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Johanna H Ouml Rberg, Patricia Saenz-Méndez, Leif A Eriksson
Eukaryotic Diphthine Synthase, Dph5, is a promiscuous methyltransferase that catalyzes an extraordinary N,O-tetramethylation of 2-(3-carboxy-3-aminopropyl)-L-histidine (ACP) to yield diphthine methyl ester (DTM). These are intermediates in the biosynthesis of the post-translationally modified histidine residue diphthamide, a unique and essential residue part of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). Herein, the promiscuity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dph5 has been studied with in silico approaches, including homology modeling to provide the structure of Dph5, protein-protein docking and molecular dynamics to construct the Dph5-eEF2 complex, and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations to outline a plausible mechanism...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Satoshi Katano, Tao Wei, Takumi Sasajima, Ryuhei Kasama, Yoichi Uehara
We have used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to elucidate the nanoscale electronic structures of graphene oxide (GO). The unreduced GO layer was imaged using STM without reduction processes when deposited on a Au(111) surface covered with an octanethiolate self-assembled monolayer (C8S-SAM). The STM image of the GO sheet exhibits a grainy structure having a thickness of about 1 nm, which is in good agreement with the previous results obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found that the C8S-SAM suppresses the adsorption of water remaining on the substrate, which would be important to accomplish the nanoscale imaging of the unreduced GO by STM...
June 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xabier de Aretxabala, Federico Oppliger, Nicolas Solano, Guillermo Rencoret, Marcelo Vivanco, Daniel Carvajal, Juan Hepp, Ivan Roa
BACKGROUND: The laparoscopic cholecystectomy has allowed the detection of an increasing number of incidental gallbladder cancers (IGBC). Although laparoscopy is employed in the management of a variety of abdominal tumors, its use in gallbladder cancer is reduced and controversial. This study analyzes the role of laparoscopy in gallbladder cancer with the focus in IGBC. METHOD: We evaluated our prospective series of 51 patients with an IGBC who were treated by laparoscopy between 2006 and 2016 at the Clinica Alemana in Santiago, Chile...
June 20, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Gilbert C Gee, A B de Castro, Catherine M Crespi, May C Wang, Karen Llave, Eleanor Brindle, Nanette R Lee, Maria Midea M Kabamalan, Anna K Hing
BACKGROUND: Immigrants to the United States are usually healthier than their U.S.-born counterparts, yet the health of immigrants declines with duration of stay in the U.S. This pattern is often seen for numerous health problems such as obesity, and is usually attributed to acculturation (the adoption of "American" behaviors and norms). However, an alternative explanation is secular trends, given that rates of obesity have been rising globally. Few studies of immigrants are designed to distinguish the effects of acculturation versus secular trends, in part because most studies of immigrants are cross-sectional, lack baseline data prior to migration, and do not have a comparison group of non-migrants in the country of origin...
June 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Wai Hoong Chang, Alvina G Lai
BACKGROUND: Animals are thought to achieve lignocellulose digestion via symbiotic associations with gut microbes; this view leads to significant focus on bacteria and fungi for lignocellulolytic systems. The presence of biomass conversion systems hardwired into animal genomes has not yet been unequivocally demonstrated. RESULTS: We perform an exhaustive search for glycoside hydrolase (GH) genes from 21 genomes representing major bilaterian (Ecdysozoa, Spiralia, Echinodermata and Chordata) and basal metazoan (Porifera and Cnidaria) lineages...
June 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
Ray El Boustany
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite the progress accomplished in therapy, the prevalence of renal disorders remains high. Some modifiable factors driving the increase in incidence of CKD, in diabetes and other settings, might have been overlooked. Consistent evidence supports a role for vasopressin, hydration state, and urine concentration in kidney health. SUMMARY: Plasma vasopressin is elevated in diabetes, even if metabolic control is good...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Keat-Hor Yeoh, S A Shafie, K A Al-Attab, Z A Zainal
In this study, three different methods for high quality solid fuel production were tested and compared experimentally. Oil palm empty fruit bunches, mesocarp fibers, palm kernel shells and rubber seeds shells were treated using thermal (TC), hydrothermal (HTC) and vapothermal (VTC) carbonization. All thermochemical methods were accomplished by using a custom made batch-type reactor. Utilization of novel single reactor equipped with suspended internal container provided efficient operation since both steam generator and raw materials were placed inside the same reactor...
June 15, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Enzo Berardesca, Marie Loden, Jorgen Serup, Philippe Masson, Luis Monteiro Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive quantification of stratum corneum water content is widely used in skin research and topical product development. METHODS: The original EEMCO guidelines on measurements of skin hydration by electrical methods and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) by evaporimeter published in 1997 and 2001 have been revisited and updated with the incorporation of recently available technologies. RESULTS: Electrical methods and open-chamber evaporimeters for measurement of TEWL are still the preferred techniques to measure the water balance in the stratum corneum...
June 20, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
Jyoti S Kumar, Divyasha Saxena, Manmohan Parida, Sivakumar Rathinam
Background & objectives: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus. The disease can be diagnosed by isolation followed by fluorescent antibody tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. These diagnostic methods are laborious and time-consuming. The present study was aimed to evaluate the real-time reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for rapid, early and accurate diagnosis of WNV. Methods: A one-step single tube accelerated quantitative RT-LAMP assay was evaluated by targeting the Env gene of WNV...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Tsung-Yun Wong, Ming-Shian Tsai, Lih-Ching Hsu, Shu-Wha Lin, Pi-Hui Liang
Apigenin, a flavone abundant in parsley and celery, is known to act on several CNS receptors, but its very poor water solubility (< 0.001 mg/mL) impedes its absorption in vivo and prevents clinical use. Herein, apigenin was directly conjugated with glycine, L-phenylalanine, and L-lysine to give the corresponding carbamate derivatives, all of which were much more soluble than apigenin itself (0.017, 0.018, and 0.13 mg/mL, respectively). The Lys-apigenin carbamate 10 had a temporary sedative effect on the mice within five minutes of intraperitoneal administration (single dose of 0...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Eman R Abd Elgwad, Eman G Behiry, Fathy M Swailem, Seham G Ameen, Dalia M Abdelhasib, Rabab O Abd Elhamid
Introduction: Paraoxonases are a group of different forms enzymes that consist of three non-similar isoforms, PON1, PON2 and PON3 , which are located near to each other on the long arm of chromosome7. This study aims to investigate the association of a Q192R polymorphism of PON1 gene and statin response in patients with ischemic heart disease with dyslipidemia. Methods: The studied population included three hundred patients with coronary artery disease with dyslipidemia who were prescribed statins...
July 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Astrid Lebert-Charron, Géraldine Dorard, Emilie Boujut, Jaqueline Wendland
Background: Becoming a parent is one of the most significant experiences in a woman's life. Including substantial and long-lasting mental, social, and physical charge, the parenting experience may also be a potentially stressful and overwhelming task. Since the eighties, the notion of parental burnout syndrome has gained increasing attention, but its contextual and psychological factors need to be better identified. Aims: To investigate a large array of contextual and psychological factors associated with maternal burnout syndrome in a French community-based population in order to contribute to better operationalize the notion of parental burnout and to explore its determinants...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Matthew L Holding, Mark J Margres, Andrew J Mason, Christopher L Parkinson, Darin R Rokyta
Venom-gland transcriptomics is a key tool in the study of the evolution, ecology, function, and pharmacology of animal venoms. In particular, gene-expression variation and coding sequences gained through transcriptomics provide key information for explaining functional venom variation over both ecological and evolutionary timescales. The accuracy and usefulness of inferences made through transcriptomics, however, is limited by the accuracy of the transcriptome assembly, which is a bioinformatic problem with several possible solutions...
June 19, 2018: Toxins
R Zhou, G Zang, Q Yu, K Pang, X Zhou, H He, Q Liang, T Fan, C Han
The purpose of this work is to investigate the total resection of bladder tumor under transurethral fluorescence cystoscopy. Nineteen patients with bladder tumor, from which we resected a total of 26 tumors, including 16 single tumors with diameters of 0.5~2 cm, were enrolled in the study. All tumors were located in the posterior wall or neck of the bladder. For the surgery, the size and location of tumors in the bladder were observed by fluorescence cystoscopy. Then, plasma electrocision was used to cut the full-thickness of the bladder to the fat outside of the bladder along the near-end of the tumor, then along the left and right side of bladder (to the far-end), and the full-thickness of the tumor was resected...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Q X Yao, H Wang, Q Luo, Z D Yu, H B Shi, S K Yin
Objective: To explore the epidemiological characteristics and to help accomplish accurate diagnosis and treatment strategies by analyzing the composition and clinical features of various diseases with acute constant vertigo. Method: We retrospectively analyzed medical records (including name, sex, age, diabetes, hypertension, history of vertigo, family history, etc.),otoneurological examination, vestibular function tests and radiological examination of patients with acute vestibular syndrome.We classified various diseases according to diagnostic criteria, and then analyze the clinical data...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Shuyang Liu, Andrey Yurievich Rogachev
The first comprehensive and systematic theoretical exploration of the bonding nature and energetics of the interactions between Ag(I) cation and a wide set of pi-ligands was accomplished. Application of two energy decomposition schemes based on different ideas, namely, NBO-NEDA and EDA-NOCV, allowed shedding light on the nature of the bonding and its energetics. Importantly, our results unambiguously indicate that reliable results can be obtained only if using more than one theoretical approach. All methods clearly revealed the importance and even domination of the ionic contribution of the bonding in all adducts, except for those of C60-fullerene, in which the covalent component was found to be the largest...
June 19, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Sergio Nappini, Nicola Limbucci, Giuseppe Leone, Andrea Rosi, Leonardo Renieri, Arturo Consoli, Antonio Laiso, Iacopo Valente, Francesco Rosella, Riccardo Rosati, Salvatore Mangiafico
BACKGROUND: Recent trials established the efficacy of mechanical stent-retriever thrombectomy for treatment of stroke patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the anterior circulation. However, stent-retriever thrombectomy may not accomplish successful recanalization in all patients. The aim of this study is to report the role of bail-out permanent stenting after failure of mechanical thrombectomy. METHODS: Among 430 patients included in a prospectively maintained database, we analysed 325 cases of anterior circulation LVO...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Sergio Salerno, Chiara Tudisca, Flavia Di Liberto, Domenica Matranga, Giuseppe La Tona, Giuseppe Lo Re, Antonio Lo Casto
OBJECTIVES: Burnout syndrome is a condition that may occur not only for staff in human service sectors/jobs, involving intensive interactions with others, but also people that are engaged in activities psychologically similar to work, such as students. Radiographers in training suffer double stress, first linked to the status of being a university student and secondly as early career workers who have relations with the public of the health system. Aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence and levels of burnout syndrome among radiographers in training in an University Hospital...
December 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Sara Viotti, Giulia Iob, Daniela Converso
OBJECTIVES: While in the international literature, research on burnout predictors among correctional officers is well developed, as regards Italy there is a paucity of empirical evidence. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify, among various types of psychosocial factors, the burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment) predictors in a sample of Italian correctional officers. METHODS: The study involved 130 correctional officers that filled out a self-reported questionnaire...
December 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Irving E Wang, Daniel E Wagner, Peter W Reddien
Stem cells, which both self-renew and produce differentiated progeny, represent fundamental biological units for the development, growth, maintenance, and regeneration of adult tissues. Characterization of stem cell lineage potential can be accomplished with clonal assays that interrogate stem cell output at the single-cell level. Here we present two methods for clonal analysis of individual proliferative cells (neoblasts) in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. The first method utilizes "subtotal" gamma irradiation to study rare surviving neoblasts and their clonal descendants in their native environment...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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