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5HT aplysia

Tyler William Dunn, Wayne S Sossin
The defensive withdrawal reflexes of Aplysia are important behaviors for protecting the animal from predation. Habituation and dishabituation allow for experience-dependent tuning of these reflexes and the mechanisms underlying these forms of behavioral plasticity involve changes in transmitter release from the sensory to motor neuron synapses through homosynaptic depression and the serotonin-mediated recovery from depression, respectively. Interestingly, dishabituation is reduced in older animals with no corresponding change in habituation...
2015: PloS One
Soren Fischbach, Ashley M Kopec, Thomas J Carew
Mechanistically distinct forms of long-lasting plasticity and memory can be induced by a variety of different training patterns. Although several studies have identified distinct molecular pathways that are engaged during these different training patterns, relatively little work has explored potential interactions between pathways when they are simultaneously engaged in the same neurons and circuits during memory formation. Aplysia californica exhibits two forms of intermediate-term synaptic facilitation (ITF) in response to two different training patterns: (1) repeated trial (RT) ITF (induced by repeated tail nerve shocks [TNSs] or repeated serotonin [5HT] application) and (2) activity-dependent (AD) ITF (induced by sensory neuron activation paired with a single TNS or 5HT pulse)...
April 2014: Learning & Memory
Guy Malkinson, Micha E Spira
Much of what we know about the mechanisms underlying Homosynaptic Depression (HSD) and heterosynaptic facilitation is based on intracellular recordings of integrated postsynaptic potentials (PSPs). This methodological approach views the presynaptic apparatus as a single compartment rather than taking a more realistic representation reflecting the fact that it is made up of tens to hundreds of individual and independent Presynaptic Release Boutons (PRBs). Using cultured Aplysia sensorimotor synapses, we reexamined HSD and its dishabituation by imaging the release properties of individual PRBs...
2013: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Iksung Jin, Hiroshi Udo, Robert D Hawkins
Imaging studies have shown that even the earliest phases of long-term plasticity are accompanied by the rapid recruitment of synaptic components, which generally requires actin polymerization and may be one of the first steps in a program that can lead to the formation of new stable synapses during late-phase plasticity. However, most of those results come from studies of long-term potentiation in rodent hippocampus and might not generalize to other forms of synaptic plasticity or plasticity in other brain areas and species...
July 12, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Carolyn M Sherff, Thomas J Carew
Long-term facilitation (LTF) of Aplysia tail sensory neuron-motor neuron (SN-MN) synapses provides a synaptic correlate of memory for long-term behavioral sensitization of the tail-siphon withdrawal reflex. LTF can be induced by repeated exposures of serotonin (5HT) in the isolated pleural-pedal ganglion preparation. In addition, we have shown previously (Sherff and Carew, 1999) that LTF can also be induced by coincident 5HT exposure comprised of a single 25-min exposure of 5HT at the SN cell body and a 5 min pulse of 5HT at the SN-MN synapses...
August 2002: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Michael A Sutton, Thomas J Carew
Serotonin (5HT) induces short-term and long-term synaptic facilitation (STF and LTF, respectively) at sensory neuron to motor neuron (SN-MN) synapses in Aplysia, and these forms of plasticity are thought to contribute to short-term and long-term memory for behavioral sensitization. Recent evidence in Aplysia has identified a third phase of synaptic facilitation-intermediate-term facilitation (ITF)-that is temporally and mechanistically distinct from STF and LTF. Here, we review the findings of recent studies that have examined this unique intermediate-term phase at molecular, cellular, and behavioral levels...
August 2002: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Carole A Farah, Wayne S Sossin
Protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are serine threonine kinases that play a central role in regulating a wide variety of cellular processes such as cell growth and learning and memory. There are four known families of PKC isoforms in vertebrates: classical PKCs (α, βI, βII and γ), novel type I PKCs (ε and η), novel type II PKCs (δ and θ), and atypical PKCs (ζ and ι). The classical PKCs are activated by Ca(2+) and diacylclycerol (DAG), while the novel PKCs are activated by DAG, but are Ca(2+)-independent. The atypical PKCs are activated by neither Ca(2+) nor DAG...
2011: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ikue Nagakura, Tyler W Dunn, Carole Abi Farah, Andrew Heppner, Flora F Li, Wayne S Sossin
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) is the neurotransmitter that mediates dishabituation in Aplysia. Serotonin mediates this behavioral change through the reversal of synaptic depression in sensory neurons (SNs). However, the 5HT receptors present in SNs and in particular, the receptor important for activation of protein kinase C (PKC) have not been fully identified. Using a recent genome assembly of Aplysia, we identified new receptors from the 5HT(2) , 5HT(4) , and 5HT(7) families. Using RT-PCR from isolated SNs, we found that three 5HT receptors, 5HT(1Apl(a)) , 5HT(2Apl) , and 5HT(7Apl) were expressed in SNs...
November 2010: Journal of Neurochemistry
Carole A Farah, Daniel Weatherill, Tyler W Dunn, Wayne S Sossin
Learning is highly regulated by the pattern of training. In Aplysia, an important organism for the development of cellular and molecular models of learning, spaced versus massed application of the same stimulus leads to different forms of memory. A critical molecular step underlying memory is the serotonin (5HT)-mediated activation of the novel PKC Apl II. Here, we demonstrate that activation of PKC Apl II is highly sensitive to the pattern of 5HT application. Spaced applications downregulate PKC translocation through PKA signaling, whereas massed applications lead to persistent translocation of PKC...
August 19, 2009: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
J R Lemos, I Novak-Hofer, I B Levitan
Protein phosphorylation was examined in the identified Aplysia neuron R15, in vivo, after the intracellular injection of [gamma-(32)P]ATP. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis indicates that at least 70 proteins are phosphorylated within R15 during a 50-min labeling period. Application of serotonin (5HT) results in an increase in K(+) conductance in R15 and a concomitant change in the phosphorylation pattern: there are increases or decreases in the phosphorylation of some proteins, and at least five phosphoproteins appear that are not observed in control cells...
May 1984: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Arkady Khoutorsky, Micha E Spira
Aplysia motoneurons cocultured with a presynaptic sensory neuron exhibit homosynaptic depression when stimulated at low frequencies. A single bath application of serotonin (5HT) leads within seconds to facilitation of the depressed synapse. The facilitation is attributed to mobilization of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles from a feeding vesicle store to the depleted, readily releasable pool by protein kinase C (PKC). Here, we demonstrate that the calpain inhibitors, calpeptin, MG132, and ALLN, but not the proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin and clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone, block 5HT-induced facilitation of depressed synapses...
July 2005: Learning & Memory
Hana Lin, Jianxin Bao, Ying-Ju Sung, Edgar T Walters, Richard T Ambron, Ju-Sung Ying
Axotomy elicits changes in gene expression, but little is known about how information from the site of injury is communicated to the cell nucleus. We crushed nerves in Aplysia californica and the sciatic nerve in the mouse and found short- and long-term activation of an Elk1-SRF transcription complex that binds to the serum response element (SRE). The enhanced short-term binding appeared rapidly and was attributed to the injury-induced activation of an Elk1 kinase that phosphorylates Elk1 at ser383. This kinase is the previously described Aplysia (ap) ERK2 homologue, apMAPK...
November 2003: Journal of Neurobiology
Carolyn M Sherff, Thomas J Carew
Induction of long-term synaptic changes at one synapse can facilitate the induction of long-term plasticity at another synapse. Here we show that if Aplysia sensory neuron (SN) somata and their remote motor neuron (MN) synapses are simultaneously exposed to serotonin (5HT) pulses, which at either site alone are insufficient to induce long-term facilitation (LTF), processes activated at these sites interact to induce LTF. Coincident induction of LTF requires: (1) that the synaptic pulse occurs within a brief temporal window of the somatic pulse and (2) that local protein synthesis occurs immediately at the synapse, followed by delayed protein synthesis at the soma...
November 2002: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Aneta Jovanovska, Rebecca A Prosser
The mammalian circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Various inputs modulate pacemaker phase, including the serotonergic (5HTergic) input from the midbrain raphe. 5HT phase-advances the SCN pacemaker when applied during mid subjective day. In vitro studies indicate that 5HT advances the mammalian circadian pacemaker through a process that includes stimulating 5HT7 receptors, activating protein kinase A, and opening K+ channels. How these cytoplasmic and membrane events translate into a shift in the molecular core of the circadian oscillator is not known...
April 2002: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Lyle E Fox, Philip E Lloyd
Synaptic plasticity can last from a fraction of a second to weeks depending on how it was induced. The mechanisms that underlie short-, intermediate-, and long-term plasticity have been intensively studied at central synapses of both vertebrates and invertebrates; however, peripheral plasticity has not received as much attention. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms that contribute to a persistent form of plasticity at neuromuscular synapses in buccal muscle I3a of Aplysia. These synapses are reversibly facilitated by the small cardioactive peptide (SCP), a peptide cotransmitter that is intrinsic to the motor neurons, and persistently facilitated by serotonin (5HT) released from modulatory neurons that are extrinsic to the motor circuit...
April 2002: Journal of Neurophysiology
A L Purcell, T J Carew
Tyrosine kinases have recently been shown to modulate synaptic plasticity and ion channel function. We show here that tyrosine kinases can also modulate both the baseline excitability state of Aplysia tail sensory neurons (SNs) as well as the excitability induced by the neuromodulator serotonin (5HT). First, we examined the effects of increasing and decreasing tyrosine kinase activity in the SNs. We found that tyrosine kinase inhibitors decrease baseline SN excitability in addition to attenuating the increase in excitability induced by 5HT...
June 2001: Journal of Neurophysiology
C H Bailey
Long-term memory for sensitization of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia is associated with the growth of new synaptic connections between sensory and motor neurons. The duration of this structural change parallels the behavioral retention of the memory. Such changes can be reconstituted in dissociated cell culture by repeated presentations of the modulatory neurotransmitter serotonin (5HT) and are associated with an activity-dependent downregulation of NCAM-related cell adhesion molecules thought to contribute to cell recognition and axonal outgrowth during development...
September 1999: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
M Farr, J Mathews, D F Zhu, R T Ambron
Nerve injury, tissue damage, and inflammation all cause hyperalgesia. A factor contributing to this increased sensitivity is a long-term (>24 hr) hyperexcitability (LTH) in the sensory neurons that mediate the responses. Using the cluster of nociceptive sensory neurons in Aplysia californica as a model, we are examining how inflammation induces LTH. A general inflammatory response was induced by inserting a gauze pad into the animal Within 4 days, the gauze is enmeshed in an amorphous material that contains hemocytes, which comprise a cellular immune system...
May 1999: Learning & Memory
J Mauelshagen, C M Sherff, T J Carew
Serotonin (5HT)-induced facilitation of synaptic transmission from tail sensory neurons (SNs) to motor neurons (MNs) in the marine mollusc Aplysia provides a cellular model of short- and long-term memory for behavioral sensitization of the tail withdrawal reflex. Synaptic facilitation at these synapses occurs in three temporal phases: short-term (STF, lasting minutes), intermediate-term (ITF, lasting more than an hour), and long-term (LTF, lasting >24 hr). STF, ITF, and LTF differ in their induction requirements: A single brief exposure of 5HT induces STF, whereas five applications are required for ITF and LTF...
July 1998: Learning & Memory
L E Fox, P E Lloyd
The anterior portion of intrinsic buccal muscle 3 (I3a) is innervated by two motor neurons, B3 and B38, which appear to use glutamate as their fast excitatory transmitter. B3 and B38 express the neuropeptides FMRFamide and the small cardioactive peptides (SCPs), respectively. We have shown previously that stimulation of B38 causes release of the SCPs from terminals in the muscle. The I3a muscle also receives input from neurons that use 5HT as a modulatory transmitter. The SCPs and 5HT potently facilitated B38-evoked excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) but had only a small effect on B3-evoked EJPs; however, both the SCPs and 5HT strongly potentiated contractions evoked by both B3 and B38, indicating that the two substances must also act on excitation-contraction coupling...
August 15, 1997: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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