keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Dendritic spine

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644437/more-alive-than-dead-non-apoptotic-roles-for-caspases-in-neuronal-development-plasticity-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Amrita Mukherjee, Darren W Williams
Nervous systems are arguably the most fascinating and complex structures in the known universe. How they are built, changed by experience and then degenerate are some of the biggest questions in biology. Regressive phenomena, such as neuron pruning and programmed cell death, have a key role in the building and maintenance of the nervous systems. Both of these cellular mechanisms deploy the caspase family of protease enzymes. In this review, we highlight the non-apoptotic function of caspases during nervous system development, plasticity and disease, particularly focussing on their role in structural remodelling...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642689/integrating-neural-circuits-controlling-female-sexual-behavior
#2
REVIEW
Paul E Micevych, Robert L Meisel
The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642137/overexpression-cdc42-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neurotoxicity-in-developmental-brain-of-rats
#3
Xi Fang, Shiyong Li, Qiang Han, Yilin Zhao, Jie Gao, Jing Yan, Ailin Luo
Nowadays many children receive operations with general anesthesia. Isoflurane is a commonly-used general anesthetic. Numbers of studies demonstrated that isoflurane induced neurotoxicity and neurobehavioral deficiency in young rats, however, the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) played an important role in regulating synaptic vesicle trafficking and actin dynamics in neuron, which closely linked to synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation. Meanwhile, cdc42 also involved in many neurodegenerative diseases...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641933/the-role-of-sleep-in-regulating-structural-plasticity-and-synaptic-strength-implications-for-memory-and-cognitive-function
#4
REVIEW
Frank Raven, Eddy A Van der Zee, Peter Meerlo, Robbert Havekes
Dendritic spines are the major sites of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Alterations in the strength of synaptic connections directly affect the neuronal communication, which is crucial for brain function as well as the processing and storage of information. Sleep and sleep loss bidirectionally alter structural plasticity, by affecting spine numbers and morphology, which ultimately can affect the functional output of the brain in terms of alertness, cognition, and mood. Experimental data from studies in rodents suggest that sleep deprivation may impact structural plasticity in different ways...
May 18, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641114/a-critical-role-of-presynaptic-cadherin-catenin-p140cap-complexes-in-stabilizing-spines-and-functional-synapses-in-the-neocortex
#5
Min-Yin Li, Wan-Ying Miao, Qiu-Zi Wu, Shun-Ji He, Guoquan Yan, Yanrui Yang, Jia-Jia Liu, M Mark Taketo, Xiang Yu
The formation of functional synapses requires coordinated assembly of presynaptic transmitter release machinery and postsynaptic trafficking of functional receptors and scaffolds. Here, we demonstrate a critical role of presynaptic cadherin/catenin cell adhesion complexes in stabilizing functional synapses and spines in the developing neocortex. Importantly, presynaptic expression of stabilized β-catenin in either layer (L) 4 excitatory neurons or L2/3 pyramidal neurons significantly upregulated excitatory synaptic transmission and dendritic spine density in L2/3 pyramidal neurons, while its sparse postsynaptic expression in L2/3 neurons had no such effects...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636875/effects-of-prenatal-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-and-maternal-stress-on-postnatal-morphological-development-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-rats
#6
Ewa Jakubowska-Dogru, Birsen Elibol, Ilknur Dursun, Sinan Yürüker
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634551/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-dopamine-depletion-induced-attenuation-of-the-spinophilin-neurofilament-medium-interaction
#7
Andrew C Hiday, Michael C Edler, Asma B Salek, Cameron W Morris, Morrent Thang, Tyler J Rentz, Kristie L Rose, Lisa M Jones, Anthony J Baucum
Signaling changes that occur in the striatum following the loss of dopamine neurons in the Parkinson disease (PD) are poorly understood. While increases in the activity of kinases and decreases in the activity of phosphatases have been observed, the specific consequences of these changes are less well understood. Phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), are highly promiscuous and obtain substrate selectivity via targeting proteins. Spinophilin is the major PP1-targeting protein enriched in the postsynaptic density of striatal dendritic spines...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633952/chronic-methylphenidate-regulates-genes-and-proteins-mediating-neuroplasticity-in-the-juvenile-rat-brain
#8
Emmanuel Quansah, Tiziana Sgamma, Estabraq Jaddoa, Tyra S C Zetterström
Methylphenidate (MPH) is the front-line psychostimulant medication prescribed for alleviating the symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic MPH (2.0mg/kg, twice daily for 15 days) exposure to young rats (20-25days old at start of treatment) on the expression of genes and proteins associated with neuroplasticity, such as activity regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), insulin receptor substrate protein 53 (IRSp53), cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42), and actin-related protein 2 (Arp2)...
June 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632204/successful-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-severe-feeding-aversion-with-mechanistic-insights-from-cross-species-neuronal-remodeling
#9
W G Sharp, A G Allen, K H Stubbs, K K Criado, R Sanders, C E McCracken, R G Parsons, L Scahill, S L Gourley
Pediatric feeding disorders affect up to 5% of children, causing severe food intake problems that can result in serious medical and developmental outcomes. Behavioral intervention (BI) is effective in extinguishing feeding aversions, and also expert-dependent, time/labor-intensive and not well understood at a neurobiological level. Here we first conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing BI with BI plus d-cycloserine (DCS). DCS is a partial N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist shown to augment extinction therapies in multiple anxiety disorders...
June 20, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631873/roles-of-afadin-in-functional-differentiations-of-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapse
#10
Xiaoqi Geng, Tomohiko Maruo, Kenji Mandai, Irwan Supriyanto, Muneaki Miyata, Shotaro Sakakibara, Akira Mizoguchi, Yoshimi Takai, Masahiro Mori
A hippocampal mossy fiber synapse has a complex structure and is implicated in learning and memory. In this synapse, the mossy fiber boutons attach to the dendritic shaft by puncta adherentia junctions and wrap around a multiply-branched spine, forming synaptic junctions. We have recently shown using transmission electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy and serial block face-scanning electron microscopy that atypical puncta adherentia junctions are formed in the afadin-deficient mossy fiber synapse and that the complexity of postsynaptic spines and mossy fiber boutons, the number of spine heads, the area of postsynaptic densities and the density of synaptic vesicles docked to active zones are decreased in the afadin-deficient synapse...
June 20, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630145/activity-dependent-trafficking-of-lysosomes-in-dendrites-and-dendritic-spines
#11
Marisa S Goo, Laura Sancho, Natalia Slepak, Daniela Boassa, Thomas J Deerinck, Mark H Ellisman, Brenda L Bloodgood, Gentry N Patrick
In neurons, lysosomes, which degrade membrane and cytoplasmic components, are thought to primarily reside in somatic and axonal compartments, but there is little understanding of their distribution and function in dendrites. Here, we used conventional and two-photon imaging and electron microscopy to show that lysosomes traffic bidirectionally in dendrites and are present in dendritic spines. We find that lysosome inhibition alters their mobility and also decreases dendritic spine number. Furthermore, perturbing microtubule and actin cytoskeletal dynamics has an inverse relationship on the distribution and motility of lysosomes in dendrites...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629847/evidence-for-m2-muscarinic-receptor-modulation-of-axon-terminals-and-dendrites-in-the-rodent-basolateral-amygdala-an-ultrastructural-and-electrophysiological-analysis
#12
Ana Fajardo-Serrano, Lei Liu, David D Mott, Alexander J McDonald
The basolateral amygdala receives a very dense cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain that is important for memory consolidation. Although behavioral studies have shown that both M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors are critical for these mnemonic functions, there have been very few neuroanatomical and electrophysiological investigations of the localization and function of different types of muscarinic receptors in the amygdala. In the present study we investigated the subcellular localization of M2 muscarinic receptors (M2Rs) in the anterior basolateral nucleus (BLa) of the mouse, including the localization of M2Rs in parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactive interneurons, using double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627366/pqbp1-an-intrinsically-disordered-denatured-protein-at-the-crossroad-of-intellectual-disability-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Hitoshi Okazawa
PQBP1 (polyglutamine binding protein-1) is the earliest identified molecule among the group of disease-related intrinsically disordered/denatured proteins. PQBP1 interacts with splicing-related factors via the disordered/denatured domain and regulates post-transcriptional gene expression. The mutations cause intellectual disability due to decreased dendritic spines and abnormal expression of synapse molecules in neurons, and microcephaly due to elongated cell cycle time and abnormal expression of cell cycle proteins in neural stem progenitor cells...
June 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625420/formation-and-remodeling-of-the-brain-extracellular-matrix-in-neural-plasticity-roles-of-chondroitin-sulfate-and-hyaluronan
#14
REVIEW
Shinji Miyata, Hiroshi Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the brain is rich in glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronan. These glycosaminoglycans are organized into either diffuse or condensed ECM. Diffuse ECM is distributed throughout the brain and fills perisynaptic spaces, whereas condensed ECM selectively surrounds parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV cells) in mesh-like structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). The brain ECM acts as a non-specific physical barrier that modulates neural plasticity and axon regeneration...
June 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623238/a-normal-genetic-variation-modulates-synaptic-mmp-9-protein-levels-and-the-severity-of-schizophrenia-symptoms
#15
Katarzyna Lepeta, Katarzyna J Purzycka, Katarzyna Pachulska-Wieczorek, Marina Mitjans, Martin Begemann, Behnam Vafadari, Krystian Bijata, Ryszard W Adamiak, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Magdalena Dziembowska, Leszek Kaczmarek
Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) has recently emerged as a molecule that contributes to pathological synaptic plasticity in schizophrenia, but explanation of the underlying mechanisms has been missing. In the present study, we performed a phenotype-based genetic association study (PGAS) in > 1,000 schizophrenia patients from the Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia (GRAS) data collection and found an association between the MMP-9 rs20544 C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the 3'untranslated region (UTR) and the severity of a chronic delusional syndrome...
June 16, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623134/dysfunction-in-diurnal-synaptic-responses-and-social-behavior-abnormalities-in-cathepsin-s-deficient-mice
#16
Fumiko Takayama, Xinwen Zhang, Yoshinori Hayashi, Zhou Wu, Hiroshi Nakanishi
The expression of cathepsin S (CatS), a microglia-specific lysosomal cysteine protease in the brain, is regulated by the intrinsic microglial circadian clock. We herein report that the diurnal variation of evoked synaptic responses of cortical neurons disappeared in cathepsin S-deficient (CatS(-/-)) mice. The dendritic spine density of the cortical neurons was significantly reduced by incubation with a recombinant CatS. Furthermore, CatS(-/-) mice exhibited impaired social interaction and social novelty recognition in the three-chamber test...
June 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616095/acamprosate-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome-modulation-of-spontaneous-cortical-activity-erk1-2-activation-locomotor-behavior-and-anxiety
#17
Tori L Schaefer, Matthew H Davenport, Lindsay M Grainger, Chandler K Robinson, Anthony T Earnheart, Melinda S Stegman, Anna L Lang, Amy A Ashworth, Gemma Molinaro, Kimberly M Huber, Craig A Erickson
BACKGROUND: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) occurs as a result of a silenced fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) and subsequent loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. Loss of FMRP alters excitatory/inhibitory signaling balance, leading to increased neuronal hyperexcitability and altered behavior. Acamprosate (the calcium salt of N-acetylhomotaurinate), a drug FDA-approved for relapse prevention in the treatment of alcohol dependence in adults, is a novel agent with multiple mechanisms that may be beneficial for people with FXS...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616030/time-lapse-changes-of-in-vivo-injured-neuronal-substructures-in-the-central-nervous-system-after-low-energy-two-photon-nanosurgery
#18
Zhikai Zhao, Shuangxi Chen, Yunhao Luo, Jing Li, Smaranda Badea, Chaoran Ren, Wutian Wu
There is currently very little research regarding the dynamics of the subcellular degenerative events that occur in the central nervous system in response to injury. To date, multi-photon excitation has been primarily used for imaging applications; however, it has been recently used to selectively disrupt neural structures in living animals. However, understanding the complicated processes and the essential underlying molecular pathways involved in these dynamic events is necessary for studying the underlying process that promotes neuronal regeneration...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614590/chronic-ethanol-during-adolescence-impacts-corticolimbic-dendritic-spines-and-behavior
#19
Nicholas J Jury, Gabrielle A Pollack, Meredith J Ward, Jessica L Bezek, Alexandra J Ng, Courtney R Pinard, Hadley C Bergstrom, Andrew Holmes
BACKGROUND: Risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in adulthood is linked to alcohol drinking during adolescence, but understanding of the neural and behavioral consequences of alcohol exposure during adolescence remains incomplete. Here, we examined the neurobehavioral impact of adolescent chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) vapor exposure in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6J-background Thy1-EGFP mice were CIE-exposed during adolescence or adulthood and examined, as adults, for alterations in the density and morphology of dendritic spines in infralimbic (IL) cortex, prelimbic (PL) cortex, and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
June 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613835/%C3%AE-actinin-promotes-surface-localization-and-current-density-of-the-ca-2-channel-cav1-2-by-binding-to-the-iq-region-of-the-%C3%AE-1-subunit
#20
Pang-Yen Tseng, Peter Henderson, Anne C Hergarden, Tommaso Patriarchi, Andrea M Coleman, Mark W Lillya, Carlota Montagut-Bordas, Boram Lee, Johannes W Hell, Mary C Horne
The voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channel CaV1.2 is crucial for initiating heartbeat and control of a number of neuronal functions such as neuronal excitability and long-term potentiation. Mutations of CaV1.2 subunits result in serious health problems including arrhythmia, autism spectrum disorders, immunodeficiency, and hypoglycemia. Thus precise control of CaV1.2 surface expression and localization is essential. We previously reported that α-actinin associates and colocalizes with neuronal CaV1.2 channels and that shRNA-mediated depletion of α-actinin significantly reduces localization of endogenous CaV1...
June 14, 2017: Biochemistry
keyword
keyword
31268
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"