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Hepatic microcirculation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210030/pharmacologic-prevention-of-variceal-bleeding-and-rebleeding
#1
REVIEW
Anna Baiges, Virginia Hernández-Gea, Jaime Bosch
BACKGROUND: Variceal bleeding is a major complication of portal hypertension, which is associated with significant mortality. Moreover, patients surviving a variceal bleeding episode have very high risk of rebleeding, which is associated with mortality as high as that of the first bleed. Because of this, prevention of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices has been one of the main therapeutic goals since the advent of the first effective therapies for portal hypertension. AIM: This review deals with the present day state-of-the-art pharmacological prevention of variceal bleeding in primary and secondary prophylaxis...
December 5, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187232/long-term-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-and-anticoagulation-with-citrate-in-critically-ill-patients-with-severe-liver-dysfunction
#2
Matthias Klingele, Theresa Stadler, Danilo Fliser, Timo Speer, Heinrich V Groesdonk, Alexander Raddatz
BACKGROUND: As of 2009, anticoagulation with citrate was standard practice in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for critically ill patients at the University Medical Centre of Saarland, Germany. Partial hepatic metabolism of citrate means accumulation may occur during CRRT in critically ill patients with impaired liver function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the actual influence of hepatic function on citrate-associated complications during long-term CRRT. METHODS: In a retrospective study conducted between January 2009 and November 2012, all cases of dialysis therapy performed in the interdisciplinary surgical intensive care unit were analysed...
November 29, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103979/comparison-of-microvascular-perfusion-evaluation-among-ivim-dwi-ct-perfusion-imaging-and-histological-microvessel-density-in-rabbit-liver-vx2-tumors
#3
Jing-Lei Li, Wei-Tao Ye, Zai-Yi Liu, Li-Fen Yan, Wei Luo, Xi-Ming Cao, Changhong Liang
OBJECT: To explore microcirculation features with intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and to compare IVIM with CT perfusion imaging (CTPI) and microvessel density (MVD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatic CTPI and IVIM were performed in 16 rabbit liver VX2 tumor models. Hepatic arterial perfusion (HAP), hepatic arterial perfusion index (HPI), Blood flow (BF), and blood volume (BV) from CTPI were measured. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), true diffusion coefficient (D), perfusion fraction (f), and pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*) from IVIM were measured...
November 9, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065724/microcirculatory-disturbances-and-cellular-changes-during-progression-of-hepatic-steatosis-to-liver-tumors
#4
Marie Liebig, Alireza Hassanzada, Malte Kämmerling, Berit Genz, Brigitte Vollmar, Kerstin Abshagen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is closely associated with metabolic syndrome and comprises a pathological spectrum of liver disease ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and can progress to fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In 2013, a mouse model was described that mimics non-alcoholic fatty liver disease progression from steatohepatitis to tumors in a short time span and with high incidence. As microcirculatory disturbances play a crucial role in liver disease, the suitability of the steatosis-inflammation-tumor model for microcirculatory studies was assessed...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917579/microcirculation-in-the-murine-liver-a-computational-fluid-dynamic-model-based-on-3d-reconstruction-from-in-vivo-microscopy
#5
Monica Piergiovanni, Elena Bianchi, Giada Capitani, Irene Li Piani, Lucia Ganzer, Luca G Guidotti, Matteo Iannacone, Gabriele Dubini
The liver is organized in hexagonal functional units - termed lobules - characterized by a rather peculiar blood microcirculation, due to the presence of a tangled network of capillaries - termed sinusoids. A better understanding of the hemodynamics that governs liver microcirculation is relevant to clinical and biological studies aimed at improving our management of liver diseases and transplantation. Herein, we built a CFD model of a 3D sinusoidal network, based on in vivo images of a physiological mouse liver obtained with a 2-photon microscope...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883542/longitudinal-micro-ultrasound-assessment-of-the-ob-ob-mouse-model-evaluation-of-cardiovascular-renal-and-hepatic-parameters
#6
N Di Lascio, C Kusmic, F Stea, F Lenzarini, C Barsanti, A Leloup, F Faita
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and is associated with increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Leptin-deficient mice (ob/ob) are widely employed to investigate obesity. Aim of this study was to provide a micro-ultrasound (μUS) longitudinal evaluation of the ob/ob mouse model in terms of cardiovascular effects, consequences for renal microcirculation and liver fat accumulation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sixteen wild-type (wt) and eleven ob/ob male mice were studied at 8 (T0) and 25 (T1) weeks of age with a μUS system (Vevo2100) and B-mode and Doppler images were acquired...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746468/ischemic-preconditioning-vs-adenosine-vs-prostaglandin-e1-for-protection-against-liver-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#7
M Radojkovic, M Stojanovic, G Stanojevic, D Radojkovic, J Gligorijevic, I Ilic, N Stojanovic
Ischemia/reperfusion injury is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality during liver surgery and transplantation. A variety of surgical and pharmacological therapeutic strategies have been investigated to minimize the effects of ischemia/reperfusion. The aim of our study was to analyze and compare preventive influences of ischemic preconditioning, adenosine and prostaglandin E1 in the experimental model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. Adult chinchilla rabbits were divided into four groups: 10 rabbits subjected to liver ischemic preconditioning (3-min period of inflow occlusion followed by a 5-min period of reperfusion) followed by 45 min of Pringle maneuver; 10 rabbits subjected to pre-treatment with intraportal injection of adenosine followed by 45 min of Pringle maneuver; 10 rabbits subjected to pre-treatment with intraportal injection of prostaglandin E1 followed by 45 min of Pringle maneuver; and control group of 10 rabbits subjected to 45 min of inflow liver ischemia without any preconditioning...
July 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708111/an-evaluation-of-ischaemic-preconditioning-as-a-method-of-reducing-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-in-liver-surgery-and-transplantation
#8
REVIEW
Francis P Robertson, Barry J Fuller, Brian R Davidson
Liver Ischaemia Reperfusion (IR) injury is a major cause of post-operative liver dysfunction, morbidity and mortality following liver resection surgery and transplantation. There are no proven therapies for IR injury in clinical practice and new approaches are required. Ischaemic Preconditioning (IPC) can be applied in both a direct and remote fashion and has been shown to ameliorate IR injury in small animal models. Its translation into clinical practice has been difficult, primarily by a lack of knowledge regarding the dominant protective mechanisms that it employs...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684184/quantitative-analysis-of-hepatic-microcirculation-in%C3%A2-rabbits%C3%A2-after-liver-ischemia-reperfusion-injury%C3%A2-using%C3%A2-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound
#9
Haiyuan Li, Jingning Lu, Xiaofeng Zhou, Denghua Pan, Dequan Guo, Haiying Ling, Hong Yang, Yun He, Gang Chen
Previous studies have shown that contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can be used quantitatively to analyze microcirculation blood perfusion in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. However, limited data have described the application of CEUS in hepatic microcirculation after liver ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI). The purpose of this study was to explore the use of CEUS quantitatively to assess liver microcirculation after liver IRI. We randomly sorted 45 New Zealand rabbits into 3 groups (15 in each). Group A was a control group in which the rabbits underwent laparotomy alone...
October 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628674/hepatic-microvascular-dysfunction-and-increased-advanced-glycation-end-products-are-components-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Evelyn Nunes Goulart da Silva Pereira, Raquel Rangel Silvares, Edgar Eduardo Ilaquita Flores, Karine Lino Rodrigues, Isalira Peroba Ramos, Igor José da Silva, Marcelo Pelajo Machado, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura, Cassiano F Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Hugo Caire de Castro Faria-Neto, Eduardo Tibiriça, Anissa Daliry
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: In Wistar rats, NAFLD model was induced by 20 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and tissue perfusion in hepatic microcirculation were examined using in vivo microscopic and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), respectively. Oxidative stress and inflamatory parameters were analysed by TBARs, catalase enzyme activity, RT-PCR and ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596681/effects-of-heme-oxygenase-1-modified-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-microcirculation-and-energy-metabolism-following-liver-transplantation
#11
Liu Yang, Zhong-Yang Shen, Rao-Rao Wang, Ming-Li Yin, Wei-Ping Zheng, Bin Wu, Tao Liu, Hong-Li Song
AIM: To investigate the effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) on the microcirculation and energy metabolism of hepatic sinusoids following reduced-size liver transplantation (RLT) in a rat model. METHODS: BMMSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro using an adherent method, and then transduced with HO-1-bearing recombinant adenovirus to construct HO-1/BMMSCs. A rat acute rejection model following 50% RLT was established using a two-cuff technique...
May 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542880/suicidal-death-of-erythrocytes-in-cancer-and-its-chemotherapy-a-potential-target-in-the-treatment-of-tumor-associated-anemia
#12
REVIEW
Elisabeth Lang, Rosi Bissinger, Syed M Qadri, Florian Lang
In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling. Eryptotic erythrocytes are rapidly cleared from circulating blood and may adhere to the vascular wall. Stimulation of eryptosis thus impairs microcirculation and leads to anemia as soon as the loss of erythrocytes cannot be fully compensated by enhanced erythropoiesis. Signaling stimulating eryptosis includes increase of cytosolic Ca2+ -activity, ceramide, caspases, calpain, p38-kinase, protein-kinase C, Janus-activated kinase 3, casein-kinase 1α, and cyclin-dependent kinase 4...
October 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364696/differential-effects-of-liver-steatosis-on-pharmacokinetic-profile-of-two-closely-related-hepatoselective-no-donors-v-pyrro-no-and-v-proli-no
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kamil Kus, Edyta Kus, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Wojciech Jawien, Barbara Sitek, Maria Walczak, Stefan Chlopicki
PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of liver steatosis and obesity on pharmacokinetic profile of two structurally-related liver-selective NO-donors - V-PYRRO/NO and V-PROLI/NO. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed control or high-fat diet for 15 weeks to induced liver steatosis and obesity (HFD mice). Pharmacokinetics and renal elimination studies were conducted in vivo following iv dosing of V-PYRRO/NO and V-PROLI/NO (0.03mmol/kg). Hepatic clearance was evaluated ex vivo in the isolated perfused mice liver and in vitro with the use of liver microsomes...
June 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325574/decoy-receptor-3-analogous-supplement-protects-steatotic-rat-liver-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Tzu-Hao Li, Chih-Wei Liu, Pei-Chang Lee, Chia-Chang Huang, Kuei-Chuan Lee, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Ying-Ying Yang, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Han-Chieh Lin, Chang-Youh Tsai
BACKGROUND: For steatotic livers, pharmacological approaches to minimize the hepatic neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, and cytokine and chemokine release in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury are still limited. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α superfamily-stimulated pathogenic cascades and M1 macrophage/Kupffer cells (KC) polarization from Th1 cytokines are important in the pathogenesis of IR liver injury with hepatic steatosis (HS). Conversely, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages produce Th2 cytokine (interleukin-4), which reciprocally enhances M2 polarization...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282373/murine-models-of-scrub-typhus-associated-with-host-control-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection
#15
Nicole L Mendell, Donald H Bouyer, David H Walker
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus, a febrile illness of substantial incidence and mortality, is caused by infection with the obligately intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is estimated that there are more than one million cases annually transmitted by the parasitic larval stage of trombiculid mites in the Asia-Pacific region. The antigenic and genetic diversity of the multiple strains of O. tsutsugamushi hinders the advancement of laboratory diagnosis, development of long-lasting vaccine-induced protection, and interpretation of clinical infection...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239607/how-to-face-chronic-liver-disease-the-sinusoidal-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Anabel Fernández-Iglesias, Jordi Gracia-Sancho
Liver microcirculation plays an essential role in the progression and aggravation of chronic liver disease. Hepatic sinusoid environment, mainly composed by hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, and hepatic stellate cells, intimately cooperate to maintain global liver function and specific phenotype of each cell type. However, continuous liver injury significantly deregulates liver cells protective phenotype, leading to parenchymal and non-parenchymal dysfunction. Recent data have enlightened the molecular processes that mediate hepatic microcirculatory injury, and consequently, opened the possibility to develop new therapeutic strategies to ameliorate liver circulation and viability...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210085/macro-and-microcirculation-patterns-of-intrahepatic-blood-flow-changes-in-patients-with-hereditary-hemorrhagic-telangiectasia
#17
Roland C Schelker, Ana P Barreiros, Christina Hart, Wolfgang Herr, Ernst-Michael Jung
AIM: To evaluated vascular dynamic processes in the liver of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) patients by ultrasound (US) considering quantitative analytic methods. METHODS: The imaging features on US and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in 18 patients diagnosed with HHT were retrospectively analyzed. Regarding CEUS, real-time contrast harmonic imaging and sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubbles were used. RESULTS: HVaMs were identified in all 18 patients...
January 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142199/the-anticoagulant-rivaroxaban-lowers-portal-hypertension-in-cirrhotic-rats-mainly-by-deactivating-hepatic-stellate-cells
#18
Marina Vilaseca, Héctor García-Calderó, Erica Lafoz, Oihane García-Irigoyen, Matías A Avila, Joan Carles Reverter, Jaume Bosch, Virginia Hernández-Gea, Jordi Gracia-Sancho, Joan Carles García-Pagán
In cirrhosis, increased intrahepatic vascular resistance (IHVR) is the primary factor for portal hypertension (PH) development. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a major role increasing IHVR because, when activated, they are contractile and promote fibrogenesis. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) can activate HSCs through thrombin and factor Xa, which are known PAR agonists, and cause microthrombosis in liver microcirculation. This study investigates the effects of the oral anticoagulant, rivaroxaban (RVXB), a direct antifactor Xa, on HSC phenotype, liver fibrosis (LF), liver microthrombosis, and PH in cirrhotic rats...
June 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073175/postreperfusion-microcirculatory-derangements-after-liver-transplantation-relationship-to-hemodynamics-serum-mediators-and-outcome
#19
Carlo Pulitano, David Joseph, Charbel Sandroussi, Deborah Verran, Phong Ho, Ashe Debiasio, Adriano Luongo, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Nicholas A Shackel, Michael Crawford
Despite the growing data supporting the role of microcirculation in regulating liver function, little of this knowledge has been translated into clinical practice. The aim of this study is to quantify hepatic microcirculation in vivo using sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging and correlate these findings with hepatic blood flow, hemodynamic parameters, and soluble mediators. Postreperfusion hepatic microcirculation was assessed using SDF imaging. Hepatic microcirculation measurements included functional sinusoidal density (cm/cm(2) ), sinusoidal diameter (μm), red blood cell velocity (μm/second), volumetric blood flow (pl/second), and flow heterogeneity (FH) index...
April 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894918/laser-speckle-contrast-imaging-and-oxygen-to-see-for-assessing-microcirculatory-liver-blood-flow-changes-following-different-volumes-of-hepatectomy
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Chong Hui Li, Xin Lan Ge, Ke Pan, Peng Fei Wang, Yi Nan Su, Ai Qun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Portal hyperperfusion after extended hepatectomy or small-for-size liver transplantation may induce organ dysfunction and failure. This study was designed to monitor and characterize the hepatic microcirculatory perfusion following different volumes of hepatectomy in rats by using laser speckle contrast image (LSCI) and Oxygen to See (O2C), a spectrometric device. METHODS: The microcirculatory liver blood flow of the rats that underwent 68%, 85% and 90% hepatectomy (68PH, 85PH and 90PH) was monitored with LSCI and O2C before and following the hepatectomy...
March 2017: Microvascular Research
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