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circadian, GI, intestine

Aleksandra Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Marcin Włodarczyk, Janusz Szemraj, Krystyna Stec-Michalska, Jakub Fichna, Maria Wiśniewska-Jarosińska
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the main representatives of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), a group of chronic, immune system-mediated inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The pathogenesis of the intestinal lesions in IBD is not entirely identified and understood: excessive activation of the immune system may come as a result of the interaction of various environmental and infectious factors, genetic predisposition, and the mediation of abnormal intestinal flora...
August 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
John P Vu, Muriel Larauche, Martin Flores, Leon Luong, Joshua Norris, Suwan Oh, Li-Jung Liang, James Waschek, Joseph R Pisegna, Patrizia M Germano
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin-glucagon superfamily of peptides and has 68 % homology with PACAP. VIP is abundantly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and in the gastrointestinal tract, where it exercises several physiological functions. Previously, it has been reported that VIP regulates feeding behavior centrally in different species of vertebrates such as goldfishes, chicken and rodents. Additional studies are necessary to analyze the role of endogenous VIP on the regulation of appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, metabolic hormones, body mass composition and energy balance...
June 2015: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Christopher B Forsyth, Robin M Voigt, Helen J Burgess, Garth R Swanson, Ali Keshavarzian
The circadian clock establishes rhythms throughout the body with an approximately 24 hour period that affect expression of hundreds of genes. Epidemiological data reveal chronic circadian misalignment, common in our society, significantly increases the risk for a myriad of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infertility and gastrointestinal disease. Disruption of intestinal barrier function, also known as gut leakiness, is especially important in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Several studies have shown that alcohol causes ALD in only a 20-30% subset of alcoholics...
June 2015: Alcohol
Sean R Moore, Jill Pruszka, Jefferson Vallance, Eitaro Aihara, Toru Matsuura, Marshall H Montrose, Noah F Shroyer, Christian I Hong
Disruption of circadian rhythms is a risk factor for several human gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, ranging from diarrhea to ulcers to cancer. Four-dimensional tissue culture models that faithfully mimic the circadian clock of the GI epithelium would provide an invaluable tool to understand circadian regulation of GI health and disease. We hypothesized that rhythmicity of a key circadian component, PERIOD2 (PER2), would diminish along a continuum from ex vivo intestinal organoids (epithelial 'miniguts'), nontransformed mouse small intestinal epithelial (MSIE) cells and transformed human colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells...
September 2014: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Marco Brancaccio, Elizabeth S Maywood, Johanna E Chesham, Andrew S I Loudon, Michael H Hastings
The role of intracellular transcriptional/post-translational feedback loops (TTFL) within the circadian pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is well established. In contrast, contributions from G-coupled pathways and cytosolic rhythms to the intercellular control of SCN pacemaking are poorly understood. We therefore combined viral transduction of SCN slices with fluorescence/bioluminescence imaging to visualize GCaMP3-reported circadian oscillations of intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i alongside activation of Ca2+ /cAMP-responsive elements...
May 22, 2013: Neuron
Gale B Carey, Lisa C Merrill
Most laboratory rodents used for toxicology studies are fed ad libitum, with unlimited access to food. As a result, ad libitum-fed rodents tend to overeat. Research demonstrates that ad libitum-fed rodents are physiologically and metabolically different from rodents fed controlled amounts of food at scheduled times (meal-fed). Ad libitum-fed rodents can develop hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, diet-induced obesity, nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, and pituitary, pancreatic, adrenal, and thyroid tumors, conditions likely to affect the results of toxicology research studies...
August 20, 2012: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Kamran Abolmaali, Anita Balakrishnan, Adam T Stearns, Jan Rounds, David B Rhoads, Stanley W Ashley, Ali Tavakkolizadeh
BACKGROUND: 5-fluorouracil (5FU) is associated with significant GI side-effects. Randomized trials have shown a 50% reduction in severe diarrhea with chrono-chemotherapy versus conventional regimens at similar doses. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the rate-limiting enzyme in 5FU breakdown. We hypothesized that DPD has a circadian expression pattern, accounting for the reduced GI side effects of chrono-modulated 5FU therapy. METHODS: Fifty-one rats were killed at 3-hourly intervals over 24 hours...
August 2009: Surgery
L Rinaldi, V Veneziano, M E Morgoglione, S Pennacchio, M Santaniello, M Schioppi, V Musella, V Fedele, G Cringoli
Gastrointestinal (GI) strongyle infections remain one of the main constraints to goat production worldwide. Although several indicators of GI strongyle infections have been proposed, faecal egg count (FEC) techniques are the most common approaches for the estimation of prevalence and intensity of these parasites. However, FEC may be subjected to a within-individual variation due to factors such as weather, season, random day-to-day variation and phase of the parasitic infection. A longitudinal study of GI strongyle FEC was conducted on 63 dairy goats to evaluate the effects of hour of sample collection on FEC and the relationship between FEC and worm burden...
July 7, 2009: Veterinary Parasitology
Brahma N Singh
Solid formulations intended for targeted drug release into the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract are beneficial for the localized treatment of several diseases and conditions, mainly inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and colon cancer. Also, because of their inherent potential to delay or avoid systemic drug absorption from the small intestine, colonic formulations can be utilized for chronotherapy of diseases which are affected by circadian biorhythms (e.g., asthma, hypertension and arthritis), and to achieve clinically relevant bioavailability of drugs that are poorly absorbed from the upper parts of the GI tract because of their polar nature and/or susceptibility to chemical and enzymatic degradation in the small intestine (e...
2007: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
Paul J Brighton, Alan Wise, Narinder B Dass, Gary B Willars
Neuromedin U (NmU) is a neuropeptide showing high levels of structural conservation across different species. Since its discovery in 1985, NmU has been implicated in numerous physiological roles, including smooth muscle contraction, energy homeostasis, stress, intestinal ion transport, pronociception, and circadian rhythm. Two G-protein-coupled receptors have been identified for NmU and cloned from humans, rats, and mice. Recombinantly expressed NmU receptors couple to both Galpha(q/11) and Galpha(i) G-proteins, and NmU binds essentially irreversibly, preventing signaling to repetitive applications of NmU...
April 2008: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Sara J Aton, James E Huettner, Martin Straume, Erik D Herzog
Neurons in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) generate daily rhythms in physiology and behavior, but it is unclear how they maintain and synchronize these rhythms in vivo. We hypothesized that parallel signaling pathways in the SCN are required to synchronize rhythms in these neurons for coherent output. We recorded firing and clock-gene expression patterns while blocking candidate signaling pathways for at least 8 days. GABA(A) and GABA(B) antagonism increased circadian peak firing rates and rhythm precision of cultured SCN neurons, but G(i/o) did not impair synchrony or rhythmicity...
December 12, 2006: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
B Simon, E M Koch, P Jackisch, P Müller
Circadian Dependency of Ibuprofen Gastropathy and Protective Effect of Ranitidine/An endoscopic, controlled double-blind pilot study. In a randomized parallel double-blind study, the gastric and duodenal effects of 600 mg S(+)-ibuprofen (CAS 15687-27-1) daily in the presence and absence of 300 mg ranitidine (CAS 66357-35-5) was evaluated in 20 healthy volunteers undergoing upper GI-endoscopy. Drugs were taken over a period of 7 days either at 8 a.m. (n = 10) or at 8 p.m. (n = 10). Endoscopic controls were performed at entry and repeated after 7 days of treatment...
September 1993: Arzneimittel-Forschung
B J Aungst, H L Fung
In rats, the absorption of a 10 mg/kg oral lead dose was reduced by the presence of food in the intestine. In vitro intestinal lead permeability was similar using intestines from fasted or fed rats. No circadian rhythm was apparent in lead absorption or transport across everted rat intestines in vitro. The effects of feeding and circadian rhythm on lead absorption are different from the effects on calcium absorption. Pretreatment of rats with propantheline (5 mg/kg, i.p.) delayed and decreased lead absorption, whereas metoclopramide (10 mg/kg, o...
December 1981: Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
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