes viruses 8 or KS associated herpes virus (KSHV). In India, till now, only 16 cases of AIDS associated KS was reported. Of all the clinical forms of KS, AIDS associated KS is distinct in many ways viz.; cutaneous manifestations commonly affects face and trunk rather than lower limbs, more mucosal lesions, rapidly progressive, and early systemic involvement. When human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is co-infected with KSHV, in addition to the other pathogenic factors for the development of KS, HIV Tat protein promotes the proliferation of cytokine-activated endothelial cells and stimulates KS...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Ana Isabel Teixeira, Miguel Neno, Robert Badura, João Borges-Costa, Paulo Leal Filipe
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal systemic disease that originates in the vascular endothelium related to Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV-8). In the early 1980s the first series of cases of disseminated Kaposi Sarcoma in HIV infected patients were reported. However, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) since 1997, these cases are less frequently observed by clinicians. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman, presenting with two asymptomatic purpuric nodules localized in the superior and inferior left eyelids, occluding the palpebral fissure, which were present for 4 months prior to presentation...
July 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
Ana L Biancardi, Dayvison F S Freitas, Vitor R G de A Valviesse, Hugo B Andrade, Manoel M E de Oliveira, Antonio C F do Valle, Rosely M Zancope-Oliveira, Maria C G Galhardo, Andre L L Curi
PURPOSE: In this article, the authors describe multifocal choroiditis related to disseminated sporotrichosis in patients with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of three patients infected with HIV who presented with disseminated sporotrichosis characterized by cutaneous lesions, multifocal choroiditis, and other manifestations, including osteomyelitis and involvement of the bone marrow, larynx, pharynx, and nasal and oral mucosa...
January 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
A A Roshchina, E Yu Ponomareva, A P Rebrov
AIM: To investigate clinical manifestations and diagnostic difficulties in patients with HIV/AIDS in the practice of therapeutic units of a multidisciplinary hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The investigation included 65 HIV/AIDS patients admitted to the therapy units of a Saratov Regional clinical hospital in 2007 to 2011. The clinical features of HIV/AIDS, immunological status, and viral load were studied. RESULTS: The structure of the clinical manifestation of HIV/AIDS showed a preponderance of lung injury in 45 (69%) patients...
2015: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
R Khuraijam, P Lungran, K Yoihenba, R S Laishram, P Pukhrambam
We present a case of pancytopenia and cutaneous cryptococcosis in a young girl with no complaints of fever, headache and vomiting. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and further investigation for pancytopenia revealed presence of Cryptococcus in skin and bone marrow aspirates. Fungal cultures of the skin aspirates, blood and bone marrow confirmed cryptococcal infection. Counselling and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test revealed the status of the patient to be retropositive. Although meningitis is the commonest manifestation of cryptococcosis among HIV-infected patients, rare cutaneous manifestation with pancytopenia but with no meningeal signs indicate the HIV status in an endemic area of penicilliosis, Manipur...
July 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Naomi Hauser, Devon McKenzie, Xavier Fonseca, Jose Orsini
Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome- (AIDS-) related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has decreased dramatically. While cutaneous KS is the most common and well-known manifestation, knowledge of alternative sites such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is important. GI-KS is particularly dangerous because of its potential for serious complications including perforation, obstruction, or bleeding. We report a rare case of GI-KS presenting as upper GI bleeding in a human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV-) infected transgendered individual...
2015: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Cristián Navarrete-Dechent, Rinna Ortega, Félix Fich, Marcela Concha
The ongoing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemic coupled with more efficacious and available treatments has led to a larger number of patients living with HIV or AIDS. As a result, skin manifestations related to HIV/AIDS or its therapy have become increasingly more common and are reported to occur in as many as 95% of patients. Herein, we review the most common HIV/AIDS related cutaneous pathologies and classify them into inflammatory, HAART-associated, neoplastic, and infectious manifestations...
February 2015: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Sarman Singh
Following the HIV epidemic, several countries have reported co-infections of Leishmania with HIV. Co-infection with these two pathogens results in rapid disease progression, more severe disease, and a poor response to treatment. A systematic review of the literature from India is presented herein. Since the first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and HIV was published from India in 1999, a number of cases of HIV-Leishmania co-infection have been reported, but the proportion has been low (0.029-0.4%), as also reported in other countries where these two diseases are co-endemic...
December 2014: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Amara J Nidimusili, Naseem Eisa, Khaldoon Shaheen
CONTEXT: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common neoplasm in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement with KS commonly occurs in association with cutaneous lesions or lymph node involvement, with GI tract involvement alone occurring in only 3.5% of cases. There are several case reports described in the literature about asymptomatic intestinal KS with skin manifestations. Although GI KS is usually asymptomatic, hemorrhages from the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, and large bowel have been reported in this disease...
November 2013: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
R O Shittu, M F Adeyemi, L O Odeigah, Abdulraheem O Mahmoud, S A Biliaminu, A A Nyamngee
BACKGROUND: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestation of HIV infection. In developing countries like Nigeria, were sophisticated diagnostic apparatus used to monitor the immunologic status of HIV/AIDS patients is not readily available, early recognition of the commonest and specific HIV-related oral lesions can be used for diagnosis so that prompt treatment can be provided to reduce morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and spectrum of oral lesions in relationship to CD4 cell counts among newly diagnosed HIV patients in University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria...
December 2013: Oral Health and Dental Management
Benjamin Shepard, Dustin Tompkins, Damon Baker, Jeffrey Stroup
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular tumor caused by infection with human herpesvirus 8. Prior to the AIDS epidemic, KS was rare in the United States. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, KS has become far less common, now occurring at a rate of about 6 cases per million people each year. It is still seen most commonly in those infected with HIV, and cutaneous manifestations represent the most common presentation. In this case, we describe a patient with disseminated AIDS-associated KS lacking cutaneous manifestations...
January 2014: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Sharada R Rane, Preeti B Agrawal, Nalini V Kadgi, Meenal V Jadhav, Shaila C Puranik
OBJECTIVES: Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients develop various skin diseases. These skin manifestations not only act as markers but also reflect the patient's underlying immune status. Investigating CD4 counts is costly and not always possible. Thus, the potential value to be gained by using skin manifestations as predictors of low CD4 counts and disease progression should be explored. The present study attempted to correlate the association of various cutaneous disorders found in HIV patients with CD4 and CD8 counts, the CD4 : CD8 ratio and stage of HIV infection...
June 2014: International Journal of Dermatology
Uzma Farooq, Sonal Choudhary, Anna H Chacon, Elizabeth Lebrun, Michael I Shiman, Jose Hernandez, Clara Milikowski, Francisco A Kerdel, Paolo Romanelli
BACKGROUND: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is an uncommon complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) but is emerging as an increasingly frequent and serious complication of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It manifests as a macular, morbilliform, or nodular eruption in a patient who has recovered from VL. METHODS: We present two cases of PKDL in the setting of AIDS. RESULTS: These two cases are notable because they demonstrate the severe course of VL, the rare appearance of PKDL in the U...
September 2013: International Journal of Dermatology
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