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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539876/plantar-sole-unweighting-alters-the-sensory-transmission-to-the-cortical-areas
#1
Laurence Mouchnino, Olivia Lhomond, Clément Morant, Pascale Chavet
It is well established that somatosensory inputs to the cortex undergo an early and a later stage of processing. The later has been shown to be enhanced when the earlier transmission decreased. In this framework, mechanical factors such as the mechanical stress to which sensors are subjected when wearing a loaded vest are associated with a decrease in sensory transmission. This decrease is in turn associated with an increase in the late sensory processes originating from cortical areas. We hypothesized that unweighting the plantar sole should lead to a facilitation of the sensory transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539694/a-retrospective-analysis-of-post-stroke-berg-balance-scale-scores-how-should-normal-and-at-risk-scores-be-interpreted
#2
Kara K Patterson, Elizabeth Inness, William E McIlroy, Avril Mansfield
Purpose: The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) is a performance-based measure of standing balance commonly used by clinicians working with individuals post-stroke. Performance on the BBS can be influenced by compensatory strategies, but measures derived from two force plates can isolate compensatory strategies and thus better indicate balance impairment. This study examined BBS scores that reflect "normal" and disordered balance with respect to dual force-plate measures of standing balance in individuals post-stroke...
2017: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539457/mechanical-evidence-that-flamingos-can-support-their-body-on-one-leg-with-little-active-muscular-force
#3
Young-Hui Chang, Lena H Ting
Flamingos (Phoenicopteridae) often stand and sleep on one leg for long periods, but it is unknown how much active muscle contractile force they use for the mechanical demands of standing on one leg: body weight support and maintaining balance. First, we demonstrated that flamingo cadavers could passively support body weight on one leg without any muscle activity while adopting a stable, unchanging, joint posture resembling that seen in live flamingos. By contrast, the cadaveric flamingo could not be stably held in a two-legged pose, suggesting a greater necessity for active muscle force to stabilize two-legged versus one-legged postures...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535530/mathematical-model-of-potassium-profiling-in-chronic-dialysis
#4
Mauro Ursino, Gabriele Donati
Potassium balance is a difficult task in hemodialysis: low potassium in the dialysate is associated with a high risk of sudden cardiac death, whereas excessive dialysate potassium may provoke insufficient removal and hyperkalemia. A better understanding of the problem can be achieved with the use of mathematical models of solute kinetics. This study is aimed at presenting an improved model of solute kinetics and fluid shifts during hemodialysis. It comprises a 2-compartment (intracellular and extracellular) description of sodium, potassium, and urea, including volume fluid shifts induced by osmotic forces...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534026/how-cells-can-control-their-size-by-pumping-ions
#5
Alan R Kay
The ability of all cells to set and regulate their size is a fundamental aspect of cellular physiology. It has been known for sometime but not widely so, that size stability in animal cells is dependent upon the operation of the sodium pump, through the so-called pump-leak mechanism (Tosteson and Hoffman, 1960). Impermeant molecules in cells establish an unstable osmotic condition, the Donnan effect, which is counteracted by the operation of the sodium pump, creating an asymmetry in the distribution of Na(+) and K(+) staving off water inundation...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529468/contrasting-patterns-of-nucleotide-polymorphism-suggest-different-selective-regimes-within-different-parts-of-the-pgic1-gene-in-festuca-ovina-l
#6
Yuan Li, Bengt Hansson, Lena Ghatnekar, Honor C Prentice
BACKGROUND: Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI, EC 5.3.1.9) is an essential metabolic enzyme in all eukaryotes. An earlier study of the PgiC1 gene, which encodes cytosolic PGI in the grass Festuca ovina L., revealed a marked difference in the levels of nucleotide polymorphism between the 5' and 3' portions of the gene. METHODS: In the present study, we characterized the sequence polymorphism in F. ovina PgiC1 in more detail and examined possible explanations for the non-uniform pattern of nucleotide polymorphism across the gene...
2017: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528238/effects-of-grab-bar-on-utilized-friction-and-dynamic-stability-when-elderly-people-enter-the-bathtub
#7
Yusuke Sekiguchi, Tomohisa Kato, Keita Honda, Hiroyasu Kanetaka, Shin-Ichi Izumi
BACKGROUND: The effect of the grab bar on dynamic stability when elderly people enter the bathtub remains unclear. The purpose of the present study is to examine the age-related effect of the grab bar on dynamic stability during lateral stepping over an obstacle when entering bathtub. METHODS: Sixteen young, healthy adults and sixteen elderly adults participated. The subjects performed lateral stepping over an obstacle with and without vertical and horizontal bars...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524701/helical-water-wires
#8
A R Liboff, C Poggi, P Pratesi
A helitetrahedral model has been proposed to help explain reports of low-frequency oscillations in pure water following electromagnetic excitation at the hydronium ion cyclotron resonance frequency. The Lorentz force and the intrinsic structure constrain the motion of the H3O(+) ion so that it enjoys a unique form of proton-hopping, one whose path is helical. This model may also explain the numerous previously observed cyclotron resonance (ICR) biological couplings for cations other than hydronium by merely substituting hydrogen-bonded versions of these for hydronium in the tetrahedral structure...
May 19, 2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517972/glycated-collagen-stimulates-the-differentiation-of-gingival-myofibroblasts
#9
Ignacio N Retamal, Romina Hernández, Francisco Melo, Paulina Zapata, Constanza Martínez, Jorge Martínez, Patricio C Smith
BACKGROUND: Glucose-derived metabolites may alter the structure and biological properties of important proteins in the periodontium such as collagens. As a consequence, it is possible that collagen-binding cells may change their phenotypic traits. Though the glucose derived product methylglyoxal has been detected in periodontal lesions, the precise effect of collagen glycation on gingival connective tissue biology is far from being understood. In the present study we have evaluated whether collagen glycation by methylglyoxal may affect the phenotypic properties and remodeling capacity of human gingival fibroblasts...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515947/the-impact-of-body-armor-on-physical-performance-of-law-enforcement-personnel-a-systematic-review
#10
Colin Tomes, Robin Marc Orr, Rodney Pope
BACKGROUND: The law enforcement officer profession requires performance of arduous occupational tasks while carrying an external load, consisting of, at minimum, a chest rig, a communication system, weaponry, handcuffs, personal protective equipment and a torch. The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to identify and critically appraise the methodological quality of published studies that have investigated the impacts of body armour on task performance and to synthesize and report key findings from these studies to inform law enforcement organizations...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515874/universal-expressions-of-population-change-by-the-price-equation-natural-selection-information-and-maximum-entropy-production
#11
Steven A Frank
The Price equation shows the unity between the fundamental expressions of change in biology, in information and entropy descriptions of populations, and in aspects of thermodynamics. The Price equation partitions the change in the average value of a metric between two populations. A population may be composed of organisms or particles or any members of a set to which we can assign probabilities. A metric may be biological fitness or physical energy or the output of an arbitrarily complicated function that assigns quantitative values to members of the population...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513584/kinesin-5-independent-mitotic-spindle-assembly-requires-the-antiparallel-microtubule-crosslinker-ase1-in-fission-yeast
#12
Sergio A Rincon, Adam Lamson, Robert Blackwell, Viktoriya Syrovatkina, Vincent Fraisier, Anne Paoletti, Meredith D Betterton, Phong T Tran
Bipolar spindle assembly requires a balance of forces where kinesin-5 produces outward pushing forces to antagonize the inward pulling forces from kinesin-14 or dynein. Accordingly, Kinesin-5 inactivation results in force imbalance leading to monopolar spindle and chromosome segregation failure. In fission yeast, force balance is restored when both kinesin-5 Cut7 and kinesin-14 Pkl1 are deleted, restoring spindle bipolarity. Here we show that the cut7Δpkl1Δ spindle is fully competent for chromosome segregation independently of motor activity, except for kinesin-6 Klp9, which is required for anaphase spindle elongation...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512143/diverse-roles-of-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factors-in-regulating-collective-cell-migration
#13
Assaf Zaritsky, Yun-Yu Tseng, M Angeles Rabadán, Shefali Krishna, Michael Overholtzer, Gaudenz Danuser, Alan Hall
Efficient collective migration depends on a balance between contractility and cytoskeletal rearrangements, adhesion, and mechanical cell-cell communication, all controlled by GTPases of the RHO family. By comprehensive screening of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) in human bronchial epithelial cell monolayers, we identified GEFs that are required for collective migration at large, such as SOS1 and β-PIX, and RHOA GEFs that are implicated in intercellular communication. Down-regulation of the latter GEFs differentially enhanced front-to-back propagation of guidance cues through the monolayer and was mirrored by down-regulation of RHOA expression and myosin II activity...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510497/clinical-development-and-commercialization-of-advanced-therapy-medicinal-products-atmps-in-the-eu-how-are-the-product-pipeline-and-regulatory-framework-evolving
#14
Tomáš Boráň, Margarida Menezes-Ferreira, Ilona Reischl, Patrick Celis, Nicolas Ferry, Bernd Gänsbacher, Hartmut Krafft, Michele Lipucci Di Paola, Dariusz Sladowski, Paula Salmikangas
The research and development of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs) has been active in Europe and worldwide during recent years, yet the number of licensed products remains still low. The main expected legal change in near future in the EU concerns the regulation on clinical trials (536/2014), which will come into force in 2018. With this new framework a more harmonized and swift process for approval of clinical trials is awaited, which is expected to support the entry of new innovations into the EU market...
May 16, 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507295/self-assembled-levitating-clusters-of-water-droplets-pattern-formation-and-stability
#15
Alexander A Fedorets, Mark Frenkel, Evgeny Shulzinger, Leonid A Dombrovsky, Edward Bormashenko, Michael Nosonovsky
Water forms ordered hexagonally symmetric structures (snow crystals) in its solid state, however not as liquid. Typically, mists and clouds are composed of randomly moving small droplets lacking any ordered structure. Self-organized hexagonally patterned microdroplet clusters over locally heated water surfaces have been recently observed. However, many aspects of the phenomenon are far from being well understood including what determines droplets size, arrangement, and the distance between them. Here we show that the Voronoi entropy of the cluster tends to decrease indicating to their self-organization, while coupling of thermal effects and mechanical forces controls the stability of the clusters...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505455/interaction-of-multiple-particles-with-a-solidification-front-from-compacted-particle-layer-to-particle-trapping
#16
Brice Saint-Michel, Marc Georgelin, Sylvain Deville, Alain Pocheau
The interaction of solidification fronts with objects such as particles, droplets, cells, or bubbles is a phenomenon with many natural and technological occurrences. For an object facing the front, it may yield various fates, from trapping to rejection, with large implications regarding the solidification pattern. However, whereas most situations involve multiple particles interacting with each other and the front, attention has focused almost exclusively on the interaction of a single, isolated object with the front...
May 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504979/congenital-deafness-alters-sensory-weighting-for-postural-control
#17
Maxime Maheu, Andréanne Sharp, Sara Pagé, François Champoux
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine sensory reweighting for postural control in congenitally deaf individuals. DESIGN: We studied 14 controls and 14 deaf age-matched individuals using a force platform and the modified clinical test of sensory interaction and balance protocol. Both groups performed the postural tasks without auditory cues (with hearing protectors for controls or without hearing devices for the deaf). RESULTS: The results confirmed poorer postural stability in the deaf...
May 12, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504468/incubatory-environment-of-the-scalp-impacts-pre-emergent-hair-to-affect-post-emergent-hair-cuticle-integrity
#18
James R Schwartz, James P Henry, Kathy M Kerr, Michael J Flagler, Steve H Page, Nancy Redman-Furey
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the oxidative stress transmitted to newly grown hair from an unhealthy scalp has physical consequences to the cuticular condition and function. METHODS: A uniquely designed 24-week clinical study included 8 weeks of pretreatment with a cosmetic shampoo and 16 weeks of treatment with either a potentiated zinc pyrithione (ZPT) antidandruff shampoo or a placebo cosmetic shampoo. This clinical design allowed the growth and acquisition of hair samples under conditions of varying but known scalp health as a result of treating a dandruff/seborrheic dermatitis (D/SD) population...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503144/rigid-ankle-foot-orthosis-deteriorates-mediolateral-balance-control-and-vertical-braking-during-gait-initiation
#19
Arnaud Delafontaine, Olivier Gagey, Silvia Colnaghi, Manh-Cuong Do, Jean-Louis Honeine
Rigid ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) are commonly used for impeding foot drop during the swing phase of gait. They also reduce pain and improve gait kinematics in patients with weakness or loss of integrity of ankle-foot complex structures due to various pathological conditions. However, this comes at the price of constraining ankle joint mobility, which might affect propulsive force generation and balance control. The present study examined the effects of wearing an AFO on biomechanical variables and electromyographic activity of tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles during gait initiation (GI)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501900/autonomic-nervous-system-in-newborns-a-review-based-on-heart-rate-variability
#20
REVIEW
Sandra Cardoso, Marta João Silva, Hercília Guimarães
PURPOSE: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been a relevant tool in the assessment of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). How autonomic control normally develops in newborns and how it is affected by gestational age (GA) is not fully understood. We aimed to review the current evidence on HRV in preterm (PT) and term neonates (TN) and investigate the relation between GA and the maturation of ANS. METHODS: Electronic databases (Pubmed, World of Science, and Scopus) were searched for studies from 1997 to 2017 examining HRV (time and frequency domain) in PT and TN who followed to the Task Force (1996) guidelines...
May 13, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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