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Balance force

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086750/a-genome-wide-scan-for-genes-under-balancing-selection-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Myriam Croze, Andreas Wollstein, Vedran Božičević, Daniel Živković, Wolfgang Stephan, Stephan Hutter
BACKGROUND: In the history of population genetics balancing selection has been considered as an important evolutionary force, yet until today little is known about its abundance and its effect on patterns of genetic diversity. Several well-known examples of balancing selection have been reported from humans, mice, plants, and parasites. However, only very few systematic studies have been carried out to detect genes under balancing selection. We performed a genome scan in Drosophila melanogaster to find signatures of balancing selection in a derived (European) and an ancestral (African) population...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075570/contrasting-behavior-of-the-z-bonds-in-x-z%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-y-weak-interactions-z-main-group-elements-versus-the-transition-metals
#2
Jyothish Joy, Eluvathingal D Jemmis
In contrast to the increasing family of weak intermolecular interactions in main-group compounds (X-Z···Y, Z = main-group elements), an analysis of the Cambridge Structural Database indicates that electron-saturated (18-electron) transition-metal complexes show reluctance toward weak M bond formation (X-M···Y, M = transition metal). In particular, weak M bonds involving electron-saturated (18-electron) complexes of transition metals with partially filled d-orbitals are not found. We propose that the nature of valence electron density distribution in transition-metal complexes is the primary reason for this reluctance...
January 11, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073150/the-impact-of-overdiagnosis-on-the-selection-of-efficient-lung-cancer-screening-strategies
#3
Summer S Han, Kevin Ten Haaf, William D Hazelton, Vidit N Munshi, Jihyoun Jeon, Saadet A Erdogan, Colden Johanson, Pamela M McMahon, Rafael Meza, Chung Yin Kong, Eric J Feuer, Harry J de Koning, Sylvia K Plevritis
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recently updated their national lung screening guidelines and recommended low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for lung cancer (LC) screening through age 80. However, the risk of overdiagnosis among older populations is a concern. Using four comparative models from the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network, we evaluate the overdiagnosis of the screening program recommended by USPSTF in the U.S. 1950 birth cohort. We estimate the number of LC deaths averted by screening (D) per overdiagnosed case (O), yielding the ratio D/O, to quantify the trade-off between the harms and benefits of LDCT...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071596/3d-bioprinting-of-gelma-scaffolds-triggers-mineral-deposition-by-primary-human-osteoblasts
#4
Christine McBeth, Jasmin Lauer, Michael Ottersbach, Jennifer Campbell, Andre Sharon, Alexis F Sauer-Budge
Due to its relatively low level of antigenicity and high durability, titanium has successfully been used as the major material for biological implants. However, because the typical interface between titanium and tissue precludes adequate transmission of load into the surrounding bone, over time, load-bearing implants tend to loosen and revision surgeries are required. Osseointegration of titanium implants requires presentation of both biological and mechanical cues that promote attachment of and trigger mineral deposition by osteoblasts...
January 10, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070278/entanglement-is-a-costly-life-history-stage-in-large-whales
#5
Julie van der Hoop, Peter Corkeron, Michael Moore
Individuals store energy to balance deficits in natural cycles; however, unnatural events can also lead to unbalanced energy budgets. Entanglement in fishing gear is one example of an unnatural but relatively common circumstance that imposes energetic demands of a similar order of magnitude and duration of life-history events such as migration and pregnancy in large whales. We present two complementary bioenergetic approaches to estimate the energy associated with entanglement in North Atlantic right whales, and compare these estimates to the natural energetic life history of individual whales...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068276/repositioning-of-a-pathologically-migrated-tooth-using-autologous-platelet-rich-plasma-a-case-report-with-3-year-follow-up
#6
B V Karthikeyan, Divya Khanna, M Lv Prabhuji
An intricate balance between the periodontal tissues and the forces of occlusion, tongue, and lips helps to maintain a tooth in its physiologic position within the dental arch. Disturbances in the equilibrium can cause a tooth to migrate pathologically, often requiring multidisciplinary treatment approaches. The present case demonstrates, for the first time, the use of autologous platelet-rich plasma to aid in tooth repositioning after pathologic tooth migration. A 25-year-old woman presented with extrusion and labial migration of the maxillary left central incisor, a diastema of 3 mm, and grade II mobility...
January 2017: General Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067120/standing-balance-in-people-with-trans-tibial-amputation-due-to-vascular-causes-a-literature-review
#7
Mayank Seth, Eric Lamberg
BACKGROUND: Balance is an important variable to consider during the rehabilitation process of individuals with trans-tibial amputation. Limited evidence exists on the balance abilities of people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review literature and determine if standing balance is diminished in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. STUDY DESIGN: Literature review...
January 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066693/society-of-pediatric-psychology-workforce-survey-development-of-survey-methods-sample-characteristics-and-lessons-learned
#8
Tim Wysocki, Cheryl L Brosig, Marisa E Hilliard
There are few detailed workforce studies of specialty fields within professional psychology, and none have been reported for pediatric psychology since 2006. Availability of such data could facilitate more-informed decision making by students and trainees, psychologists pursuing employment opportunities, and psychologists involved in employment or compensation negotiations. This article describes the work of a task force of the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 54 (Society of Pediatric Psychology) in the design, construction, pretesting, distribution, and data management for the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) Workforce Survey...
March 2016: Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057835/how-social-learning-adds-up-to-a-culture-from-birdsong-to-human-public-opinion
#9
REVIEW
Ofer Tchernichovski, Olga Feher, Daniel Fimiarz, Dalton Conley
Distributed social learning may occur at many temporal and spatial scales, but it rarely adds up to a stable culture. Cultures vary in stability and diversity (polymorphism), ranging from chaotic or drifting cultures, through cumulative polymorphic cultures, to stable monolithic cultures with high conformity levels. What features can sustain polymorphism, preventing cultures from collapsing into either chaotic or highly conforming states? We investigate this question by integrating studies across two quite separate disciplines: the emergence of song cultures in birds, and the spread of public opinion and social conventions in humans...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055941/a-dynamic-neighborhood-learning-based-gravitational-search-algorithm
#10
Aizhu Zhang, Genyun Sun, Jinchang Ren, Xiaodong Li, Zhenjie Wang, Xiuping Jia
Balancing exploration and exploitation according to evolutionary states is crucial to meta-heuristic search (M-HS) algorithms. Owing to its simplicity in theory and effectiveness in global optimization, gravitational search algorithm (GSA) has attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, the tradeoff between exploration and exploitation in GSA is achieved mainly by adjusting the size of an archive, named Kbest, which stores those superior agents after fitness sorting in each iteration. Since the global property of Kbest remains unchanged in the whole evolutionary process, GSA emphasizes exploitation over exploration and suffers from rapid loss of diversity and premature convergence...
December 30, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053245/synaptic-control-of-the-shape-of-the-motoneuron-pool-input-output-function
#11
Randall K Powers, Charles J Heckman
Although motoneurons have often been considered to be fairly linear transducers of synaptic input, recent evidence suggests that strong persistent inward currents (PICs) in motoneurons allow neuromodulatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to induce large nonlinearities in the relation between the level of excitatory input and motor output. To try and estimate the possible extent of this nonlinearity, we developed a pool of model motoneurons designed to replicate the characteristics of motoneuron input-output properties measured in medial gastrocnemius motoneurons in the decerebrate cat using voltage-clamp and current-clamp techniques...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052190/enhanced-light-scattering-of-secondary-organic-aerosols-by-multiphase-reactions
#12
Kun Li, Junling Li, John Liggio, Weigang Wang, Maofa Ge, Qifan Liu, Yu-Cong Guo, Shengrui Tong, Jiangjun Li, Chao Peng, Bo Jing, Dong Wang, Pingqing Fu
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) plays a pivotal role in visibility and radiative forcing, both of which are intrinsically linked to the refractive index (RI). While previous studies have focused on the RI of SOA from traditional formation processes, the effect of multiphase reactions on the RI has not been considered. Here, we investigate the effects of multiphase processes on the RI and light-extinction of m-xylene-derived SOA, a common type of anthropogenic SOA. We find that multiphase reactions in the presence of liquid water lead to the formation of oligomers from intermediate products such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal, resulting in a large enhancement in the RI and light-scattering of this SOA...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042976/distinctions-of-introarticular-force-distribution-between-genesis-ii-posterior-stabilized-and-cruciate-retaining-total-knee-arthroplasty-an-intraoperative-comparative-study-of-45-patients
#13
Hao Tang, Hong Chen, Dejin Yang, Yi Jiang, Chunyu Zhang, Yixin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Although both the posterior stabilized and cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty have been proven to effectively relieve pain and restore basic functions, the joint gap width during flexion was reported to be different due to the presence or absence of posterior cruciate ligament, which may lead to different intra-articular force distribution. In this study, we investigated the distinctions in intra-articular force distribution between the two types of TKA designs in patients with varus knee osteoarthritis...
December 14, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040473/electrochemical-reverse-engineering-a-systems-level-tool-to-probe-the-redox-based-molecular-communication-of-biology
#14
Jinyang Li, Yi Liu, Eunkyoung Kim, John C March, William E Bentley, Gregory F Payne
The intestine is the site of digestion and forms a critical interface between the host and the outside world. This interface is composed of host epithelium and a complex microbiota which is "connected" through an extensive web of chemical and biological interactions that determine the balance between health and disease for the host. This biology and the associated chemical dialogues occur within a context of a steep oxygen gradient that provides the driving force for a variety of reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions...
December 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038688/biomechanical-evaluation-of-a-growth-friendly-rod-construct
#15
Sarah Galvis, Josh Arnold, Erin Mannen, Benjamin Wong, Hadley Sis, Eileen Cadel, John Anderson, Dennis Anderson, Paul Arnold, Elizabeth Friis
BACKGROUND: Distraction-type rods mechanically stabilize the thorax and improve lung growth and function by applying distraction forces at the rib, spine, pelvis, or a combination of locations. However, the amount of stability the rods provide and the amount the thorax needs is unknown. METHODS: Five freshly frozen and thawed cadaveric thoracic spine specimens were tested for lateral bending, flexion/extension, and axial rotation in displacement control (1°/sec) to a load limit of ±5 Nm for five cycles after which a growth-friendly unilateral rod was placed in a simulated rib-to-lumbar attachment along the right side...
January 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038342/atypical-anticipatory-postural-adjustments-during-gait-initiation-among-individuals-with-sub-acute-stroke
#16
Roshanth Rajachandrakumar, Julia E Fraser, Alison Schinkel-Ivy, Elizabeth L Inness, Lou Biasin, Karen Brunton, William E McIlroy, Avril Mansfield
Anticipatory postural adjustments, executed prior to gait initiation, help preserve lateral stability when stepping. Atypical patterns of anticipatory activity prior to gait initiation may occur in individuals with unilateral impairment (e.g., stroke). This study aimed to determine the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of atypical anticipatory postural adjustment patterns prior to gait initiation in a sub-acute stroke population. Forty independently-ambulatory individuals with sub-acute stroke stood on two force plates and initiated gait at a self-selected speed...
December 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035823/relationship-between-passive-permeability-and-molecular-polarity-using-block-relevance-analysis
#17
Gilles H Goetz, Marina Shalaeva, Giulia Caron, Giuseppe Ermondi, Laurence Philippe
EPSA (not an acronym) is an experimental descriptor of molecular polarity obtained from chromatographic retention in Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) systems, previously shown by Goetz et al. to correlate with passive permeability of cyclic peptides. The present study focuses on EPSA in relation to passive permeability of small molecules. We applied Block Relevance (BR) analysis to interpret the relative significance of mechanistic forces prevailing in EPSA. The BR analysis is a computational tool which allows the interpretation of the balance of intermolecular interactions governing systems such as the aforementioned chromatographic retention in EPSA...
December 30, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033644/dome-division-a-viable-technique-today
#18
Armando Boccieri, Sebastiano Sciuto, Valerio Cervelli, Michele Pascali
Dome division can still be regarded as a valid surgical procedure today in some particular cases of revision rhinoplasty where the scarring is so extensive as to make precise isolation of the alar cartilages impossible. The presence of asymmetry of the nasal tip, a recurrent feature in the results of rhinoplasty, constitutes the primary indication, as division makes it immediately possible to restore balance between the two domes in such cases. The technique also proves useful in cases of overprojection of the tip as a result of rhinoplasty...
December 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033577/reliability-and-validity-of-the-protokinetics-movement-analysis-software-in-measuring-center-of-pressure-during-walking
#19
Robert C Lynall, Lisa A Zukowski, Prudence Plummer, Jason P Mihalik
Our purpose was to determine the validity and test-retest reliability of the Protokinetics Movement Analysis Software (PKMAS) in measuring center of pressure (COP) during walking as compared to a force plate gold standard. Twenty-five healthy participants (14 females, 11 males; age 20.0±1.5years) completed 2 testing sessions approximately 5days apart (mean=5.5±1.1 days). In each session, participants completed 16 total trials across a 6m walkway: 8 trials walking on a ProtoKinetics Zeno Walkway using PKMAS and 8 trials walking over 2 force plates arranged in an offset tandem pattern...
December 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033487/balance-performance-during-perturbed-standing-is-not-associated-with-muscle-strength-and-power-in-young-adults
#20
Erika Zemková, Michal Jeleň, Zuzana Kováčiková, Peter Miklovič, Zdeněk Svoboda, Miroslav Janura
The authors investigate the ways in which varied postural responses to translating platform perturbations are associated with the variables of strength and power. Twenty-four physically active and 27 sedentary young adults were exposed to a set of postural perturbations at varied velocities (10 and 20 cm/s) and the respective accelerations (6.4 and 6.9 m/s(2)), constant distance (6 cm), and 4 directions of platform motion (forward, backward, left-lateral, and right-lateral). They also performed maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) and chair rising/chair jumping tests...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
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