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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346323/sculling-compensation-algorithm-for-sins-based-on-two-time-scale-perturbation-model-of-inertial-measurements
#1
Lingling Wang, Li Fu, Ming Xin
In order to decrease the velocity sculling error under vibration environments, a new sculling error compensation algorithm for strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) using angular rate and specific force measurements as inputs is proposed in this paper. First, the sculling error formula in incremental velocity update is analytically derived in terms of the angular rate and specific force. Next, two-time scale perturbation models of the angular rate and specific force are constructed. The new sculling correction term is derived and a gravitational search optimization method is used to determine the parameters in the two-time scale perturbation models...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344599/water-thermophoresis-in-carbon-nanotubes-the-interplay-between-thermophoretic-and-friction-forces
#2
Elton Oyarzua, Jens H Walther, Harvey A Zambrano
Thermophoresis is the phenomenon wherein particles experience a net drift induced by a thermal gradient. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study with atomistic detail the thermophoresis of water nanodroplets inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and its interplay with the retarding liquid-solid friction. Different applied temperatures, thermal gradients, and droplet sizes are used to reveal the dynamics of the two kinetic regimes of the thermophoretic motion in CNTs. The results indicate that during the droplet motion, the thermophoretic force is independent of the velocity of the droplet, whereas the magnitude of the retarding friction force exhibits a linear dependence...
January 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344439/regiochemical-control-in-triptycene-formation-an-exercise-in-subtle-balancing-multiple-factors
#3
Jan-Hendrik Lamm, Yury V Vishnevskiy, Eric Ziemann, Beate Neumann, Hans-Georg Stammler, Norbert W Mitzel
Reactions between 1,8-dichloroanthracenes with substituents in position 10 and ortho-chloroaryne afford mixtures of 1,8,13- (syn) and 1,8,16-trichlorotriptycenes (anti). The syn/anti ratio is dependent on these substituents. Electropositive substituents like SiMe3 and GeMe3 lead to preferred formation of the syn-isomer, whereas CMe3 groups exclusively afford the anti-isomer. Different quantum chemical calculations including location of transition states give conflicting results, but indicate the importance of dispersion forces for an at least qualitative prediction of results...
January 2018: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342191/changes-in-balance-and-joint-position-sense-during-a-12-day-high-altitude-trek-the-british-services-dhaulagiri-medical-research-expedition
#4
Sarah B Clarke, Kevin Deighton, Caroline Newman, Gareth Nicholson, Liam Gallagher, Christopher J Boos, Adrian Mellor, David R Woods, John P O'Hara
Postural control and joint position sense are essential for safely undertaking leisure and professional activities, particularly at high altitude. We tested whether exposure to a 12-day trek with a gradual ascent to high altitude impairs postural control and joint position sense. This was a repeated measures observational study of 12 military service personnel (28±4 years). Postural control (sway velocity measured by a portable force platform) during standing balance, a Sharpened Romberg Test and knee joint position sense were measured, in England (113m elevation) and at 3 research camps (3619m, 4600m and 5140m) on a 12-day high altitude trek in the Dhaulagiri region of Nepal...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340934/impact-force-polar-gap-and-modal-parameters-predict-acetabular-cup-fixation-a-study-on-a-composite-bone
#5
Petr Henyš, Lukáš Čapek
The balanced initial fixation of an implant makes up a crucial condition for its long-term survival. However, the quantification of initial fixation is no easy task and, to date, only qualitative assessments can be made. Although the concept of measuring fixation by means of vibration analysis is already widely used in dental implantology, the rigorous application of this method for the assessment of the fixation of femoral and acetabular components remains a challenge. Moreover, most studies on this subject have tended to focus solely on the femoral stem even though acetabular cup fixation is also important and even more difficult with respect to qualitative measurement...
January 16, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340245/effects-of-the-visual-feedback-based-force-platform-training-with-functional-electric-stimulation-on-the-balance-and-prevention-of-falls-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Zhen Li, Xiu-Xia Wang, Yan-Yi Liang, Shu-Yan Chen, Jing Sheng, Shao-Jun Ma
Background: Force platform training with functional electric stimulation aimed at improving balance may be effective in fall prevention for older adults. Aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of the visual-feedback-based force platform balance training with functional electric stimulation on balance and fall prevention in older adults. Methods: A single-centre, unblinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. One hundred and twenty older adults were randomly allocated to two groups: the control group (n = 60, one-leg standing balance exercise, 12 min/d) or the intervention group (n = 60, force platform training with functional electric stimulation, 12 min/d)...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340004/performance-and-kinematic-differences-in-putting-between-healthy-and-disabled-elite-golfers
#7
Tomáš Gryc, Petr Stastny, František Zahálka, Wojciech Smółka, Piotr Żmijewski, Artur Gołaś, Marek Zawartka, Tomáš Malý
Golfers with disability are limited in the execution of the full golf swing, but their performance in putting may be comparable because this stroke does not demand significant strength, balance and range of motion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare putting performance, kinetic and kinematic consistency between golfers with different disabilities and healthy athletes. The participants consisted of three disabled athletes (perinatal cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, below knee lower limb amputee) and three healthy golfers (age 34 ± 4...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339773/postural-adaptations-to-unilateral-knee-joint-hypomobility-induced-by-orthosis-wear-during-gait-initiation
#8
A Delafontaine, P Fourcade, J L Honeine, S Ditcharles, E Yiou
Balance control and whole-body progression during gait initiation (GI) involve knee-joint mobility. Single knee-joint hypomobility often occurs with aging, orthopedics or neurological conditions. The goal of the present study was to investigate the capacity of the CNS to adapt GI organization to single knee-joint hypomobility induced by the wear of an orthosis. Twenty-seven healthy adults performed a GI series on a force-plate in the following conditions: without orthosis ("control"), with knee orthosis over the swing leg ("orth-swing") and with the orthosis over the contralateral stance leg ("orth-stance")...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338005/inferring-cell-state-by-quantitative-motility-analysis-reveals-a-dynamic-state-system-and-broken-detailed-balance
#9
Jacob C Kimmel, Amy Y Chang, Andrew S Brack, Wallace F Marshall
Cell populations display heterogeneous and dynamic phenotypic states at multiple scales. Similar to molecular features commonly used to explore cell heterogeneity, cell behavior is a rich phenotypic space that may allow for identification of relevant cell states. Inference of cell state from cell behavior across a time course may enable the investigation of dynamics of transitions between heterogeneous cell states, a task difficult to perform with destructive molecular observations. Cell motility is one such easily observed cell behavior with known biomedical relevance...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335052/an-evaluation-of-bite-pattern-in-children-with-severe-early-childhood-caries-before-and-after-complete-dental-rehabilitation
#10
Abdullah Abdulrahman Alshareef, Abdulaziz Alkhuriaf, Sharat Chandra Pani
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in bite characteristics of children before and after the placement of multiple stainless steel crowns (SSCs) under general anesthesia (GA). METHODS: Twenty children scheduled for treatment under general anesthesia who needed SSCs in three or more posterior quadrants were included in this study. The bite was digitally analyzed and recorded preoperatively and at one and four weeks postoperatively. The occlusion time, number of force outliers, and distribution of force at each visit was recorded and compared...
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334945/blood-pressure-change-does-not-associate-with-center-of-pressure-movement-after-postural-transition-in-geriatric-outpatients
#11
Sjoerd T Timmermans, Esmee M Reijnierse, Jantsje H Pasma, Marijke C Trappenburg, Gerard J Blauw, Andrea B Maier, Carel G M Meskers
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH), a blood pressure drop after postural change, is associated with impaired standing balance and falls in older adults. This study aimed to assess the association between blood pressure (BP) and a measure of quality of standing balance, i.e. Center of Pressure (CoP) movement, after postural change from supine to standing position in geriatric outpatients, and to compare CoP movement between patients with and without OH. METHODS: In a random subgroup of 75 consecutive patients who were referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic, intermittent BP measurements were obtained simultaneously with CoP measurements in mediolateral and anterior-posterior direction directly after postural change during 3 min of quiet stance with eyes open on a force plate...
January 15, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327912/reliable-manipulation-of-gas-bubble-size-on-superaerophilic-cones-in-aqueous-media
#12
Xiuzhan Xue, Ruixiao Wang, Linwen Lan, Jingming Wang, Zhongxin Xue, Lei Jiang
Gas bubbles in aqueous media are ubiquitous in a broad range of applications. In most cases, the size of bubbles must be manipulated precisely. However, it is very difficult to control the size of gas bubbles. The size of gas bubbles is affected by many factors both during and after the generation process. Thus, precise manipulation of gas bubble size still remains a great challenge. The ratchet and conical hairs of the Chinese brush enable it to realize a significant capacity for holding ink and transferring them onto paper continuously and controllably...
January 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327001/cumulative-energy-analysis-of-thermally-induced-surface-wrinkling-of-heterogeneously-multilayered-thin-films
#13
Seong Soo Yoo, Gwan H Choi, Wooseop Lee, Juhyun Park, Gi-Ra Yi, Du Yeol Ryu, Pil J Yoo
Wrinkling is a well-known example of instability-driven surface deformation that occurs when the accumulated compressive stress exceeds the critical value in multilayered systems. A number of studies have investigated the instability conditions and the corresponding mechanisms of wrinkling deformation. Force balance analysis of bilayer systems, in which the thickness of the capping layer is importantly considered, has offered a useful approach for the quantitative understanding of wrinkling. However, it is inappropriate for multilayer wrinkling (layer number > 3) consisting of heterogeneous materials (e...
January 12, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324510/reliability-and-validity-of-computerized-force-platform-measures-of-balance-function-in-healthy-older-adults
#14
Cathy C Harro, Chelsea Garascia
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Postural control declines with aging and is an independent risk factor for falls in older adults. Objective examination of balance function is warranted to direct fall prevention strategies. Force platform (FP) systems provide quantitative measures of postural control and analysis of different aspects of balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of FP measures in healthy older adults. METHODS: This study enrolled 46 healthy elderly adults, mean age 67...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323554/insights-into-breast-cancer-screening-a-computer-simulation-of-two-contemporary-screening-strategies
#15
Kimbroe J Carter, Frank Castro, Roy N Morcos
OBJECTIVE: The debate over the value of screening mammography is rekindled with each new published study or guideline. Central to the discussion are the uncertainties about screening benefits and harms and the criteria used to assess them. Today, the magnitude of benefits for a population is less certain, and the evolving concept of harm has come to encompass false-positives (FPs), unnecessary biopsies, overdiagnosis, and overtreatment. This study uses a Monte Carlo computer simulation to study the balance of benefits and harms of mammographic breast cancer screening for average-risk women...
January 11, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320689/collective-cell-migration-in-embryogenesis-follows-the-laws-of-wetting
#16
Bernhard Wallmeyer, Sarah Trinschek, Sargon Yigit, Uwe Thiele, Timo Betz
Collective cell migration is a fundamental process during embryogenesis and its initial occurrence, called epiboly, is an excellent in vivo model to study the physical processes involved in collective cell movements that are key to understanding organ formation, cancer invasion, and wound healing. In zebrafish, epiboly starts with a cluster of cells at one pole of the spherical embryo. These cells are actively spreading in a continuous movement toward its other pole until they fully cover the yolk. Inspired by the physics of wetting, we determine the contact angle between the cells and the yolk during epiboly...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318284/screening-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#17
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, a lateral curvature of the spine of unknown cause with a Cobb angle of at least 10°, occurs in children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form and usually worsens during adolescence before skeletal maturity. Severe spinal curvature may be associated with adverse long-term health outcomes (eg, pulmonary disorders, disability, back pain, psychological effects, cosmetic issues, and reduced quality of life)...
January 9, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316895/daily-repetitive-sensory-stimulation-of-the-paretic-hand-for-the-treatment-of-sensorimotor-deficits-in-patients-with-subacute-stroke-reset-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#18
Jan C Kattenstroth, Tobias Kalisch, Matthias Sczesny-Kaiser, Wolfgang Greulich, Martin Tegenthoff, Hubert R Dinse
BACKGROUND: Repetitive sensory stimulation (RSS) adapts the timing of stimulation protocols used in cellular studies to induce synaptic plasticity. In healthy subjects, RSS leads to widespread sensorimotor cortical reorganization paralleled by improved sensorimotor behavior. Here, we investigated whether RSS reduces sensorimotor upper limb impairment in patients with subacute stroke more effectively than conventional therapy. METHODS: A single-blinded sham-controlled clinical trial assessed the effectiveness of RSS in treating sensorimotor deficits of the upper limbs...
January 9, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315031/osmolyte-adjustments-as-a-pressure-adaptation-in-deep-sea-chondrichthyan-fishes-an-intraspecific-test-in-arctic-skates-amblyraja-hyperborea-along-a-depth-gradient
#19
Paul H Yancey, Ben Speers-Roesch, Sheila Atchinson, James D Reist, Andrew R Majewski, Jason R Treberg
Accumulation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) by deep-sea animals is proposed to protect proteins against the destabilizing effects of high hydrostatic pressure (the piezolyte hypothesis). Chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) provide a unique test of this hypothesis because shallow-living species have elevated TMAO levels to counteract the destabilizing effects of high urea levels accumulated for osmoregulation. Limited interspecific studies of chondrichthyans reveal that increasing depth correlates with decreased urea and increased TMAO levels, suggesting a dynamic balance between destabilizing forces on proteins (high urea, hydrostatic pressure) and TMAO to counteract these forces...
March 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314903/national-athletic-trainers-association-position-statement-prevention-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury
#20
Darin A Padua, Lindsay J DiStefano, Timothy E Hewett, William E Garrett, Stephen W Marshall, Grace M Golden, Sandra J Shultz, Susan M Sigward
OBJECTIVE:   To provide certified athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care and fitness professionals with recommendations based on current evidence regarding the prevention of noncontact and indirect-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in athletes and physically active individuals. BACKGROUND:   Preventing ACL injuries during sport and physical activity may dramatically decrease medical costs and long-term disability. Implementing ACL injury-prevention training programs may improve an individual's neuromuscular control and lower extremity biomechanics and thereby reduce the risk of injury...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
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