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Amputee biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229193/osseointegrated-prostheses-for-rehabilitation-following-amputation-the-pioneering-swedish-model
#1
Yan Li, Rickard Brånemark
The direct attachment of osseointegrated (OI) prostheses to the skeleton avoids the inherent problems of socket suspension. It also provides physiological weight bearing, improved range of motion in the proximal joint, as well as osseoperceptive sensory feedback, enabling better control of the artificial limbs by amputees. The present article briefly reviews the pioneering efforts on extremity osseointegration surgeries in Sweden and the development of the OPRA (Osseointegrated Prostheses for the Rehabilitation of Amputees) program...
February 22, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126335/two-biomechanical-strategies-for-locomotor-adaptation-to-split-belt-treadmill-walking-in-subjects-with-and-without-transtibial-amputation
#2
Brian P Selgrade, Megan E Toney, Young-Hui Chang
Locomotor adaptation is commonly studied using split-belt treadmill walking, in which each foot is placed on a belt moving at a different speed. As subjects adapt to split-belt walking, they reduce metabolic power, but the biomechanical mechanism behind this improved efficiency is unknown. Analyzing mechanical work performed by the legs and joints during split-belt adaptation could reveal this mechanism. Because ankle work in the step-to-step transition is more efficient than hip work, we hypothesized that control subjects would reduce hip work on the fast belt and increase ankle work during the step-to-step transition as they adapted...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113346/control-and-evaluation-of-a-powered-transfemoral-prosthesis-for-stair-ascent
#3
Elissa D Ledoux, Michael Goldfarb
This paper assesses the metabolic effort exerted by three transfemoral amputees when using a powered knee and ankle prosthesis for stair ascent, relative to ascending stairs with passive knee and ankle prostheses. The paper describes a controller that provides step-over stair ascent behavior reflective of healthy stair ascent biomechanics, and describes its implementation in a powered prosthesis prototype. Stair ascent experiments were performed with three unilateral transfemoral amputee subjects, comparing the oxygen consumption required to ascend stairs using the powered prosthesis (with a step-over gait), relative to using their daily-use energetically passive prostheses (with a step-to gait)...
January 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095358/axial-and-torsional-stiffness-of-pediatric-prosthetic-feet
#4
Paolo Taboga, Alena M Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic stiffness likely affects the walking biomechanics of toddlers and children with leg amputations, but the actual stiffness values for prostheses are not reported by manufacturers or in standardized testing procedures. AIM: We measured axial (kA) and torsional (kT) stiffness from four brands of pediatric prosthetic feet (Trulife, Kingsley Mfg. Co., TRS Incorporated, and College Park Industries) over a range of foot sizes. METHODS: We applied forces and torques onto prostheses with a materials testing machine that replicated those exhibited in vivo by using the kinetics measured from four non-amputee toddlers (2-3years) during walking...
January 5, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066520/gait-training-interventions-for-lower-extremity-amputees-a-systematic-literature-review
#5
M Jason Highsmith, Casey R Andrews, Claire Millman, Ashley Fuller, Jason T Kahle, Tyler D Klenow, Katherine L Lewis, Rachel C Bradley, John J Orriola
Lower extremity (LE) amputation patients who use prostheses have gait asymmetries and altered limb loading and movement strategies when ambulating. Subsequent secondary conditions are believed to be associated with gait deviations and lead to long-term complications that impact function and quality of life as a result. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine the strength of evidence supporting gait training interventions and to formulate evidence statements to guide practice and research related to therapeutic gait training for lower extremity amputees...
September 2016: Technology and Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918675/biomechanics-in-paralympics-implications-for-performance
#6
Floor Morriën, Matthew J D Taylor, Florentina J Hettinga
PURPOSE: To provide an overview of biomechanical studies in Paralympic research and their relevance for performance in Paralympic sports. METHODS: Search terms ' Paralympic Biomechanics', 'Paralympic Sport Performance', 'Paralympic Athlete Performance', and Paralympic Athlete' were entered into the electronic database PubMed. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were included. Biomechanical studies in Paralympics mainly contributed to performance enhancement by technical optimization (n=32) and/or injury prevention (n=6)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614614/characteristics-and-adaptive-strategies-linked-with-falls-in-stroke-survivors-from-analysis-of-laboratory-induced-falls
#7
Claire F Honeycutt, Masood Nevisipour, Mark D Grabiner
Falls are the most common and expensive medical complication in stroke survivors. There is remarkably little information about what factors lead to a fall in stroke survivors. With few exceptions, the falls literature in stroke has focused on relating metrics of static balance and impairment to fall outcomes in the acute care setting or in community. While informative, these studies provide little information about what specific impairments in a stroke-survivor's response to dynamic balance challenges lead to a fall...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497755/reliability-of-3d-gait-data-across-multiple-laboratories
#8
Kenton Kaufman, Emily Miller, Trevor Kingsbury, Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Erik Wolf, Jason Wilken, Marilynn Wyatt
The aim of this study was to analyze the repeatability of gait analysis studies performed across multiple trials, sessions, and laboratories. Ten healthy participants (6 male/4 female, mean age of 30, mean BMI of 24kg/m(2)) were assessed in 3 sessions conducted at each of the three Centers of Excellence for Amputee Care within the Department of Defense. For each test session, kinematic and kinetic parameters were collected during five walking trials for each limb. One independent examiner at each site placed markers on the subjects...
September 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27200342/design-and-preliminary-evaluation-of-a-two-dofs-cable-driven-ankle-foot-prosthesis-with-active-dorsiflexion-plantarflexion-and-inversion-eversion
#9
Evandro Maicon Ficanha, Guilherme Aramizo Ribeiro, Houman Dallali, Mohammad Rastgaar
This paper describes the design of an ankle-foot robotic prosthesis controllable in the sagittal and frontal planes. The prosthesis was designed to meet the mechanical characteristics of the human ankle including power, range of motion, and weight. To transfer the power from the motors and gearboxes to the ankle-foot mechanism, a Bowden cable system was used. The Bowden cable allows for optimal placement of the motors and gearboxes in order to improve gait biomechanics such as the metabolic energy cost and gait asymmetry during locomotion...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146289/characteristics-of-a-volume-adjustable-compression-chamber-for-transradial-prosthetic-interface
#10
Yuanjun Sang, Xiang Li, Yun Luo
In the transradial limb-socket contact interface, the physiological properties and prosthetic operating habits of the residual limb might affect the comfort and functionality of the prosthesis. To enhance the comfort and functionality of the interface, a frame-type socket with four volume-adjustable compression chambers was proposed for the transradial amputation level. The contact pressure of the limb-socket interface was adjusted by the volume changes in the chambers and controlled by a vacuum pump and the corresponding control system...
July 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27117010/shock-absorption-during-transtibial-amputee-gait-does-longitudinal-prosthetic-stiffness-play-a-role
#11
Erin Boutwell, Rebecca Stine, Steven Gard
BACKGROUND: Reduced-stiffness components are often prescribed in lower-limb prostheses, but their efficacy in augmenting shock absorption has been inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic variation of longitudinal prosthetic stiffness over a wide range of values and to evaluate its effect on shock absorption during gait. STUDY DESIGN: Repeated-measures crossover experiment. METHODS: Twelve subjects with a unilateral transtibial amputation walked at normal and fast self-selected speeds...
April 26, 2016: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087677/biomechanics-of-the-human-walk-to-run-gait-transition-in-persons-with-unilateral-transtibial-amputation
#12
Tracy N Giest, Young-Hui Chang
Propulsive force production (indicative of intrinsic force-length-velocity characteristics of the plantar flexor muscles) has been shown to be a major determinant of the human walk-to-run transition. The purpose of this work was to determine the gait transition speed of persons with unilateral transtibial amputation donning a passive-elastic prosthesis and assess whether a mechanical limit of their intact side plantar flexor muscles is a major determinant of their walk-to-run transition. We determined each individual׳s gait transition speed (GTS) via an incremental protocol and assessed kinetics and kinematics during walking at speeds 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 100%, 120%, and 130% of that gait transition speed (100%:GTS)...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985053/maximum-speed-curve-running-biomechanics-of-sprinters-with-and-without-unilateral-leg-amputations
#13
Paolo Taboga, Rodger Kram, Alena M Grabowski
On curves, non-amputees' maximum running speed is slower on smaller radii and thought to be limited by the inside leg's mechanics. Similar speed decreases would be expected for non-amputees in both counterclockwise and clockwise directions because they have symmetric legs. However, sprinters with unilateral leg amputation have asymmetric legs, which may differentially affect curve-running performance and Paralympic competitions. To investigate this and understand the biomechanical basis of curve running, we compared maximum curve-running (radius 17...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26759485/biomechanical-design-considerations-for-transradial-prosthetic-interface-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Yuanjun Sang, Xiang Li, Yun Luo
Traditional function and comfort assessment of transradial prostheses pay scant attention to prosthetic interface. With better understanding of the biomechanics of prosthetic interface comes better efficiency and safety for interface design; in this way, amputees are more likely to accept prosthetic usage. This review attempts to provide design and selection criteria of transradial interface for prosthetists and clinicians. Various transradial socket types in the literature were chronologically reviewed. Biomechanical discussion of transradial prosthetic interface design from an engineering point of view was also done...
March 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26737541/measurement-of-biomechanical-interactions-at-the-stump-socket-interface-in-lower-limb-prostheses
#15
V Noll, J Wojtusch, J Schuy, M Grimmer, P Beckerle, S Rinderknecht
This paper introduces a novel measuring approach for detecting relative movement between stump and socket in lower limb prostheses. The application of the motion capturing based measuring approach is shown at a single male trans-tibial amputee using a Patella Tendon Bearing (PTB) socket. It further investigates and assesses the feasibility of measuring the relative movement between stump and socket during level walking at different velocities and allocating it to the coinciding loads. Representative results for the two translational degrees of freedom in the sagittal plane are presented and discussed...
August 2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26737489/metabolics-of-stair-ascent-with-a-powered-transfemoral-prosthesis
#16
E D Ledoux, B E Lawson, A H Shultz, H L Bartlett, M Goldfarb
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a powered knee and ankle prosthesis for stair ascent through a metabolic assessment comparing energy expenditure of a single transfemoral amputee subject while ascending stairs with the powered prosthesis relative to his passive daily use device, as well as comparing the kinematics and kinetics obtained with the passive prosthesis to healthy biomechanics. The subject wore a portable system that measured pulmonary gaseous exchange rates of oxygen and carbon dioxide while he ascended stairs with each of the prostheses in alternating tests...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26689894/biomechanics-of-ramp-descent-in-unilateral-trans-tibial-amputees-comparison-of-a-microprocessor-controlled-foot-with-conventional-ankle-foot-mechanisms
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Vasily Struchkov, John G Buckley
BACKGROUND: Walking down slopes and/or over uneven terrain is problematic for unilateral trans-tibial amputees. Accordingly, 'ankle' devices have been added to some dynamic-response feet. This study determined whether use of a microprocessor controlled passive-articulating hydraulic ankle-foot device improved the gait biomechanics of ramp descent in comparison to conventional ankle-foot mechanisms. METHODS: Nine active unilateral trans-tibial amputees repeatedly walked down a 5° ramp, using a hydraulic ankle-foot with microprocessor active or inactive or using a comparable foot with rubber ball-joint (elastic) 'ankle' device...
February 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26617356/the-role-of-mechanical-stress-in-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#18
REVIEW
Jurr Boer, Maiwand Nazary, Peter Theut Riis
Mechanical stress can act as a possible trigger in the development of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). The mechanical stress has been supported by (1) the special biomechanical conditions in the typically topographic areas of HS; (2) the indirect proof of similar findings in associated follicular occlusion diseases such as acne mechanica and pilonidal sinus disease, and in limb amputees after expression of mechanical forces; (3) pathohistologic, ultrasonography, and immunologic findings; and (4) overweight patients seem to be most susceptible to the effects of mechanical stress...
January 2016: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26285201/design-and-testing-of-a-bionic-dancing-prosthesis
#19
Elliott J Rouse, Nathan C Villagaray-Carski, Robert W Emerson, Hugh M Herr
Traditionally, prosthetic leg research has focused on improving mobility for activities of daily living. Artistic expression such as dance, however, is not a common research topic and consequently prosthetic technology for dance has been severely limited for the disabled. This work focuses on investigating the ankle joint kinetics and kinematics during a Latin-American dance to provide unique motor options for disabled individuals beyond those of daily living. The objective of this study was to develop a control system for a bionic ankle prosthesis that outperforms conventional prostheses when dancing the rumba...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26188929/haptic-wearables-as-sensory-replacement-sensory-augmentation-and-trainer-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Peter B Shull, Dana D Damian
Sensory impairments decrease quality of life and can slow or hinder rehabilitation. Small, computationally powerful electronics have enabled the recent development of wearable systems aimed to improve function for individuals with sensory impairments. The purpose of this review is to synthesize current haptic wearable research for clinical applications involving sensory impairments. We define haptic wearables as untethered, ungrounded body worn devices that interact with skin directly or through clothing and can be used in natural environments outside a laboratory...
2015: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
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