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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445203/effects-of-touch-location-and-intensity-on-interneurons-of-the-leech-local-bend-network
#1
Friederice Pirschel, Gerrit Hilgen, Jutta Kretzberg
Touch triggers highly precise behavioural responses in the leech. The underlying network of this so-called local bend reflex consists of three layers of individually characterised neurons. While the population of mechanosensory cells provide multiplexed information about the stimulus, not much is known about how interneurons process this information. Here, we analyse the responses of two local bend interneurons (cell 157 and 159) to a mechanical stimulation of the skin and show their response characteristics to naturalistic stimuli...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444844/the-stomatogastric-nervous-system-of-the-medicinal-leech-its-anatomy-physiology-and-associated-aminergic-neurons
#2
Karen A Mesce, Magda Alania, Quentin Gaudry, Joshua G Puhl
Blood feeding is an essential and signature activity of the medicinal leech species, Hirudo verbana Despite keen interest in understanding the neuronal substrates of this behavior, a major component of the nervous system associated with feeding has remained overlooked. In this study, for the first time, we report on the presence and characteristics of five stomatogastic ganglia (STGs) comprising the visceral stomatogastric nervous system (STN) of the leech. Although Hanke (1948) provided a brief report that a ring of three ganglia (not five) was associated with the cephalic ganglia, this information was never integrated into subsequent neurobiological studies of feeding...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345615/variability-in-neural-networks
#3
Daniel R Kick, David J Schulz
Experiments on neurons in the heart system of the leech reveal why rhythmic behaviors differ between individuals.
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345614/output-variability-across-animals-and-levels-in-a-motor-system
#4
Angela Wenning, Brian J Norris, Cengiz Günay, Daniel Kueh, Ronald L Calabrese
Rhythmic behaviors vary across individuals. We investigated the sources of this output variability across a motor system, from the central pattern generator (CPG) to the motor plant. In the bilaterally symmetric leech heartbeat system, the CPG orchestrates two coordinations in the bilateral hearts with different intersegmental phase relations (Δϕ) and periodic side-to-side switches. Population variability is large. We show that the system is precise within a coordination, that differences in repetitions of a coordination contribute little to population output variability, but that differences between bilaterally homologous cells may contribute to some of this variability...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203924/nemertean-and-phoronid-genomes-reveal-lophotrochozoan-evolution-and-the-origin-of-bilaterian-heads
#5
Yi-Jyun Luo, Miyuki Kanda, Ryo Koyanagi, Kanako Hisata, Tadashi Akiyama, Hirotaka Sakamoto, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Noriyuki Satoh
Nemerteans (ribbon worms) and phoronids (horseshoe worms) are closely related lophotrochozoans-a group of animals including leeches, snails and other invertebrates. Lophotrochozoans represent a superphylum that is crucial to our understanding of bilaterian evolution. However, given the inconsistency of molecular and morphological data for these groups, their origins have been unclear. Here, we present draft genomes of the nemertean Notospermus geniculatus and the phoronid Phoronis australis, together with transcriptomes along the adult bodies...
December 4, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118192/endocannabinoid-mediated-potentiation-of-non-nociceptive-synapses-contributes-to-behavioral-sensitization
#6
Yanqing Wang, Brian D Burrell
Endocannabinoids, such as 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, can elicit long-term depression of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. This latter effect will result in disinhibition and would therefore be expected to produce an increase in neural circuit output. However, there have been no examples directly linking endocannabinoid-mediated disinhibition to a change in a functional neurobehavioral circuit. The present study uses the well-characterized central nervous system (CNS) of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, to examine the functional/behavioral relevance of endocannabinoid modulation of an identified afferent synapse...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944754/a-double-sided-microscope-to-realize-whole-ganglion-imaging-of-membrane-potential-in-the-medicinal-leech
#7
Yusuke Tomina, Daniel A Wagenaar
Studies of neuronal network emergence during sensory processing and motor control are greatly facilitated by technologies that allow us to simultaneously record the membrane potential dynamics of a large population of neurons in single cell resolution. To achieve whole-brain recording with the ability to detect both small synaptic potentials and action potentials, we developed a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging technique based on a double-sided microscope that can image two sides of a nervous system simultaneously...
September 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821650/feedback-signal-from-motoneurons-influences-a-rhythmic-pattern-generator
#8
Horacio G Rotstein, Elisa Schneider, Lidia Szczupak
Motoneurons are not mere output units of neuronal circuits that control motor behavior but participate in pattern generation. Research on the circuit that controls the crawling motor behavior in leeches indicated that motoneurons participate as modulators of this rhythmic motor pattern. Crawling results from successive bouts of elongation and contraction of the whole leech body. In the isolated segmental ganglia, dopamine can induce a rhythmic antiphasic activity of the motoneurons that control contraction (DE-3 motoneurons) and elongation (CV motoneurons)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546342/intrinsic-frequency-response-patterns-in-mechano-sensory-neurons-of-the-leech
#9
Linda Fischer, Frank Scherbarth, Boris Chagnaud, Felix Felmy
Animals employ mechano-sensory systems to detect and explore their environment. Mechano-sensation encompasses stimuli such as constant pressure, surface movement or vibrations at various intensities that need to be segregated in the central nervous system. Besides different receptor structures, sensory filtering via intrinsic response properties could provide a convenient way to solve this problem. In leech, three major mechano-sensory cell types can be distinguished, according to their stimulus sensitivity, as nociceptive, pressure and touch cells...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497254/9-phenanthrol-modulates-postinhibitory-rebound-and-afterhyperpolarizing-potentials-in-an-excitatory-motor-neuron-of-the-medicinal-leech
#10
James D Angstadt, Joshua R Giordano, Alexander J Goncalves
Postinhibitory rebound (PIR) responses in leech dorsal excitatory motor neurons (cell DE-3) are eliminated by Ca(2+) channel blockers but also exhibit a strong dependence on extracellular Na(+). These features could be explained by a voltage-gated Ca(2+) current acting in concert with a Ca(2+)-activated nonspecific current (ICAN). In vertebrates, ICAN is associated with TRPM4 channels which are blocked selectively by 9-phenanthrol. Here, we show that 9-phenanthrol selectively inhibits a late phase of PIR and simultaneously enhances afterhyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs)...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269138/statistical-identification-of-stimulus-activated-network-nodes-in-multi-neuron-voltage-sensitive-dye-optical-recordings
#11
Elham Fathiazar, Jorn Anemuller, Jutta Kretzberg
Voltage-Sensitive Dye (VSD) imaging is an optical imaging method that allows measuring the graded voltage changes of multiple neurons simultaneously. In neuroscience, this method is used to reveal networks of neurons involved in certain tasks. However, the recorded relative dye fluorescence changes are usually low and signals are superimposed by noise and artifacts. Therefore, establishing a reliable method to identify which cells are activated by specific stimulus conditions is the first step to identify functional networks...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227367/statistical-identification-of-stimulus-activated-network-nodes-in-multi-neuron-voltage-sensitive-dye-optical-recordings
#12
Elham Fathiazar, Jorn Anemuller, Jutta Kretzberg, Elham Fathiazar, Jorn Anemuller, Jutta Kretzberg, Elham Fathiazar, Jutta Kretzberg, Jorn Anemuller
Voltage-Sensitive Dye (VSD) imaging is an optical imaging method that allows measuring the graded voltage changes of multiple neurons simultaneously. In neuroscience, this method is used to reveal networks of neurons involved in certain tasks. However, the recorded relative dye fluorescence changes are usually low and signals are superimposed by noise and artifacts. Therefore, establishing a reliable method to identify which cells are activated by specific stimulus conditions is the first step to identify functional networks...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636374/patterns-and-distribution-of-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-elements-within-serial-electron-microscopic-reconstructions-of-neuronal-arbors-from-the-medicinal-leech-hirudo-verbana
#13
Jason E Pipkin, Eric A Bushong, Mark H Ellisman, William B Kristan
Microscale connectomics involves the large-scale acquisition of high-resolution serial electron micrographs from which neuronal arbors can be reconstructed and synapses can be detected. In addition to connectivity information, these data sets are also rich with structural information, including vesicle types, number of postsynaptic partners at a given presynaptic site, and spatial distribution of synaptic inputs and outputs. This study uses serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (EM) to collect two volumes of serial EM data from ganglia of the medicinal leech...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595135/analysis-of-family-structures-reveals-robustness-or-sensitivity-of-bursting-activity-to-parameter-variations-in-a-half-center-oscillator-hco-model
#14
Anca Doloc-Mihu, Ronald L Calabrese
The underlying mechanisms that support robustness in neuronal networks are as yet unknown. However, recent studies provide evidence that neuronal networks are robust to natural variations, modulation, and environmental perturbations of parameters, such as maximal conductances of intrinsic membrane and synaptic currents. Here we sought a method for assessing robustness, which might easily be applied to large brute-force databases of model instances. Starting with groups of instances with appropriate activity (e...
July 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589603/the-neural-control-of-heartbeat-in-invertebrates
#15
REVIEW
Ronald L Calabrese, Brian J Norris, Angela Wenning
The neurogenic heartbeat of certain invertebrates has long been studied both as a way of understanding how automatic functions are regulated and for how neuronal networks generate the inherent rhythmic activity that controls and coordinates this vital function. This review focuses on the heartbeat of decapod crustaceans and hirudinid leeches, which remain important experimental systems for the exploration of central pattern generator networks, their properties, network and cellular mechanisms, modulation, and how animal-to-animal variation in neuronal and network properties are managed to produce functional output...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588351/na-k-pump-interacts-with-the-h-current-to-control-bursting-activity-in-central-pattern-generator-neurons-of-leeches
#16
Daniel Kueh, William H Barnett, Gennady S Cymbalyuk, Ronald L Calabrese
The dynamics of different ionic currents shape the bursting activity of neurons and networks that control motor output. Despite being ubiquitous in all animal cells, the contribution of the Na(+)/K(+) pump current to such bursting activity has not been well studied. We used monensin, a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, to examine the role of the pump on the bursting activity of oscillator heart interneurons in leeches. When we stimulated the pump with monensin, the period of these neurons decreased significantly, an effect that was prevented or reversed when the h-current was blocked by Cs(+)...
September 2, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587998/on-the-basis-of-synaptic-integration-constancy-during-growth-of-a-neuronal-circuit
#17
Adriana De-La-Rosa Tovar, Prashant K Mishra, Francisco F De-Miguel
We studied how a neuronal circuit composed of two neuron types connected by chemical and electrical synapses maintains constant its integrative capacities as neurons grow. For this we combined electrophysiological experiments with mathematical modeling in pairs of electrically-coupled Retzius neurons from postnatal to adult leeches. The electrically-coupled dendrites of both Retzius neurons receive a common chemical input, which produces excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) with varying amplitudes. Each EPSP spreads to the soma, but also crosses the electrical synapse to arrive at the soma of the coupled neuron...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512961/gap-junction-proteins-and-the-wiring-rewiring-of-neuronal-circuits
#18
REVIEW
Michael W Baker, Eduardo R Macagno
The unique morphology and pattern of synaptic connections made by a neuron during development arise in part by an extended period of growth in which cell-cell interactions help to sculpt the arbor into its final shape, size, and participation in different synaptic networks. Recent experiments highlight a guiding role played by gap junction proteins in controlling this process. Ectopic and overexpression studies in invertebrates have revealed that the selective expression of distinct gap junction genes in neurons and glial cells is sufficient to establish selective new connections in the central nervous systems of the leech (Firme et al...
May 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384059/cortical-entropy-mutual-information-and-scale-free-dynamics-in-waking-mice
#19
Erik D Fagerholm, Gregory Scott, Woodrow L Shew, Chenchen Song, Robert Leech, Thomas Knöpfel, David J Sharp
Some neural circuits operate with simple dynamics characterized by one or a few well-defined spatiotemporal scales (e.g. central pattern generators). In contrast, cortical neuronal networks often exhibit richer activity patterns in which all spatiotemporal scales are represented. Such "scale-free" cortical dynamics manifest as cascades of activity with cascade sizes that are distributed according to a power-law. Theory and in vitro experiments suggest that information transmission among cortical circuits is optimized by scale-free dynamics...
October 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348420/scalable-semisupervised-functional-neurocartography-reveals-canonical-neurons-in-behavioral-networks
#20
E Paxon Frady, Ashish Kapoor, Eric Horvitz, William B Kristan
Large-scale data collection efforts to map the brain are underway at multiple spatial and temporal scales, but all face fundamental problems posed by high-dimensional data and intersubject variability. Even seemingly simple problems, such as identifying a neuron/brain region across animals/subjects, become exponentially more difficult in high dimensions, such as recognizing dozens of neurons/brain regions simultaneously. We present a framework and tools for functional neurocartography-the large-scale mapping of neural activity during behavioral states...
August 2016: Neural Computation
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