keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

leech neuron

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795654/the-characteristic-patterns-of-neuronal-avalanches-in-mice-under-anesthesia-and-at-rest-an-investigation-using-constrained-artificial-neural-networks
#1
Erik D Fagerholm, Martin Dinov, Thomas Knöpfel, Robert Leech
Local perturbations within complex dynamical systems can trigger cascade-like events that spread across significant portions of the system. Cascades of this type have been observed across a broad range of scales in the brain. Studies of these cascades, known as neuronal avalanches, usually report the statistics of large numbers of avalanches, without probing the characteristic patterns produced by the avalanches themselves. This is partly due to limitations in the extent or spatiotemporal resolution of commonly used neuroimaging techniques...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679946/extensive-depolarization-and-lack-of-recovery-of-leech-retzius-neurons-caused-by-2-4-diaminobutyric-acid
#2
S Spasic, M Stanojevic, J Nesovic Ostojic, S Kovacevic, M Prostran, S Lopicic
In this paper we present, for the first time, a detailed account of electrophysiological effects of 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DABA). 2,4-DABA is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid produced by Cyanobacteria with a possible link to neurodegenerative disorders in animals and humans. Intracellular recordings were performed on Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga using glass microelectrodes filled with 3 mol/L KCl. Our results show that 2,4-DABA is an excitatory amino acid, causing membrane depolarization in a concentration-dependent manner...
June 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594188/dual-sided-voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging-of-leech-ganglia
#3
Yusuke Tomina, Daniel A Wagenaar
In this protocol, we introduce an effective method for voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) loading and imaging of leech ganglia as used in Tomina and Wagenaar (2017). Dissection and dye loading procedures are the most critical steps toward successful whole-ganglion VSD imaging. The former entails the removal of the sheath that covers neurons in the segmental ganglion of the leech, which is required for successful dye loading. The latter entails gently flowing a new generation VSD, VF2.1(OMe).H, onto both sides of the ganglion simultaneously using a pair of peristaltic pumps...
March 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563881/higher-network-activity-induced-by-tactile-compared-to-electrical-stimulation-of-leech-mechanoreceptors
#4
Elham Fathiazar, Gerrit Hilgen, Jutta Kretzberg
The tiny ensemble of neurons in the leech ganglion can discriminate the locations of touch stimuli on the skin as precisely as a human fingertip. The leech uses this ability to locally bend the body-wall away from the stimulus. It is assumed that a three-layered feedforward network of pressure mechanoreceptors, interneurons, and motor neurons controls this behavior. Most previous studies identified and characterized the local bend network based on electrical stimulation of a single pressure mechanoreceptor, which was sufficient to trigger the local bend response...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559913/novel-sodium-channel-inhibitor-from-leeches
#5
Gan Wang, Chengbo Long, Weihui Liu, Cheng Xu, Min Zhang, Qiong Li, Qiumin Lu, Ping Meng, Dongsheng Li, Mingqiang Rong, Zhaohui Sun, Xiaodong Luo, Ren Lai
Considering blood-sucking habits of leeches from surviving strategy of view, it can be hypothesized that leech saliva has analgesia or anesthesia functions for leeches to stay undetected by the host. However, no specific substance with analgesic function has been reported from leech saliva although clinical applications strongly indicated that leech therapy produces a strong and long lasting pain-reducing effect. Herein, a novel family of small peptides (HSTXs) including 11 members which show low similarity with known peptides was identified from salivary glands of the leech Haemadipsa sylvestris ...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472489/responses-to-mechanically-and-visually-cued-water-waves-in-the-nervous-system-of-the-medicinal-leech
#6
Andrew M Lehmkuhl, Arunkumar Muthusamy, Daniel A Wagenaar
Sensitivity to water waves is a key modality by which aquatic predators can detect and localize their prey. For one such predator - the medicinal leech, Hirudo verb a na - behavioral responses to visual and mechanical cues from water waves are well documented. Here, we quantitatively characterized the response patterns of a multisensory interneuron, the S cell, to mechanically and visually cued water waves. As a function of frequency, the response profile of the S cell replicated key features of the behavioral prey localization profile in both visual and mechanical modalities...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467641/propensity-for-bistability-of-bursting-and-silence-in-the-leech-heart-interneuron
#7
Tatiana Dashevskiy, Gennady Cymbalyuk
The coexistence of neuronal activity regimes has been reported under normal and pathological conditions. Such multistability could enhance the flexibility of the nervous system and has many implications for motor control, memory, and decision making. Multistability is commonly promoted by neuromodulation targeting specific membrane ionic currents. Here, we investigated how modulation of different ionic currents could affect the neuronal propensity for bistability. We considered a leech heart interneuron model...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445203/effects-of-touch-location-and-intensity-on-interneurons-of-the-leech-local-bend-network
#8
Friederice Pirschel, Gerrit Hilgen, Jutta Kretzberg
Touch triggers highly precise behavioural responses in the leech. The underlying network of this so-called local bend reflex consists of three layers of individually characterised neurons. While the population of mechanosensory cells provide multiplexed information about the stimulus, not much is known about how interneurons process this information. Here, we analyse the responses of two local bend interneurons (cell 157 and 159) to a mechanical stimulation of the skin and show their response characteristics to naturalistic stimuli...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444844/the-stomatogastric-nervous-system-of-the-medicinal-leech-its-anatomy-physiology-and-associated-aminergic-neurons
#9
Karen A Mesce, Magda Alania, Quentin Gaudry, Joshua G Puhl
Blood feeding is an essential and signature activity of the medicinal leech species H irudo verbana . Despite keen interest in understanding the neuronal substrates of this behavior, a major component of the nervous system associated with feeding has remained overlooked. In this study, for the first time, we report on the presence and characteristics of five stomatogastric ganglia (STGs) comprising the visceral stomatogastric nervous system (STN) of the leech. Although a brief report was published by Ruth Hanke in 1948 indicating that a ring of three ganglia (not five) was associated with the cephalic ganglia, this information was never integrated into subsequent neurobiological studies of feeding...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345615/variability-in-neural-networks
#10
Daniel R Kick, David J Schulz
Experiments on neurons in the heart system of the leech reveal why rhythmic behaviors differ between individuals.
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345614/output-variability-across-animals-and-levels-in-a-motor-system
#11
Angela Wenning, Brian J Norris, Cengiz Günay, Daniel Kueh, Ronald L Calabrese
Rhythmic behaviors vary across individuals. We investigated the sources of this output variability across a motor system, from the central pattern generator (CPG) to the motor plant. In the bilaterally symmetric leech heartbeat system, the CPG orchestrates two coordinations in the bilateral hearts with different intersegmental phase relations (Δϕ) and periodic side-to-side switches. Population variability is large. We show that the system is precise within a coordination, that differences in repetitions of a coordination contribute little to population output variability, but that differences between bilaterally homologous cells may contribute to some of this variability...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203924/nemertean-and-phoronid-genomes-reveal-lophotrochozoan-evolution-and-the-origin-of-bilaterian-heads
#12
Yi-Jyun Luo, Miyuki Kanda, Ryo Koyanagi, Kanako Hisata, Tadashi Akiyama, Hirotaka Sakamoto, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Noriyuki Satoh
Nemerteans (ribbon worms) and phoronids (horseshoe worms) are closely related lophotrochozoans-a group of animals including leeches, snails and other invertebrates. Lophotrochozoans represent a superphylum that is crucial to our understanding of bilaterian evolution. However, given the inconsistency of molecular and morphological data for these groups, their origins have been unclear. Here, we present draft genomes of the nemertean Notospermus geniculatus and the phoronid Phoronis australis, together with transcriptomes along the adult bodies...
January 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118192/endocannabinoid-mediated-potentiation-of-nonnociceptive-synapses-contributes-to-behavioral-sensitization
#13
Yanqing Wang, Brian D Burrell
Endocannabinoids, such as 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, can elicit long-term depression of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. This latter effect will result in disinhibition and would therefore be expected to produce an increase in neural circuit output. However, there have been no examples directly linking endocannabinoid-mediated disinhibition to a change in a functional neurobehavioral circuit. The present study uses the well-characterized central nervous system of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, to examine the functional/behavioral relevance of endocannabinoid modulation of an identified afferent synapse...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944754/a-double-sided-microscope-to-realize-whole-ganglion-imaging-of-membrane-potential-in-the-medicinal-leech
#14
Yusuke Tomina, Daniel A Wagenaar
Studies of neuronal network emergence during sensory processing and motor control are greatly facilitated by technologies that allow us to simultaneously record the membrane potential dynamics of a large population of neurons in single cell resolution. To achieve whole-brain recording with the ability to detect both small synaptic potentials and action potentials, we developed a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging technique based on a double-sided microscope that can image two sides of a nervous system simultaneously...
September 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821650/feedback-signal-from-motoneurons-influences-a-rhythmic-pattern-generator
#15
Horacio G Rotstein, Elisa Schneider, Lidia Szczupak
Motoneurons are not mere output units of neuronal circuits that control motor behavior but participate in pattern generation. Research on the circuit that controls the crawling motor behavior in leeches indicated that motoneurons participate as modulators of this rhythmic motor pattern. Crawling results from successive bouts of elongation and contraction of the whole leech body. In the isolated segmental ganglia, dopamine can induce a rhythmic antiphasic activity of the motoneurons that control contraction (DE-3 motoneurons) and elongation (CV motoneurons)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546342/intrinsic-frequency-response-patterns-in-mechano-sensory-neurons-of-the-leech
#16
Linda Fischer, Frank Scherbarth, Boris Chagnaud, Felix Felmy
Animals employ mechano-sensory systems to detect and explore their environment. Mechano-sensation encompasses stimuli such as constant pressure, surface movement or vibrations at various intensities that need to be segregated in the central nervous system. Besides different receptor structures, sensory filtering via intrinsic response properties could provide a convenient way to solve this problem. In leech, three major mechano-sensory cell types can be distinguished, according to their stimulus sensitivity, as nociceptive, pressure and touch cells...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497254/9-phenanthrol-modulates-postinhibitory-rebound-and-afterhyperpolarizing-potentials-in-an-excitatory-motor-neuron-of-the-medicinal-leech
#17
James D Angstadt, Joshua R Giordano, Alexander J Goncalves
Postinhibitory rebound (PIR) responses in leech dorsal excitatory motor neurons (cell DE-3) are eliminated by Ca2+ channel blockers but also exhibit a strong dependence on extracellular Na+ . These features could be explained by a voltage-gated Ca2+ current acting in concert with a Ca2+ -activated nonspecific current (ICAN ). In vertebrates, ICAN is associated with TRPM4 channels which are blocked selectively by 9-phenanthrol. Here, we show that 9-phenanthrol selectively inhibits a late phase of PIR and simultaneously enhances afterhyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs)...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269138/statistical-identification-of-stimulus-activated-network-nodes-in-multi-neuron-voltage-sensitive-dye-optical-recordings
#18
Elham Fathiazar, Jorn Anemuller, Jutta Kretzberg
Voltage-Sensitive Dye (VSD) imaging is an optical imaging method that allows measuring the graded voltage changes of multiple neurons simultaneously. In neuroscience, this method is used to reveal networks of neurons involved in certain tasks. However, the recorded relative dye fluorescence changes are usually low and signals are superimposed by noise and artifacts. Therefore, establishing a reliable method to identify which cells are activated by specific stimulus conditions is the first step to identify functional networks...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227367/statistical-identification-of-stimulus-activated-network-nodes-in-multi-neuron-voltage-sensitive-dye-optical-recordings
#19
Elham Fathiazar, Jorn Anemuller, Jutta Kretzberg, Elham Fathiazar, Jorn Anemuller, Jutta Kretzberg, Elham Fathiazar, Jutta Kretzberg, Jorn Anemuller
Voltage-Sensitive Dye (VSD) imaging is an optical imaging method that allows measuring the graded voltage changes of multiple neurons simultaneously. In neuroscience, this method is used to reveal networks of neurons involved in certain tasks. However, the recorded relative dye fluorescence changes are usually low and signals are superimposed by noise and artifacts. Therefore, establishing a reliable method to identify which cells are activated by specific stimulus conditions is the first step to identify functional networks...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636374/patterns-and-distribution-of-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-elements-within-serial-electron-microscopic-reconstructions-of-neuronal-arbors-from-the-medicinal-leech-hirudo-verbana
#20
Jason E Pipkin, Eric A Bushong, Mark H Ellisman, William B Kristan
Microscale connectomics involves the large-scale acquisition of high-resolution serial electron micrographs from which neuronal arbors can be reconstructed and synapses can be detected. In addition to connectivity information, these data sets are also rich with structural information, including vesicle types, number of postsynaptic partners at a given presynaptic site, and spatial distribution of synaptic inputs and outputs. This study uses serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (EM) to collect two volumes of serial EM data from ganglia of the medicinal leech...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
keyword
keyword
31254
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"