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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323747/supporting-a-youth-with-cerebellar-ataxia-into-adolescence
#1
Veronica Meneses, Zurisadai Gonzalez-Castillo, Veronica B Edgar, Marilyn Augustyn
Zoe, a 13-year-old white girl, presents as a new patient to your pediatric clinic with complaints of frequent emesis, anxiety, and learning problems, and previous diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia. Parents accompany Zoe and state, "it is really hard for her to go out, she gets sick and falls easily." She was born full term by vaginal delivery without complications. Given globally delayed milestones, she received early intervention services. Feeding problems began at infancy, including gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration pneumonia...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318969/auditory-perceptual-evaluation-of-voice-quality-of-cochlear-implanted-and-normal-hearing-individuals-a-reliability-study
#2
Ana Cristina Coelho, Alcione Ghedini Brasolotto, Ana Carolina Nascimento Fernandes, Daniela Malta de Souza Medved, Eduardo Magalhães da Silva, Fayez Bahmad Júnior
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present an experience in rating voices of adults with normal hearing and adults with cochlear implants and critically examine the outcomes, discussing pros and cons of the methodology used. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional, prospective study. METHODS: One hundred and fifty voice samples, consisting of 50 sustained vowels, 50 samples of connected speech, and 50 samples of conversational speech, belonging to 25 adults with hearing impairment with cochlear implants and 25 adults with normal hearing, were perceptually analyzed for inter-rater agreement and intra-rater reliability...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318160/-phonological-characteristics-and-rehabilitation-training-of-abnormal-velar-in-children-with-functional-articulation-disorders
#3
Xu Lina, Li Feng, Zhang Yanyun, Gao Nan, Hu Mingfang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the phonological characteristics and rehabilitation training of abnormal velar in patients with functional articulation disorders (FAD). METHODS: Eighty-seven patients with FAD were observed of the phonological characteristics of velar. Seventy-two patients with abnormal velar accepted speech training. The correlation and simple linear regression analysis were carried out on abnormal velar articulation and age. RESULTS: The articulation disorder of /g/ mainly showed replacement by /d/, /b/ or omission...
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317356/-effects-of-hawley-retainer-and-vacuum-formed-retainer-on-articulation-of-chinese-speech-of-adult-orthodontic-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Wan Jia, You Lun, Chen Junyu, Chen Zhiqiang, Wang Tong
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the influence of Hawley retainer and vacuum-formed retainer on the articu-lation of Chinese speech of adult orthodontic patients. METHODS: A total of 20 volunteers were recruited in this randomized controlled trial in accordance with the inclusion criteria. Participants were randomly distributed into two groups, namely, the Hawley retainer group and the vacuum-formed retainer group. Speech performance was evaluated at the following time inter-vals: before wearing retainers (T0), immediately after wearing both upper and lower retainers (T1), 24 h later (T2), 1 week later (T3), and 1 month later (T4)...
August 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314241/characterizing-articulation-in-apraxic-speech-using-real-time-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Christina Hagedorn, Michael Proctor, Louis Goldstein, Stephen M Wilson, Bruce Miller, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Shrikanth S Narayanan
Purpose: Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and accompanying analytical methods are shown to capture and quantify salient aspects of apraxic speech, substantiating and expanding upon evidence provided by clinical observation and acoustic and kinematic data. Analysis of apraxic speech errors within a dynamic systems framework is provided and the nature of pathomechanisms of apraxic speech discussed. Method: One adult male speaker with apraxia of speech was imaged using real-time MRI while producing spontaneous speech, repeated naming tasks, and self-paced repetition of word pairs designed to elicit speech errors...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301854/pre-low-raising-in-japanese-pitch-accent
#6
Albert Lee, Santitham Prom-On, Yi Xu
Japanese has been observed to have 2 versions of the H tone, the higher of which is associated with an accented mora. However, the distinction of these 2 versions only surfaces in context but not in isolation, leading to a long-standing debate over whether there is 1 H tone or 2. This article reports evidence that the higher version may result from a pre-low raising mechanism rather than being inherently higher. The evidence is based on an analysis of F0 of words that varied in length, accent condition and syllable structure, produced by native speakers of Japanese at 2 speech rates...
March 17, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289751/the-effects-of-parent-focused-slow-relaxed-speech-intervention-on-articulation-rate-response-time-latency-and-fluency-in-preschool-children-who-stutter
#7
Jean Sawyer, Colleen Matteson, Hua Ou, Takahisa Nagase
Purpose: This study investigated the effects of an intervention to reduce caregivers' articulation rates with children who stutter on (a) disfluency, (b) caregiver and child's articulation rates, and (c) caregiver and child's response time latency (RTL). Method: Seventeen caregivers and their preschool children who stuttered participated in a group study of treatment outcomes. One speech sample was collected as a baseline, and 2 samples were collected after treatment...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270782/temporal-preparation-for-speaking-in-question-answer-sequences
#8
Lilla Magyari, Jan P De Ruiter, Stephen C Levinson
In every-day conversations, the gap between turns of conversational partners is most frequently between 0 and 200 ms. We were interested how speakers achieve such fast transitions. We designed an experiment in which participants listened to pre-recorded questions about images presented on a screen and were asked to answer these questions. We tested whether speakers already prepare their answers while they listen to questions and whether they can prepare for the time of articulation by anticipating when questions end...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263012/age-differences-in-the-motor-control-of-speech-an-fmri-study-of-healthy-aging
#9
Pascale Tremblay, Marc Sato, Isabelle Deschamps
Healthy aging is associated with a decline in cognitive, executive, and motor processes that are concomitant with changes in brain activation patterns, particularly at high complexity levels. While speech production relies on all these processes, and is known to decline with age, the mechanisms that underlie these changes remain poorly understood, despite the importance of communication on everyday life. In this cross-sectional group study, we investigated age differences in the neuromotor control of speech production by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data...
March 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260167/the-role-of-the-supplementary-motor-region-in-overt-reading-evidence-for-differential-processing-in-sma-proper-and-pre-sma-as-a-function-of-task-demands
#10
Jacqueline Cummine, Wahab Hanif, Inna Dymouriak-Tymashov, Kavya Anchuri, Stephanie Chiu, Carol A Boliek
A differentiation in function between the pre-SMA (i.e., cognitive load) and the SMA-proper (i.e., motor execution) has been described (Zhang et al., Cereb Cortex 22:99-111, 2012). These differential SMA functions may be influential in overt reading tasks. The present study examined the relationships between various segments of the SMA and overt reading through the modulation of task demands in an effort to explore the complexity of the print-to-speech network. Skilled reading adults (N = 15) took part in five overt reading tasks: pure regular word reading, pure exception word reading, mixed regular word and exception word reading, go/no-go reading with nonword foils and go/no-go reading with pseudohomophone foils...
March 4, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253693/power-spectral-entropy-as-an-information-theoretic-correlate-of-manner-of-articulation-in-american-english
#11
Fernando Llanos, Joshua M Alexander, Christian E Stilp, Keith R Kluender
While all languages differentiate speech sounds by manner of articulation, none of the acoustic correlates proposed to date seem to account for how these contrasts are encoded in the speech signal. The present study describes power spectral entropy (PSE), which quantifies the amount of potential information conveyed in the power spectrum of a given sound. Results of acoustic analyses of speech samples extracted from the Texas Instruments-Massachusetts Institute of Technology database reveal a statistically significant correspondence between PSE and American English major classes of manner of articulation...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253679/language-independent-talker-specificity-in-first-language-and-second-language-speech-production-by-bilingual-talkers-l1-speaking-rate-predicts-l2-speaking-rate
#12
Ann R Bradlow, Midam Kim, Michael Blasingame
Second-language (L2) speech is consistently slower than first-language (L1) speech, and L1 speaking rate varies within- and across-talkers depending on many individual, situational, linguistic, and sociolinguistic factors. It is asked whether speaking rate is also determined by a language-independent talker-specific trait such that, across a group of bilinguals, L1 speaking rate significantly predicts L2 speaking rate. Two measurements of speaking rate were automatically extracted from recordings of read and spontaneous speech by English monolinguals (n = 27) and bilinguals from ten L1 backgrounds (n = 86): speech rate (syllables/second), and articulation rate (syllables/second excluding silent pauses)...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253671/autocorrelation-factors-and-intelligibility-of-japanese-monosyllables-in-individuals-with-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#13
Ryota Shimokura, Sakie Akasaka, Tadashi Nishimura, Hiroshi Hosoi, Toshie Matsui
Some Japanese monosyllables contain consonants that are not easily discernible for individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. However, the acoustic features that make these monosyllables difficult to discern have not been clearly identified. Here, this study used the autocorrelation function (ACF), which can capture temporal features of signals, to clarify the factors influencing speech intelligibility. For each monosyllable, five factors extracted from the ACF [Φ(0): total energy; τ1 and ϕ1: delay time and amplitude of the maximum peak; τe: effective duration; Wϕ(0): spectral centroid], voice onset time, speech intelligibility index, and loudness level were compared with the percentage of correctly perceived articulations (144 ears) obtained by 50 Japanese vowel and consonant-vowel monosyllables produced by one female speaker...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241209/compensatory-strategies-in-the-developmental-patterns-of-english-s-gender-and-vowel-context-effects
#14
Hye-Young Bang, Meghan Clayards, Heather Goad
Purpose: The developmental trajectory of English /s/ was investigated to determine the extent to which children's speech productions are acoustically fine-grained. Given the hypothesis that young children have adultlike phonetic knowledge of /s/, the following were examined: (a) whether this knowledge manifests itself in acoustic spectra that match the gender-specific patterns of adults, (b) whether vowel context affects the spectra of /s/ in adults and children similarly, and (c) whether children adopt compensatory production strategies to match adult acoustic targets...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236761/activity-associated-with-speech-articulation-measured-through-direct-cortical-recordings
#15
Alexandra Basilakos, Julius Fridriksson, Chris Rorden, Roozbeh Behroozmand, Taylor Hanayik, Thomas Naselaris, John Del Gaizo, Jesse Breedlove, W A Vandergrift, Leonardo Bonilha
The insula has been credited with a role in a number of functions, including speech production. Here, we recorded electrocorticography (ECoG) signals from the left insula during pseudoword articulation in two patients undergoing pre-surgical monitoring for the management of medically-intractable epilepsy. Event-related band power (ERBP) activity from electrodes implanted in the superior precentral gyrus of the insula (SPGI) was compared to that of other left hemisphere regions implicated in speech production...
February 22, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222332/acquisition-of-vowel-articulation-in-childhood-investigated-by-acoustic-to-articulatory-inversion
#16
Hiroki Oohashi, Hama Watanabe, Gentaro Taga
While the acoustical features of speech sounds in children have been extensively studied, limited information is available as to their articulation during speech production. Instead of directly measuring articulatory movements, this study used an acoustic-to-articulatory inversion model with scalable vocal tract size to estimate developmental changes in articulatory state during vowel production. Using a pseudo-inverse Jacobian matrix of a model mapping seven articulatory parameters to acoustic ones, the formant frequencies of each vowel produced by three Japanese children over time at ages between 6 and 60 months were transformed into articulatory parameters...
February 18, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219081/current-methods-of-evaluating-speech-language-outcomes-for-preschoolers-with-communication-disorders-a-scoping-review-using-the-icf-cy
#17
Barbara Jane Cunningham, Karla N Washington, Amanda Binns, Katelyn Rolfe, Bernadette Robertson, Peter Rosenbaum
Purpose: The purpose of this scoping review was to identify current measures used to evaluate speech-language outcomes for preschoolers with communication disorders within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY; World Health Organization, 2007). Method: The review involved 5 phases outlined by Arksey and O'Malley (2005) and further developed by Levac, Colquhoun, and O'Brien (2010): (a) articulating the research question; (b) identifying relevant studies; (c) selecting studies; (d) charting the data; and (e) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218556/scandcleft-randomised-trials-of-primary-surgery-for-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-5-speech-outcomes-in-5-year-olds-consonant-proficiency-and-errors
#18
Elisabeth Willadsen, Anette Lohmander, Christina Persson, Inger Lundeborg, Suvi Alaluusua, Ragnhild Aukner, Anja Bau, Maria Boers, Melanie Bowden, Julie Davies, Berit Emborg, Christina Havstam, Christine Hayden, Gunilla Henningsson, Anders Holmefjord, Elina Hölttä, Mia Kisling-Møller, Lillian Kjøll, Maria Lundberg, Eilish McAleer, Jill Nyberg, Marjukka Paaso, Nina Helen Pedersen, Therese Rasmussen, Sigvor Reisæter, Helene Søgaard Andersen, Antje Schöps, Inger-Beate Tørdal, Gunvor Semb
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Normal articulation before school start is a main objective in cleft palate treatment. The aim was to investigate if differences exist in consonant proficiency at age 5 years between children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) randomised to different surgical protocols for primary palatal repair. A secondary aim was to estimate burden of care in terms of received additional secondary surgeries and speech therapy. DESIGN: Three parallel group, randomised clinical trials were undertaken as an international multicentre study by 10 cleft teams in five countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the UK...
February 2017: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216127/speaking-related-changes-in-cortical-functional-connectivity-associated-with-assisted-and-spontaneous-recovery-from-developmental-stuttering
#19
Christian A Kell, Katrin Neumann, Marion Behrens, Alexander W von Gudenberg, Anne-Lise Giraud
We previously reported speaking-related activity changes associated with assisted recovery induced by a fluency shaping therapy program and unassisted recovery from developmental stuttering (Kell et al., Brain 2009). While assisted recovery re-lateralized activity to the left hemisphere, unassisted recovery was specifically associated with the activation of the left BA 47/12 in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. These findings suggested plastic changes in speaking-related functional connectivity between left hemispheric speech network nodes...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208129/stability-and-variability-in-slovak-prosodic-boundaries
#20
Štefan Benuš, Juraj Šimko
BACKGROUND/AIM: Encoding intended meanings in the type and strength of prosodic boundaries and strategies for communicating these meanings in ambient noise use similar prosodic cues. We analyze how increasing the level of ambient noise affects the realization of Slovak prosodic boundaries. METHODS: Five native speakers of Slovak read sentences, manipulating the boundary type (weak, rise, fall) and the location of pre-boundary pitch accent. Ambient noise of several levels was administered via headphones...
2016: Phonetica
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