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Amputee biomechanics

Claire F Honeycutt, Masood Nevisipour, Mark D Grabiner
Falls are the most common and expensive medical complication in stroke survivors. There is remarkably little information about what factors lead to a fall in stroke survivors. With few exceptions, the falls literature in stroke has focused on relating metrics of static balance and impairment to fall outcomes in the acute care setting or in community. While informative, these studies provide little information about what specific impairments in a stroke-survivor's response to dynamic balance challenges lead to a fall...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Kenton Kaufman, Emily Miller, Trevor Kingsbury, Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Erik Wolf, Jason Wilken, Marilynn Wyatt
The aim of this study was to analyze the repeatability of gait analysis studies performed across multiple trials, sessions, and laboratories. Ten healthy participants (6 male/4 female, mean age of 30, mean BMI of 24kg/m(2)) were assessed in 3 sessions conducted at each of the three Centers of Excellence for Amputee Care within the Department of Defense. For each test session, kinematic and kinetic parameters were collected during five walking trials for each limb. One independent examiner at each site placed markers on the subjects...
September 2016: Gait & Posture
Evandro Maicon Ficanha, Guilherme Aramizo Ribeiro, Houman Dallali, Mohammad Rastgaar
This paper describes the design of an ankle-foot robotic prosthesis controllable in the sagittal and frontal planes. The prosthesis was designed to meet the mechanical characteristics of the human ankle including power, range of motion, and weight. To transfer the power from the motors and gearboxes to the ankle-foot mechanism, a Bowden cable system was used. The Bowden cable allows for optimal placement of the motors and gearboxes in order to improve gait biomechanics such as the metabolic energy cost and gait asymmetry during locomotion...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Yuanjun Sang, Xiang Li, Yun Luo
In the transradial limb-socket contact interface, the physiological properties and prosthetic operating habits of the residual limb might affect the comfort and functionality of the prosthesis. To enhance the comfort and functionality of the interface, a frame-type socket with four volume-adjustable compression chambers was proposed for the transradial amputation level. The contact pressure of the limb-socket interface was adjusted by the volume changes in the chambers and controlled by a vacuum pump and the corresponding control system...
July 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Erin Boutwell, Rebecca Stine, Steven Gard
BACKGROUND: Reduced-stiffness components are often prescribed in lower-limb prostheses, but their efficacy in augmenting shock absorption has been inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic variation of longitudinal prosthetic stiffness over a wide range of values and to evaluate its effect on shock absorption during gait. STUDY DESIGN: Repeated-measures crossover experiment. METHODS: Twelve subjects with a unilateral transtibial amputation walked at normal and fast self-selected speeds...
April 26, 2016: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Tracy N Giest, Young-Hui Chang
Propulsive force production (indicative of intrinsic force-length-velocity characteristics of the plantar flexor muscles) has been shown to be a major determinant of the human walk-to-run transition. The purpose of this work was to determine the gait transition speed of persons with unilateral transtibial amputation donning a passive-elastic prosthesis and assess whether a mechanical limit of their intact side plantar flexor muscles is a major determinant of their walk-to-run transition. We determined each individual׳s gait transition speed (GTS) via an incremental protocol and assessed kinetics and kinematics during walking at speeds 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 100%, 120%, and 130% of that gait transition speed (100%:GTS)...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Paolo Taboga, Rodger Kram, Alena M Grabowski
On curves, non-amputees' maximum running speed is slower on smaller radii and thought to be limited by the inside leg's mechanics. Similar speed decreases would be expected for non-amputees in both counterclockwise and clockwise directions because they have symmetric legs. However, sprinters with unilateral leg amputation have asymmetric legs, which may differentially affect curve-running performance and Paralympic competitions. To investigate this and understand the biomechanical basis of curve running, we compared maximum curve-running (radius 17...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Yuanjun Sang, Xiang Li, Yun Luo
Traditional function and comfort assessment of transradial prostheses pay scant attention to prosthetic interface. With better understanding of the biomechanics of prosthetic interface comes better efficiency and safety for interface design; in this way, amputees are more likely to accept prosthetic usage. This review attempts to provide design and selection criteria of transradial interface for prosthetists and clinicians. Various transradial socket types in the literature were chronologically reviewed. Biomechanical discussion of transradial prosthetic interface design from an engineering point of view was also done...
March 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
V Noll, J Wojtusch, J Schuy, M Grimmer, P Beckerle, S Rinderknecht
This paper introduces a novel measuring approach for detecting relative movement between stump and socket in lower limb prostheses. The application of the motion capturing based measuring approach is shown at a single male trans-tibial amputee using a Patella Tendon Bearing (PTB) socket. It further investigates and assesses the feasibility of measuring the relative movement between stump and socket during level walking at different velocities and allocating it to the coinciding loads. Representative results for the two translational degrees of freedom in the sagittal plane are presented and discussed...
August 2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
E D Ledoux, B E Lawson, A H Shultz, H L Bartlett, M Goldfarb
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a powered knee and ankle prosthesis for stair ascent through a metabolic assessment comparing energy expenditure of a single transfemoral amputee subject while ascending stairs with the powered prosthesis relative to his passive daily use device, as well as comparing the kinematics and kinetics obtained with the passive prosthesis to healthy biomechanics. The subject wore a portable system that measured pulmonary gaseous exchange rates of oxygen and carbon dioxide while he ascended stairs with each of the prostheses in alternating tests...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Vasily Struchkov, John G Buckley
BACKGROUND: Walking down slopes and/or over uneven terrain is problematic for unilateral trans-tibial amputees. Accordingly, 'ankle' devices have been added to some dynamic-response feet. This study determined whether use of a microprocessor controlled passive-articulating hydraulic ankle-foot device improved the gait biomechanics of ramp descent in comparison to conventional ankle-foot mechanisms. METHODS: Nine active unilateral trans-tibial amputees repeatedly walked down a 5° ramp, using a hydraulic ankle-foot with microprocessor active or inactive or using a comparable foot with rubber ball-joint (elastic) 'ankle' device...
February 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Jurr Boer, Maiwand Nazary, Peter Theut Riis
Mechanical stress can act as a possible trigger in the development of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). The mechanical stress has been supported by (1) the special biomechanical conditions in the typically topographic areas of HS; (2) the indirect proof of similar findings in associated follicular occlusion diseases such as acne mechanica and pilonidal sinus disease, and in limb amputees after expression of mechanical forces; (3) pathohistologic, ultrasonography, and immunologic findings; and (4) overweight patients seem to be most susceptible to the effects of mechanical stress...
January 2016: Dermatologic Clinics
Elliott J Rouse, Nathan C Villagaray-Carski, Robert W Emerson, Hugh M Herr
Traditionally, prosthetic leg research has focused on improving mobility for activities of daily living. Artistic expression such as dance, however, is not a common research topic and consequently prosthetic technology for dance has been severely limited for the disabled. This work focuses on investigating the ankle joint kinetics and kinematics during a Latin-American dance to provide unique motor options for disabled individuals beyond those of daily living. The objective of this study was to develop a control system for a bionic ankle prosthesis that outperforms conventional prostheses when dancing the rumba...
2015: PloS One
Peter B Shull, Dana D Damian
Sensory impairments decrease quality of life and can slow or hinder rehabilitation. Small, computationally powerful electronics have enabled the recent development of wearable systems aimed to improve function for individuals with sensory impairments. The purpose of this review is to synthesize current haptic wearable research for clinical applications involving sensory impairments. We define haptic wearables as untethered, ungrounded body worn devices that interact with skin directly or through clothing and can be used in natural environments outside a laboratory...
2015: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Hao Zheng, Xiangrong Shen
This paper presents the design and control of a pneumatically actuated transtibial prosthesis, which utilizes a pneumatic cylinder-type actuator to power the prosthetic ankle joint to support the user's locomotion. The pneumatic actuator has multiple advantages over the traditional electric motor, such as light weight, low cost, and high power-to-weight ratio. The objective of this work is to develop a compact and lightweight transtibial prosthesis, leveraging the multiple advantages provided by this highly competitive actuator...
April 2015: Journal of Bionic Engineering
D-L Juhnke, H-H Aschoff
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Rehabilitation of patients having undergone limb amputation is difficult due to problems related to poor socket fit, which often deteriorates comfort, gait and the ability to take part in everyday life and work. The endo-exo prosthesis has been an alternative provision for people having undergone lower limb amputation for reasons other than diabetes or peripheral vascular disease for more than 10 years. The system consists of an intramedullar, osseointegrated and skin perforating prosthesis, which is implanted in the remaining bone and has an abutment to allow the attachment of the external prosthetic part including the knee joint in the case of a trans-femoral amputation...
June 2015: Der Orthopäde
Mariana Rotariu, R Filep, M Turnea, M Ilea, D Arotăriţei, Marilena Popescu
UNLABELLED: The prosthetic application is a highly complex process. Modeling and simulation of biomechanics processes in orthopedics is a certainly field of interest in current medical research. Optimization of socket in order to improve the quality of patient's life is a major objective in prosthetic rehabilitation. A variety of numerical methods for prosthetic application have been developed and studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An objective method is proposed to evaluate the performance of a prosthetic patient according to surface pressure map over the residual limb...
January 2015: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
Amanda H Shultz, Brian E Lawson, Michael Goldfarb
This paper describes a control approach that provides walking and standing functionality for a powered ankle prosthesis, and demonstrates the efficacy of the approach in experiments with a unilateral transtibial amputee subject. Both controllers incorporate a finite-state structure that emulates healthy ankle joint behavior via a series of piecewise passive impedance functions. The walking controller additionally modifies impedance parameters based on estimated cadence, while the standing controller modulates the ankle equilibrium angle in order to adapt to the ground slope and user posture, and the supervisory controller selects between the walking and standing controllers...
April 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
B Goldner, A Fuchs, I Nolte, N Schilling
Limb amputation often represents the only treatment option for canine patients with certain diseases or injuries of the appendicular system. Previous studies have investigated adaptations to tripedal locomotion in dogs but there is a lack of understanding of biomechanical compensatory mechanisms. This study evaluated the kinematic differences between quadrupedal and tripedal locomotion in nine healthy dogs running on a treadmill. The loss of the right pelvic limb was simulated using an Ehmer sling. Kinematic gait analysis included spatio-temporal comparisons of limb, joint and segment angles of the remaining pelvic and both thoracic limbs...
May 2015: Veterinary Journal
Tsurayuki Murakami, Kevin Murray
BACKGROUND: Dysvascularity is the main cause of lower limb amputations in Scotland, and there is an insignificant proportion (1.7%) of knee disarticulations, despite the benefits of amputation. OBJECTIVES: The outcomes of knee disarticulation and its associated surgical techniques will be evaluated based on healing, reamputations, functional outcomes, prosthetic ambulation and gait biomechanics to determine whether a greater rate of knee disarticulations can be justified among dysvascular patients...
August 2016: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
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