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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088039/read-my-lips-visual-speech-influences-word-processing-in-infants
#1
Drew Weatherhead, Katherine S White
What do infants hear when they read lips? In the present study, twelve-to-thirteen-month-old infants viewed a talking face produce familiar and unfamiliar words. The familiar words were of three types: in Experiment 1, they were produced correctly (e.g., "bottle"); in Experiment 2, infants saw and heard mispronunciations in which the altered phoneme either visually resembled the original phoneme (visually consistent, e.g. "pottle"), or did not visually resemble the original phoneme (visually inconsistent, e...
January 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069761/functional-and-quantitative-mri-mapping-of-somatomotor-representations-of-human-supralaryngeal-vocal-tract
#2
Daniel Carey, Saloni Krishnan, Martina F Callaghan, Martin I Sereno, Frederic Dick
Speech articulation requires precise control of and coordination between the effectors of the vocal tract (e.g., lips, tongue, soft palate, and larynx). However, it is unclear how the cortex represents movements of and contact between these effectors during speech, or how these cortical responses relate to inter-regional anatomical borders. Here, we used phase-encoded fMRI to map somatomotor representations of speech articulations. Phonetically trained participants produced speech phones, progressing from front (bilabial) to back (glottal) place of articulation...
January 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056148/the-interaction-of-lexical-characteristics-and-speech-production-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Yi-Fang Chiu, Karen Forrest
Purpose: This study sought to investigate the interaction of speech movement execution with higher order lexical parameters. The authors examined how lexical characteristics affect speech output in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy control (HC) speakers. Method: Twenty speakers with PD and 12 healthy speakers read sentences with target words that varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. The formant transitions (F2 slopes) of the diphthongs in the target words were compared across lexical categories between PD and HC groups...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040606/steinert-syndrome-and-repercussions-in-dental-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Helena Baptista, Inês Lopes Cardoso
Steinert syndrome, also called myotonic dystrophy type 1, is a genetic disorder with autosomal dominant transmission characterized by myotonia and a multisystemic clinical picture that affects several tissues of the human body. The most common systemic phenotypes are: muscular, cardiac, respiratory, CNS, ocular, gynecological, digestive, orthopedical, as well as cognitive and psychological symptoms (cognitive decline). Muscles involved in voluntary movement are highly affected by myotonia especially distal muscles of upper limbs...
December 23, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040002/occlusion-effect-on-compensatory-formant-production-and-voice-amplitude-in-response-to-real-time-perturbation
#5
Takashi Mitsuya, David W Purcell
The importance of auditory feedback for controlling speech articulation has been substantiated by the use of the real-time auditory perturbation paradigm. With this paradigm, speakers receive their own manipulated voice signal in real-time while they produce a simple speech segment. In response, they spontaneously compensate for the manipulation. In the case of vowel formant control, various studies have reported behavioral and neural mechanisms of how auditory feedback is processed for compensatory behavior...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039993/vowel-and-consonant-confusions-from-spectrally-manipulated-stimuli-designed-to-simulate-poor-cochlear-implant-electrode-neuron-interfaces
#6
Mishaela DiNino, Richard A Wright, Matthew B Winn, Julie Arenberg Bierer
Suboptimal interfaces between cochlear implant (CI) electrodes and auditory neurons result in a loss or distortion of spectral information in specific frequency regions, which likely decreases CI users' speech identification performance. This study exploited speech acoustics to model regions of distorted CI frequency transmission to determine the perceptual consequences of suboptimal electrode-neuron interfaces. Normal hearing adults identified naturally spoken vowels and consonants after spectral information was manipulated through a noiseband vocoder: either (1) low-, middle-, or high-frequency regions of information were removed by zeroing the corresponding channel outputs, or (2) the same regions were distorted by splitting filter outputs to neighboring filters...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039933/aphasia-and-literacy-the-insider-s-perspective
#7
Emma Kjellén, Katja Laakso, Ingrid Henriksson
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated how people with aphasia (PWA) experience literacy skills. Taking the insider's perspective is a way to increase understanding of the individual experiences of literacy among PWA, which may have clinical implications. AIMS: To describe how literacy, i.e., reading and writing, is experienced in everyday life by PWA and to gain insight into the part played by literacy skills in their lives. METHODS & PROCEDURES: A qualitative descriptive research approach was taken...
December 31, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039737/phonologic-and-acoustic-analysis-of%C3%A2-speech-following-glossectomy-and%C3%A2-the-effect-of-rehabilitation-on-speech-outcomes
#8
Jun Takatsu, Nobuhiro Hanai, Hidenori Suzuki, Masahiro Yoshida, Yasuhiro Tanaka, Seiya Tanaka, Yasuhisa Hasegawa, Masahiko Yamamoto
PURPOSE: Changes in acoustic features in the perioperative phase for elucidating the mechanisms of articulation disorder and the effect of perioperative rehabilitation were studied prospectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two patients with 62 tongue cancer were divided into a partial glossectomy group (n = 40) and a reconstruction group (n = 22). Acoustic characteristics were analyzed during the preoperative and postoperative periods and after rehabilitation using the first and second formants of the vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/; the triangular vowel space area (tVSA); and the slopes of formant transitions...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039015/longitudinal-follow-up-to-evaluate-speech-disorders-in-early-treated-patients-with-infantile-onset-pompe-disease
#9
Yin-Ting Zeng, Wuh-Liang Hwu, Pao-Chuan Torng, Ni-Chung Lee, Jeng-Yi Shieh, Lu Lu, Yin-Hsiu Chien
BACKGROUND: Patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD) can be treated by recombinant human acid alpha glucosidase (rhGAA) replacement beginning at birth with excellent survival rates, but they still commonly present with speech disorders. This study investigated the progress of speech disorders in these early-treated patients and ascertained the relationship with treatments. METHODS: Speech disorders, including hypernasal resonance, articulation disorders, and speech intelligibility, were scored by speech-language pathologists using auditory perception in seven early-treated patients over a period of 6 years...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026747/joint-dictionary-learning-based-non-negative-matrix-factorization-for-voice-conversion-to-improve-speech-intelligibility-after-oral-surgery
#10
Szu-Wei Fu, Pei-Chun Li, Ying-Hui Lai, Cheng-Chien Yang, Li-Chun Hsieh, Yu Tsao
OBJECTIVE: This paper focuses on machine learning based voice conversion (VC) techniques for improving the speech intelligibility of surgical patients who have had parts of their articulators removed. Because of the removal of parts of the articulator, a patient's speech may be distorted and difficult to understand. To overcome this problem, VC methods can be applied to convert the distorted speech such that it is clear and more intelligible. To design an effective VC method, two key points must be considered: (1) the amount of training data may be limited (because speaking for a long time is usually difficult for post-operative patients); (2) rapid conversion is desirable (for better communication)...
December 23, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002840/suprasegmental-characteristics-of-spontaneous-speech-produced-in-good-and-challenging-communicative-conditions-by-talkers-aged-9-14-years
#11
Valerie Hazan, Outi Tuomainen, Michèle Pettinato
Purpose: This study investigated the acoustic characteristics of spontaneous speech by talkers aged 9-14 years and their ability to adapt these characteristics to maintain effective communication when intelligibility was artificially degraded for their interlocutor. Method: Recordings were made for 96 children (50 female participants, 46 male participants) engaged in a problem-solving task with a same-sex friend; recordings for 20 adults were used as reference. The task was carried out in good listening conditions (normal transmission) and in degraded transmission conditions...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002837/influences-of-tone-on-vowel-articulation-in-mandarin-chinese
#12
Jason A Shaw, Wei-Rong Chen, Michael I Proctor, Donald Derrick
Purpose: Models of speech production often abstract away from shared physiology in pitch control and lingual articulation, positing independent control of tone and vowel units. We assess the validity of this assumption in Mandarin Chinese by evaluating the stability of lingual articulation for vowels across variation in tone. Method: Electromagnetic articulography was used to track flesh points on the tongue (tip, body, dorsum), lips, and jaw while native Mandarin speakers (n = 6) produced 3 vowels, /pa/, /pi/, /pu/, combined with 4 Mandarin tones: T1 "high," T2 "rising," T3 "low," and T4 "falling...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000516/speech-perception-in-children-with-cochlear-implants-for-continua-varying-in-formant-transition-duration
#13
Kathryn Guillot Blankenship, Ralph N Ohde, Jong Ho Won, Mark Hedrick
PURPOSE: To examine the developmental course of labial and alveolar manner of articulation contrasts, and to determine how that course may be different for typically developing (TD) children with cochlear implants (CI). METHOD: Eight young adults, eight TD 5-8 year-old children, and seven 5-8 year-old children with CIs participated. Labial /ba/-/wa/ and alveolar /da/-/ja/ continua stimuli were presented, with each continuum consisting of nine synthetic stimuli varying in F2 and F3 transition duration...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997947/the-use-of-electropalatography-in-the-treatment-of-acquired-apraxia-of-speech
#14
Shannon C Mauszycki, Sandra Wright, Nicole Dingus, Julie L Wambaugh
Purpose: This investigation was designed to examine the effects of an articulatory-kinematic treatment in conjunction with visual biofeedback (VBFB) via electropalatography (EPG) on the accuracy of articulation for acquired apraxia of speech (AOS). Method: A multiple-baseline design across participants and behaviors was used with 4 individuals with chronic AOS and aphasia. Accuracy of target speech sounds in treated and untreated phrases in probe sessions served as the dependent variable...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978860/infant-directed-speech-ids-vowel-clarity-and-child-language-outcomes
#15
Kelly M Hartman, Nan Bernstein Ratner, Rochelle S Newman
There have been many studies examining the differences between infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS). However, investigations asking whether mothers clarify vowel articulation in IDS have reached equivocal findings. Moreover, it is unclear whether maternal speech clarification has any effect on a child's developing language skills. This study examined vowel clarification in mothers' IDS at 0;10-11, 1;6, and 2;0, as compared to their vowel production in ADS. Relationships between vowel space, vowel duration, and vowel variability and child language outcomes at two years were also explored...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965604/the-n400-effect-during-speaker-switch-towards-a-conversational-approach-of-measuring-neural-correlates-of-language
#16
Tatiana Goregliad Fjaellingsdal, Esther Ruigendijk, Stefan Scherbaum, Martin G Bleichner
Language occurs naturally in conversations. However, the study of the neural underpinnings of language has mainly taken place in single individuals using controlled language material. The interactive elements of a conversation (e.g., turn-taking) are often not part of neurolinguistic setups. The prime reason is the difficulty to combine open unrestricted conversations with the requirements of neuroimaging. It is necessary to find a trade-off between the naturalness of a conversation and the restrictions imposed by neuroscientific methods to allow for ecologically more valid studies...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960196/visual-context-enhanced-the-joint-contribution-of-iconic-gestures-and-visible-speech-to-degraded-speech-comprehension
#17
Linda Drijvers, Asli Özyürek
Purpose: This study investigated whether and to what extent iconic co-speech gestures contribute to information from visible speech to enhance degraded speech comprehension at different levels of noise-vocoding. Previous studies of the contributions of these 2 visual articulators to speech comprehension have only been performed separately. Method: Twenty participants watched videos of an actress uttering an action verb and completed a free-recall task. The videos were presented in 3 speech conditions (2-band noise-vocoding, 6-band noise-vocoding, clear), 3 multimodal conditions (speech + lips blurred, speech + visible speech, speech + visible speech + gesture), and 2 visual-only conditions (visible speech, visible speech + gesture)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960006/experiments-on-auditory-visual-perception-of-sentences-by-users-of-unilateral-bimodal-and-bilateral-cochlear-implants
#18
Michael F Dorman, Julie Liss, Shuai Wang, Visar Berisha, Cimarron Ludwig, Sarah Cook Natale
Purpose: Five experiments probed auditory-visual (AV) understanding of sentences by users of cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Sentence material was presented in auditory (A), visual (V), and AV test conditions to listeners with normal hearing and CI users. Results: (a) Most CI users report that most of the time, they have access to both A and V information when listening to speech. (b) CI users did not achieve better scores on a task of speechreading than did listeners with normal hearing...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956600/revealing-the-dual-streams-of-speech-processing
#19
Julius Fridriksson, Grigori Yourganov, Leonardo Bonilha, Alexandra Basilakos, Dirk-Bart Den Ouden, Christopher Rorden
Several dual route models of human speech processing have been proposed suggesting a large-scale anatomical division between cortical regions that support motor-phonological aspects vs. lexical-semantic aspects of speech processing. However, to date, there is no complete agreement on what areas subserve each route or the nature of interactions across these routes that enables human speech processing. Relying on an extensive behavioral and neuroimaging assessment of a large sample of stroke survivors, we used a data-driven approach using principal components analysis of lesion-symptom mapping to identify brain regions crucial for performance on clusters of behavioral tasks without a priori separation into task types...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943448/one-second-mri-of-a-three-dimensional-vocal-tract-to-measure-dynamic-articulator-modifications
#20
Michael Burdumy, Louisa Traser, Fabian Burk, Bernhard Richter, Matthias Echternach, Jan G Korvink, Jürgen Hennig, Maxim Zaitsev
PURPOSE: To enable three-dimensional (3D) vocal tract imaging of dynamic singing or speech tasks at voxel sizes of 1.6 × 1.6 × 1.3 mm(3) at 1.3 s per image. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Stack-of-Stars method was implemented and enhanced to allow for fast and efficient k-space sampling of the box-shaped vocal tract using a 3 Tesla MRI system. Images were reconstructed using an off-line image reconstruction using compressed sensing theory, leading to the abovementioned spatial and temporal resolutions...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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