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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214480/nonlinear-actin-deformations-lead-to-network-stiffening-yielding-and-nonuniform-stress-propagation
#1
Bekele Gurmessa, Shea Ricketts, Rae M Robertson-Anderson
We use optical tweezers microrheology and fluorescence microscopy to apply nonlinear microscale strains to entangled and cross-linked actin networks, and measure the resulting stress and actin filament deformations. We couple nonlinear stress response and relaxation to the velocities and displacements of individual fluorescent-labeled actin segments, at varying times throughout the strain and varying distances from the strain path, to determine the underlying molecular dynamics that give rise to the debated nonlinear response and stress propagation of cross-linked and entangled actin networks at the microscale...
February 15, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212709/erythrocyte-deformability-and-aggregation-responses-to-intermittent-and-continuous-artificial-gravity-exposure
#2
Grau Marijke, Abeln Vera, Vogt Tobias, Bloch Wilhelm, Schneider Stefan
Artificial gravity protocols are used to improve g-tolerance of aviators and discussed as countermeasure during prolonged space flight. Little is known about the impact of artificial gravity on the red blood cells (RBC). The purpose of the study was to test how artificial gravity affects RBC deformability and aggregation, which are important determinants of microcirculation. Nine male subjects were exposed to two hypergravity protocols using a short arm human centrifuge: a continuous (CONT) protocol with constant +2Gz for 30min and an intermittent (INTER) protocol with repeated intervals of +2Gz and rest...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212673/weight-compensation-characteristics-of-armeo%C3%A2-spring-exoskeleton-implications-for-clinical-practice-and-research
#3
Bonnie E Perry, Emily K Evans, Dobrivoje S Stokic
BACKGROUND: Armeo®Spring exoskeleton is widely used for upper extremity rehabilitation; however, weight compensation provided by the device appears insufficiently characterized to fully utilize it in clinical and research settings. METHODS: Weight compensation was quantified by measuring static force in the sagittal plane with a load cell attached to the elbow joint of Armeo®Spring. All upper spring settings were examined in 5° increments at the minimum, maximum, and two intermediate upper and lower module length settings, while keeping the lower spring at minimum...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211582/what-can-genome-wide-association-studies-tell-us-about-the-evolutionary-forces-maintaining-genetic-variation-for-quantitative-traits
#4
REVIEW
Emily B Josephs, John R Stinchcombe, Stephen I Wright
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Understanding the evolutionary forces that shape genetic variation within species has long been a goal of evolutionary biology. Integrating data for the genetic architecture of traits from genome-wide association mapping studies (GWAS) along with the development of new population genetic methods for identifying selection in sequence data may allow us to evaluate the roles of mutation-selection balance and balancing selection in shaping genetic variation at various scales...
February 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211558/anxiety-associated-with-parachute-jumping-as-the-cause-of-blood-red-ox-balance-impairment
#5
Mateusz Kowalczyk, Katarzyna Kozak, Julita Ciećwierz, Monika Sienkiewicz, Marcin Kura, Łukasz Jasiak, Edward Kowalczyk
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of anxiety associated with parachute jumps on selected redox balance parameters in regular soldiers from airborne forces. The study allows estimating whether the paratroopers exposed to high level of mental stress are simultaneously under severe oxidative stress. METHODS: The investigations were carried out on 46 professional soldiers from airborne forces divided into groups depending on the number of performed parachute jumps...
December 23, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211526/stable-optical-trapping-and-sensitive-characterization-of-nanostructures-using-standing-wave-raman-tweezers
#6
Mu-Ying Wu, Dong-Xiong Ling, Lin Ling, William Li, Yong-Qing Li
Optical manipulation and label-free characterization of nanoscale structures open up new possibilities for assembly and control of nanodevices and biomolecules. Optical tweezers integrated with Raman spectroscopy allows analyzing a single trapped particle, but is generally less effective for individual nanoparticles. The main challenge is the weak gradient force on nanoparticles that is insufficient to overcome the destabilizing effect of scattering force and Brownian motion. Here, we present standing-wave Raman tweezers for stable trapping and sensitive characterization of single isolated nanostructures with a low laser power by combining a standing-wave optical trap with confocal Raman spectroscopy...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209345/multiobjective-optimization-of-cartilage-stress-for-non-invasive-patient-specific-recommendations-of-high-tibial-osteotomy-correction-angle-a-novel-method-to-investigate-alignment-correction
#7
Keke Zheng, Corey J Scholes, Junning Chen, David Parker, Qing Li
Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) is a surgical procedure to treat knee osteoarthritis associated with varus deformity. However, the ideal final alignment of the Hip-Knee-Ankle (HKA) angle in the frontal plane, that maximizes procedural success and post-operative knee function, remains controversial. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to introduce a subject-specific modeling procedure in determining the biomechanical effects of MOWHTO alignment on tibiofemoral cartilage stress distribution...
February 13, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208773/wind-tunnel-measurements-for-flutter-of-a-long-afterbody-bridge-deck
#8
Zeng-Shun Chen, Cheng Zhang, Xu Wang, Cun-Ming Ma
Bridges are an important component of transportation. Flutter is a self-excited, large amplitude vibration, which may lead to collapse of bridges. It must be understood and avoided. This paper takes the Jianghai Channel Bridge, which is a significant part of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, as an example to investigate the flutter of the bridge deck. Firstly, aerodynamic force models for flutter of bridges were introduced. Then, wind tunnel tests of the bridge deck during the construction and the operation stages, under different wind attack angles and wind velocities, were carried out using a high frequency base balance (HFBB) system and laser displacement sensors...
February 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208390/geometry-and-design-of-origami-bellows-with-tunable-response
#9
Austin Reid, Frederic Lechenault, Sergio Rica, Mokhtar Adda-Bedia
Origami folded cylinders (origami bellows) have found increasingly sophisticated applications in space flight and medicine. In spite of this interest, a general understanding of the mechanics of an origami folded cylinder has been elusive. With a newly developed set of geometrical tools, we have found an analytic solution for all possible cylindrical rigid-face states of both Miura-ori and triangular tessellations. Although an idealized bellows in both of these families may have two allowed rigid-face configurations over a well-defined region, the corresponding physical device, limited by nonzero material thickness and forced to balance hinge and plate-bending energy, often cannot stably maintain a stowed configuration...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205508/global-dynamics-of-non-equilibrium-gliding-in-animals
#10
Isaac Yeaton, Jake Socha, Shane Ross
Gliding flight - moving horizontally downward through the air without power - has evolved in a broad diversity of taxa and serves numerous ecologically relevant functions such as predator escape, expanding foraging locations, and finding mates, and has been suggested as an evolutionary pathway to powered flight. Historically, gliding has been conceptualized using the idealized conditions of equilibrium, in which the net aerodynamic force on the glider balances its weight. While this assumption is appealing for its simplicity, recent studies of glide trajectories have shown that equilibrium gliding is not the norm for most species...
February 16, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199303/mechanical-stretch-triggers-rapid-epithelial-cell-division-through-piezo1
#11
S A Gudipaty, J Lindblom, P D Loftus, M J Redd, K Edes, C F Davey, V Krishnegowda, J Rosenblatt
Despite acting as a barrier for the organs they encase, epithelial cells turn over at some of the fastest rates in the body. However, epithelial cell division must be tightly linked to cell death to preserve barrier function and prevent tumour formation. How does the number of dying cells match those dividing to maintain constant numbers? When epithelial cells become too crowded, they activate the stretch-activated channel Piezo1 to trigger extrusion of cells that later die. However, it is unclear how epithelial cell division is controlled to balance cell death at the steady state...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198949/influence-of-the-presence-of-temporomandibular-disorders-on-postural-balance-in-the-elderly
#12
Paula Vanessa Pedron Oltramari-Navarro, Marjorie Takei Yoshie, Rubens Alexandre da Silva, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira Conti, Ricardo de Lima Navarro, Luciana Lozza do Moraes Marchiori, Karen Barros Parron Fernandes
Purpose: To investigate the influence of the presence of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) on postural balance in elderly individuals. Methods: The study sample consisted of 150 elderly: 103 women (67.7±5.0 years) and 47 men (69.3±5.5 years). Evaluation of the presence and severity of TMD included an anamnesis questionnaire, an evaluation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and a muscular examination, which allowed the division of the elderly into 2 groups: G1 (experimental, n=95), with TMD; G2 (control, n=55), without TMD...
February 9, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197674/role-of-vision-in-sighted-and-blind-soccer-players-in-adapting-to-an-unstable-balance-task
#13
María Campayo-Piernas, Carla Caballero, David Barbado, Raúl Reina
This study tested whether a compensatory hypothesis exists on postural control during standing unstable balance tasks comparing blind soccer players (n = 7) to sighted soccer players (n = 15) and sighted sedentary individuals (n = 6). All subjects performed a pre-test, a training of ten practice trials on a single day, and a post-test balance test. All tests were performed on an unstable surface placed on a force platform and under closed-eyes conditions, and a final test was performed with open eyes...
February 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197173/targeting-cell-surface-receptors-for-axon-regeneration-in-the-central-nervous-system
#14
REVIEW
Menghon Cheah, Melissa R Andrews
Axon regeneration in the CNS is largely unsuccessful due to excess inhibitory extrinsic factors within lesion sites together with an intrinsic inability of neurons to regrow following injury. Recent work demonstrates that forced expression of certain neuronal transmembrane receptors can recapitulate neuronal growth resulting in successful growth within and through inhibitory lesion environments. More specifically, neuronal expression of integrin receptors such as alpha9beta1 integrin which binds the extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-C, trk receptors such as trkB which binds the neurotrophic factor BDNF, and receptor PTPσ which binds chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans, have all been show to significantly enhance regeneration of injured axons...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196767/keep-flexible-keep-switching-the-influence-of-forced-task-switching-on-voluntary-task-switching
#15
Kerstin Fröber, Gesine Dreisbach
Goal directed behavior depends on a dynamic balance between cognitive flexibility and stability. Identifying factors that modulate the balance between these control states is therefore of major interest for the understanding of human action control. In two experiments we used a hybrid paradigm combining forced- and free-choice task switching and measured spontaneous voluntary switch rate (VSR) as an indicator of cognitive flexibility. In Experiment 1 participants were free to choose a given task on 75%, 50%, or 25% of all trials...
February 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196139/using-data-from-the-microsoft-kinect-2-to-determine-postural-stability-in-healthy-subjects-a-feasibility-trial
#16
Behdad Dehbandi, Alexandre Barachant, Anna H Smeragliuolo, John Davis Long, Silverio Joseph Bumanlag, Victor He, Anna Lampe, David Putrino
The objective of this study was to determine whether kinematic data collected by the Microsoft Kinect 2 (MK2) could be used to quantify postural stability in healthy subjects. Twelve subjects were recruited for the project, and were instructed to perform a sequence of simple postural stability tasks. The movement sequence was performed as subjects were seated on top of a force platform, and the MK2 was positioned in front of them. This sequence of tasks was performed by each subject under three different postural conditions: "both feet on the ground" (1), "One foot off the ground" (2), and "both feet off the ground" (3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194830/parasternal-intercostal-muscle-activity-during-methacholine-induced-bronchoconstriction
#17
Victoria MacBean, Claire L Pringle, Alan C Lunt, Keith D Sharp, Ashraf Ali, Anne Greenough, John Moxham, Gerrard F Rafferty
Neural respiratory drive, measured via the parasternal intercostal electromyogram (EMGpara), provides a non-invasive index of the load-capacity balance of the respiratory muscle pump. Previous studies in patients with obstructive lung disease have shown strong relationships between EMGpara and the extent of both airflow obstruction and hyperinflation. The relative influence of the two factors has not, however, been described. Airflow obstruction was induced via methacholine challenge testing in twenty-five adult humans...
February 14, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193816/ontogenetic-adaptations-in-the-visual-systems-of-deep-sea-crustaceans
#18
Tamara M Frank
For all visually competent organisms, the driving force behind the adaptation of photoreceptors involves obtaining the best balance of resolution to sensitivity in the prevailing light regime, as an increase in sensitivity often results in a decrease in resolution. A number of marine species have an additional problem to deal with, in that the juvenile stages live in relatively brightly lit shallow (100-200 m depth) waters, whereas the adult stages have daytime depths of more than 600 m, where little downwelling light remains...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189051/changes-in-root-hydraulic-conductivity-facilitate-the-overall-hydraulic-response-of-rice-oryza-sativa-l-cultivars-to-salt-and-osmotic-stress
#19
Delong Meng, Wieland Fricke
The aim of the present work was to assess the significance of changes in root AQP gene expression and hydraulic conductivity (Lp) in the regulation of water balance in two hydroponically-grown rice cultivars (Azucena, Bala) which differ in root morphology, stomatal regulation and aquaporin (AQP) isoform expression. Plants were exposed to NaCl (25 mM, 50 mM) and osmotic stress (5%, 10% PEG6000). Root Lp was determined for exuding root systems (osmotic forces driving water uptake; 'exudation Lp') and transpiring plants (hydrostatic forces dominating; 'transpiration-Lp')...
February 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188541/the-impact-of-granule-density-on-tabletting-and-pharmaceutical-product-performance
#20
Sander van den Ban, Daniel J Goodwin
PURPOSE: The impact of granule densification in high-shear wet granulation on tabletting and product performance was investigated, at pharmaceutical production scale. Product performance criteria need to be balanced with the need to deliver manufacturability criteria to assure robust industrial scale tablet manufacturing processes. A Quality by Design approach was used to determine in-process control specifications for tabletting, propose a design space for disintegration and dissolution, and to understand the permitted operating limits and required controls for an industrial tabletting process...
February 10, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
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