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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599996/a-training-model-for-improving-journalists-voice
#1
Emma Rodero, Celia Diaz-Rodriguez, Olatz Larrea
Voice education is a crucial aspect for professionals (journalists, teachers, politicians, actors, etc.) who use their voices as a working tool. The main concerns about such education are that, first, there is little awareness of the importance of voice education, and second there is little research devoted to it. The consequences of this lack of training are indeed visible in professionals who suffer voice pathologies or work with little effectiveness. This study seeks to overcome this deficiency by proposing a training model tested with a control group and a pilot study...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599561/test-retest-repeatability-of-human-speech-biomarkers-from-static-and-real-time-dynamic-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
Johannes Töger, Tanner Sorensen, Krishna Somandepalli, Asterios Toutios, Sajan Goud Lingala, Shrikanth Narayanan, Krishna Nayak
Static anatomical and real-time dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) of the upper airway is a valuable method for studying speech production in research and clinical settings. The test-retest repeatability of quantitative imaging biomarkers is an important parameter, since it limits the effect sizes and intragroup differences that can be studied. Therefore, this study aims to present a framework for determining the test-retest repeatability of quantitative speech biomarkers from static MRI and RT-MRI, and apply the framework to healthy volunteers...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599553/between-speaker-variability-in-temporal-organizations-of-intensity-contours
#3
Lei He, Volker Dellwo
Intensity contours of speech signals were sub-divided into positive and negative dynamics. Positive dynamics were defined as the speed of increases in intensity from amplitude troughs to subsequent peaks, and negative dynamics as the speed of decreases in intensity from peaks to troughs. Mean, standard deviation, and sequential variability were measured for both dynamics in each sentence. Analyses showed that measures of both dynamics were separately classified and between-speaker variability was largely explained by measures of negative dynamics...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588065/the-hierarchical-cortical-organization-of-human-speech-processing
#4
Wendy A de Heer, Alexander G Huth, Thomas L Griffiths, Jack L Gallant, Frédéric E Theunissen
Speech comprehension requires that the brain extract semantic meaning from the spectral features represented at the cochlea. To investigate this process, we performed an fMRI experiment in which five men and two women passively listened to several hours of natural narrative speech. We then used voxel-wise modeling to predict BOLD responses based on three different feature spaces that represent the spectral, articulation, and semantic properties of speech. The amount of variance explained by each feature space was then assessed using a separate validation dataset...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585051/the-role-of-the-putamen-in-language-a-meta-analytic-connectivity-modeling-study
#5
Nestor Viñas-Guasch, Yan Jing Wu
The putamen is a subcortical structure that forms part of the dorsal striatum of basal ganglia, and has traditionally been associated with reinforcement learning and motor control, including speech articulation. However, recent studies have shown involvement of the left putamen in other language functions such as bilingual language processing (Abutalebi et al. 2012) and production, with some authors arguing for functional segregation of anterior and posterior putamen (Oberhuber et al. 2013). A further step in exploring the role of putamen in language would involve identifying the network of coactivations of not only the left, but also the right putamen, given the involvement of right hemisphere in high order language functions (Vigneau et al...
June 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574442/electrophysiological-indices-of-audiovisual-speech-perception-in-the-broader-autism-phenotype
#6
Julia Irwin, Trey Avery, Jacqueline Turcios, Lawrence Brancazio, Barbara Cook, Nicole Landi
When a speaker talks, the consequences of this can both be heard (audio) and seen (visual). A novel visual phonemic restoration task was used to assess behavioral discrimination and neural signatures (event-related potentials, or ERP) of audiovisual processing in typically developing children with a range of social and communicative skills assessed using the social responsiveness scale, a measure of traits associated with autism. An auditory oddball design presented two types of stimuli to the listener, a clear exemplar of an auditory consonant-vowel syllable /ba/ (the more frequently occurring standard stimulus), and a syllable in which the auditory cues for the consonant were substantially weakened, creating a stimulus which is more like /a/ (the infrequently presented deviant stimulus)...
June 2, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573094/long-term-follow-up-study-of-young-adults-treated-for-unilateral-complete-cleft-lip-alveolus-and-palate-by-a-treatment-protocol-including-two-stage-palatoplasty-speech-outcomes
#7
Isabelle Francisca Petronella Maria Kappen, Dirk Bittermann, Laura Janssen, Gerhard Koendert Pieter Bittermann, Chantal Boonacker, Sarah Haverkamp, Hester de Wilde, Marise Van Der Heul, Tom Fjmc Specken, Ron Koole, Moshe Kon, Corstiaan Cornelis Breugem, Aebele Barber Mink van der Molen
BACKGROUND: No consensus exists on the optimal treatment protocol for orofacial clefts or the optimal timing of cleft palate closure. This study investigated factors influencing speech outcomes after two-stage palate repair in adults with a non-syndromal complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of adult patients with a UCLP who underwent two-stage palate closure and were treated at our tertiary cleft centre. Patients ≥17 years of age were invited for a final speech assessment...
May 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544439/effects-of-cognitive-impairment-on-prosodic-parameters-of-speech-production-planning-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Céline De Looze, Noémie Moreau, Laurent Renié, Finnian Kelly, Alain Ghio, Audrey Rico, Bertrand Audoin, François Viallet, Jean Pelletier, Caterina Petrone
Cognitive impairment (CI) affects 40-65% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). CI can have a negative impact on a patient's everyday activities, such as engaging in conversations. Speech production planning ability is crucial for successful verbal interactions and thus for preserving social and occupational skills. This study investigates the effect of cognitive-linguistic demand and CI on speech production planning in MS, as reflected in speech prosody. A secondary aim is to explore the clinical potential of prosodic features for the prediction of an individual's cognitive status in MS...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538961/validation-of-the-intelligibility-in-context-scale-for-jamaican-creole-speaking-preschoolers
#9
Karla N Washington, Megan M McDonald, Sharynne McLeod, Kathryn Crowe, Hubert Devonish
Purpose: To describe validation of the Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS; McLeod, Harrison, & McCormack, 2012a) and ICS-Jamaican Creole (ICS-JC; McLeod, Harrison, & McCormack, 2012b) in a sample of typically developing 3- to 6-year-old Jamaicans. Method: One-hundred and forty-five preschooler-parent dyads participated in the study. Parents completed the 7-item ICS (n = 145) and ICS-JC (n = 98) to rate children's speech intelligibility (5-point scale) across communication partners (parents, immediate family, extended family, friends, acquaintances, strangers)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533075/transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-tens-and-laryngeal-manual-therapy-lmt-immediate-effects-in-women-with-dysphonia
#10
Mariana de Cásisa Macedo Conde, Larissa Thaís Donalonso Siqueira, José Eduardo Vendramini, Alcione Ghedini Brasolotto, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus Guirro, Kelly Cristina Alves Silverio
PURPOSE: This study aimed to verify the immediate effect of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and laryngeal manual therapy (LMT) in musculoskeletal pain, voice quality, and self-reported signs in women with dysphonia. METHOD: Thirty women with behavioral dysphonia were randomly divided into the TENS group and the LMT group. All participants fulfilled the pain survey and had their voices recorded to posterior perceptual and acoustic analysis before and after intervention...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527540/whispering-by-individuals-using-tracheoesophageal-speech
#11
Jeff Searl
OBJECTIVES: This study compared whispering attempts by adults using tracheoesophageal (TE) speech with those by adults with a larynx. Comparisons were based on listener judgments, visual-perceptual assessment of spectrograms, and measures of the acoustic signal. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Seventeen TE and 10 laryngeal speakers produced sentences in a whisper and in their spoken voice. Listeners judged sentences as whispered or spoken...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525511/factors-affecting-acoustics-and-speech-intelligibility-in-the-operating-room-size-matters
#12
Richard R McNeer, Christopher L Bennett, Danielle Bodzin Horn, Roman Dudaryk
INTRODUCTION: Noise in health care settings has increased since 1960 and represents a significant source of dissatisfaction among staff and patients and risk to patient safety. Operating rooms (ORs) in which effective communication is crucial are particularly noisy. Speech intelligibility is impacted by noise, room architecture, and acoustics. For example, sound reverberation time (RT60) increases with room size, which can negatively impact intelligibility, while room objects are hypothesized to have the opposite effect...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516196/coupling-dynamics-in-speech-gestures-amplitude-and-rate-influences
#13
Pascal H H M van Lieshout
Speech is a complex oral motor function that involves multiple articulators that need to be coordinated in space and time at relatively high movement speeds. How this is accomplished remains an important and largely unresolved empirical question. From a coordination dynamics perspective, coordination involves the assembly of coordinative units that are characterized by inherently stable coupling patterns that act as attractor states for task-specific actions. In the motor control literature, one particular model formulated by Haken et al...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494172/an-investigation-of-clear-speech-effects-on-articulatory-kinematics-in-talkers-with-als
#14
Mili Kuruvilla-Dugdale, Miguel Chuquilin-Arista
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) affects the speech motor system and causes a substantial decline in intelligibility. Clear speech strategies have been found to benefit intelligibility in talkers with dysarthria and the purpose of this study was to examine clear speech effects on tongue, lip, and jaw movements in persons with ALS and healthy controls. For this purpose, participants produced 10 repetitions of the sentence 'I owe you a yoyo' using both habitual and clear speech. Movement variability as well as maximum speed, range, and duration of movement of the articulators were obtained for both conditions...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493726/anticipatory-coarticulation-and-the-minimal-planning-unit-of-speech
#15
Qiang Liu, Alan H Kawamoto, Katherine K Payne, Genvieve N Dorsey
One of the most persistent arguments against the segment as the minimal planning unit is that the seemingly ubiquitous, thus, presumed obligatory, nature of anticipatory coarticulation (AC) effects favors the syllable or a larger unit. By contrast, we present the results of 3 experiments showing that AC is not ubiquitous, but graded and variable based on (a) phonological availability and (b) the specific criterion to initiate articulation adopted by a speaker. We further argue that phonological encoding is parallel...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471206/the-complementary-roles-of-auditory-and-motor-information-evaluated-in-a-bayesian-perceptuo-motor-model-of-speech-perception
#16
Raphaël Laurent, Marie-Lou Barnaud, Jean-Luc Schwartz, Pierre Bessière, Julien Diard
There is a consensus concerning the view that both auditory and motor representations intervene in the perceptual processing of speech units. However, the question of the functional role of each of these systems remains seldom addressed and poorly understood. We capitalized on the formal framework of Bayesian Programming to develop COSMO (Communicating Objects using Sensory-Motor Operations), an integrative model that allows principled comparisons of purely motor or purely auditory implementations of a speech perception task and tests the gain of efficiency provided by their Bayesian fusion...
May 4, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464659/modulation-of-auditory-motor-learning-in-response-to-formant-perturbation-as-a-function-of-delayed-auditory-feedback
#17
Takashi Mitsuya, Kevin G Munhall, David W Purcell
The interaction of language production and perception has been substantiated by empirical studies where speakers compensate their speech articulation in response to the manipulated sound of their voice heard in real-time as auditory feedback. A recent study by Max and Maffett [(2015). Neurosci. Lett. 591, 25-29] reported an absence of compensation (i.e., auditory-motor learning) for frequency-shifted formants when auditory feedback was delayed by 100 ms. In the present study, the effect of auditory feedback delay was studied when only the first formant was manipulated while delaying auditory feedback systematically...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464651/the-acoustic-counterpart-to-coarticulation-resistance-and-aggressiveness-in-locus-equation-metrics-and-vowel-dispersion
#18
Hye-Young Bang
In speech articulation, a segment with high coarticulatory resistance in tongue configurations tends to exhibit greater coarticulatory aggressiveness on neighbouring segments. This study examined whether this articulatory relationship can be acoustically captured through locus equations and the magnitude of vowel dispersion. This question was investigated in CV sequences in English where C varies in the degree of articulatory constraints imposed on the tongue dorsum. The results show a tight relationship between locus equation slopes and vowel dispersion, where coarticulatory resistance and aggressiveness appear to be two sides of the same coin in speech acoustics...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460587/speech-outcomes-at-5-and-10-years-of-age-after-one-stage-palatal-repair-with-muscle-reconstruction-in-children-born-with-isolated-cleft-palate
#19
Jill Nyberg, Erik Neovius, Anette Lohmander
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate speech outcomes in children with clefts in the hard and/or soft palate only (CPH/CPS), in order to determine the prevalence of cleft speech characteristics, the change between 5 and 10 years of age, and the difference in occurrence between CPH and CPS. METHODS: A consecutive series of 88 children born with CPH or CPS were included in a retrospective cohort. All participants were treated with one-stage palatal repair using a minimal incision technique with muscle reconstruction (mean age 13 months)...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453613/functional-characterization-of-the-human-speech-articulation-network
#20
Alexandra Basilakos, Kimberly G Smith, Paul Fillmore, Julius Fridriksson, Evelina Fedorenko
A number of brain regions have been implicated in articulation, but their precise computations remain debated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examine the degree of functional specificity of articulation-responsive brain regions to constrain hypotheses about their contributions to speech production. We find that articulation-responsive regions (1) are sensitive to articulatory complexity, but (2) are largely nonoverlapping with nearby domain-general regions that support diverse goal-directed behaviors...
April 27, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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