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leech neuron

Jason E Pipkin, Eric A Bushong, Mark H Ellisman, William B Kristan
Microscale connectomics involves the large-scale acquisition of high-resolution serial electron micrographs from which neuronal arbors can be reconstructed and synapses can be detected. In addition to connectivity information, these data sets are also rich with structural information, including vesicle types, number of postsynaptic partners at a given presynaptic site, and spatial distribution of synaptic inputs and outputs. This study uses serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (EM) to collect two volumes of serial EM data from ganglia of the medicinal leech...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Anca Doloc-Mihu, Ronald L Calabrese
The underlying mechanisms that support robustness in neuronal networks are as yet unknown. However, recent studies provide evidence that neuronal networks are robust to natural variations, modulation, and environmental perturbations of parameters, such as maximal conductances of intrinsic membrane and synaptic currents. Here we sought a method for assessing robustness, which might easily be applied to large brute-force databases of model instances. Starting with groups of instances with appropriate activity (e...
July 2016: ENeuro
Ronald L Calabrese, Brian J Norris, Angela Wenning
The neurogenic heartbeat of certain invertebrates has long been studied both as a way of understanding how automatic functions are regulated and for how neuronal networks generate the inherent rhythmic activity that controls and coordinates this vital function. This review focuses on the heartbeat of decapod crustaceans and hirudinid leeches, which remain important experimental systems for the exploration of central pattern generator networks, their properties, network and cellular mechanisms, modulation, and how animal-to-animal variation in neuronal and network properties are managed to produce functional output...
August 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Daniel Kueh, William H Barnett, Gennady S Cymbalyuk, Ronald L Calabrese
The dynamics of different ionic currents shape the bursting activity of neurons and networks that control motor output. Despite being ubiquitous in all animal cells, the contribution of the Na(+)/K(+) pump current to such bursting activity has not been well studied. We used monensin, a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, to examine the role of the pump on the bursting activity of oscillator heart interneurons in leeches. When we stimulated the pump with monensin, the period of these neurons decreased significantly, an effect that was prevented or reversed when the h-current was blocked by Cs(+)...
2016: ELife
Adriana De-La-Rosa Tovar, Prashant K Mishra, Francisco F De-Miguel
We studied how a neuronal circuit composed of two neuron types connected by chemical and electrical synapses maintains constant its integrative capacities as neurons grow. For this we combined electrophysiological experiments with mathematical modeling in pairs of electrically-coupled Retzius neurons from postnatal to adult leeches. The electrically-coupled dendrites of both Retzius neurons receive a common chemical input, which produces excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) with varying amplitudes. Each EPSP spreads to the soma, but also crosses the electrical synapse to arrive at the soma of the coupled neuron...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Michael W Baker, Eduardo R Macagno
The unique morphology and pattern of synaptic connections made by a neuron during development arise in part by an extended period of growth in which cell-cell interactions help to sculpt the arbor into its final shape, size and participation in different synaptic networks. Recent experiments highlight a guiding role played by gap junction proteins in controlling this process. Ectopic and overexpression studies in invertebrates have revealed that the selective expression of distinct gap junction genes in neurons and glial cells is sufficient to establish selective new connections in the CNSs of the leech (Firme et al...
August 11, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Erik D Fagerholm, Gregory Scott, Woodrow L Shew, Chenchen Song, Robert Leech, Thomas Knöpfel, David J Sharp
Some neural circuits operate with simple dynamics characterized by one or a few well-defined spatiotemporal scales (e.g. central pattern generators). In contrast, cortical neuronal networks often exhibit richer activity patterns in which all spatiotemporal scales are represented. Such "scale-free" cortical dynamics manifest as cascades of activity with cascade sizes that are distributed according to a power-law. Theory and in vitro experiments suggest that information transmission among cortical circuits is optimized by scale-free dynamics...
October 2016: Cerebral Cortex
E Paxon Frady, Ashish Kapoor, Eric Horvitz, William B Kristan
Large-scale data collection efforts to map the brain are underway at multiple spatial and temporal scales, but all face fundamental problems posed by high-dimensional data and intersubject variability. Even seemingly simple problems, such as identifying a neuron/brain region across animals/subjects, become exponentially more difficult in high dimensions, such as recognizing dozens of neurons/brain regions simultaneously. We present a framework and tools for functional neurocartography-the large-scale mapping of neural activity during behavioral states...
August 2016: Neural Computation
Yanqing Wang, Brian D Burrell
Endocannabinoids can elicit persistent depression of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, reducing or enhancing (disinhibiting) neural circuit output, respectively. In this study, we examined whether differences in Cl(-) gradients can regulate which synapses undergo endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic depression vs. disinhibition using the well-characterized central nervous system (CNS) of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana Exogenous application of endocannabinoids or capsaicin elicits potentiation of pressure (P) cell synapses and depression of both polymodal (Npoly) and mechanical (Nmech) nociceptive synapses...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Friederice Pirschel, Jutta Kretzberg
UNLABELLED: Sensory coding has long been discussed in terms of a dichotomy between spike timing and rate coding. However, recent studies found that in primate mechanoperception and other sensory systems, spike rates and timing of cell populations complement each other. They simultaneously carry information about different stimulus properties in a multiplexed way. Here, we present evidence for multiplexed encoding of tactile skin stimulation in the tiny population of leech mechanoreceptors, consisting of only 10 cells of two types with overlapping receptive fields...
March 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Zorica D Jovanovic, Marija B Stanojevic, Vladimir B Nedeljkov
Oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in cellular damage. Electrophysiological analyses have shown that membrane transport proteins are susceptible to ROS. In the present study, oxidative stress was induced in Retzius nerve cells of the leechHaemopis sanguisugaby bath application of 1 mM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 0.02 mM of copper (Cu) for 20 min. The H2O2/Cu(II) produced considerable changes in the electrical properties of the Retzius nerve cells...
2016: Biology Open
Elham Fathiazar, Jutta Kretzberg
Voltage-sensitive dye imaging allows simultaneous recording of graded voltage changes of multiple neurons. While this experimental technique is a great tool to study neuronal network activity in neuroscience, the optical recording suffers from artifacts. In particular, bleaching of the dye and cell movement impede the analysis and interpretation of imaging results. In this paper, we present methods to tackle these two main artifacts. Cell movement during the experiment is corrected by an optical flow method...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Ulrich Kutschera, David A Weisblat
Model organisms are important tools in modern biology and have been used elucidate mechanism underlying processes, such as development, heredity, neuronal signaling, and phototropism, to name but a few. In this context, the use of model organisms is predicated on uncovering evolutionarily conserved features of biological processes in the expectation that the findings will be applicable to organisms that are either inaccessible or intractable for direct experimentation. For the most part, particular species have been adapted as model organisms because they can be easily reared and manipulated in the laboratory...
December 2015: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
John M Nagarah, Annette Stowasser, Rell L Parker, Hiroki Asari, Daniel A Wagenaar
Multielectrode arrays (MEAs) allow for acquisition of multisite electrophysiological activity with submillisecond temporal resolution from neural preparations. The signal to noise ratio from such arrays has recently been improved by substrate perforations that allow negative pressure to be applied to the tissue; however, such arrays are not optically transparent, limiting their potential to be combined with optical-based technologies. We present here multi-suction electrode arrays (MSEAs) in quartz that yield a substantial increase in the detected number of units and in signal to noise ratio from mouse cortico-hippocampal slices and mouse retina explants...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Daniel A Wagenaar
The medicinal leech (genus Hirudo) is a classic model animal in systems neuroscience. The leech has been central to many integrative studies that establish how properties of neurons and their interconnections give rise to the functioning of the animal at the behavioral level. Leeches exhibit several discrete behaviors (such as crawling, swimming and feeding) that are each relatively simple. Importantly, these behaviors can all be studied - at least at a basal level - in the isolated nervous system. The leech nervous system is particularly amenable to such studies because of its distributed nature; sensory processing and generation of behavior occur to a large degree in iterated segmental ganglia that each contain only ∼400 neurons...
November 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
Rajendra Gharbaran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Peter J Hellyer, Barbara Jachs, Claudia Clopath, Robert Leech
Rich, spontaneous brain activity has been observed across a range of different temporal and spatial scales. These dynamics are thought to be important for efficient neural functioning. A range of experimental evidence suggests that these neural dynamics are maintained across a variety of different cognitive states, in response to alterations of the environment and to changes in brain configuration (e.g., across individuals, development and in many neurological disorders). This suggests that the brain has evolved mechanisms to maintain rich dynamics across a broad range of situations...
January 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Torrie Summers, Yanqing Wang, Brandon Hanten, Brian D Burrell
Transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 (TRPA1) channels are chemosensitive to compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, the active component of mustard oil) and other reactive electrophiles and may also be thermodetectors in many animal phyla. In this study, we provide the first pharmacological evidence of a putative TRPA1-like channel in the medicinal leech. The leech's polymodal nociceptive neuron was activated by both peripheral and central application of the TRPA1 agonist AITC in a concentration-dependent manner...
October 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
Kevin L Briggman, William B Kristan, Jesús E González, David Kleinfeld, Roger Y Tsien
Pairs of membrane-associated molecules exhibiting fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) provide a sensitive technique to measure changes in a cell's membrane potential. One of the FRET pair binds to one surface of the membrane and the other is a mobile ion that dissolves in the lipid bilayer. The voltage-related signal can be measured as a change in the fluorescence of either the donor or acceptor molecules, but measuring their ratio provides the largest and most noise-free signal. This technology has been used in a variety of ways; three are documented in this chapter: (1) high throughput drug screening, (2) monitoring the activity of many neurons simultaneously during a behavior, and (3) finding synaptic targets of a stimulated neuron...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Scott L Hooper, Jeffrey B Thuma, Christoph Guschlbauer, Joachim Schmidt, Ansgar Büschges
We recorded from lobster and leech neurons with two sharp electrodes filled with solutions often used with these preparations (lobster: 0.6 M K2SO4 or 2.5 M KAc; leech: 4 M KAc), with solutions approximately matching neuron cytoplasm ion concentrations, and with 6.5 M KAc (lobster, leech) and 0.6 M KAc (lobster). We measured membrane potential, input resistance, and transient and sustained depolarization-activated outward current amplitudes in leech and these neuron properties and hyperpolarization-activated current time constant in lobster, every 10 min for 60 min after electrode penetration...
August 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
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