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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342135/pacap-protects-against-ethanol-and-nicotine-toxicity-in-sh-sy5y-cells-implications-for-drinking-smoking-co-morbidity
#1
Sridharan Manavalan, Bruk Getachew, Kebreten F Manaye, Syed J Khundmiri, Antonei B Csoka, Raechel McKinley, Andrea Tamas, Dora Reglodi, Yousef Tizabi
The detrimental effects of heavy drinking and smoking are multiplied when the two are combined. Treatment modalities for each and especially for the combination are very limited. Although in low concentration, alcohol and nicotine, each may have beneficial effects including neuroprotection, their combination, instead of providing additive protection, may actually lead to toxicity in cell cultures. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous 38 amino-acid peptide with demonstrated protection against neuronal injury, trauma as well as various endogenous and exogenous toxic agents...
March 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341485/modulation-of-gut-microbiota-contributes-to-curcumin-mediated-attenuation-of-hepatic-steatosis-in-rats
#2
Wenhuan Feng, Hongdong Wang, Pengzi Zhang, Caixia Gao, Junxian Tao, Zhijuan Ge, Dalong Zhu, Yan Bi
BACKGROUND: Structural disruption of gut microbiota contributes to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and modulating the gut microbiota represents a novel strategy for NAFLD prevention. Although previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin alleviates hepatic steatosis, its effect on the gut microbiota modulation has not been investigated. METHODS: Next generation sequencing and multivariate analysis were utilized to evaluate the structural changes of gut microbiota in a NAFLD rat model induced by high fat-diet (HFD) feeding...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323388/enhanced-intestinal-absorption-of-curcumin-in-caco-2-cell-monolayer-using-mucoadhesive-nanostructured-lipid-carriers
#3
Sanipon Chanburee, Waree Tiyaboonchai
This study aimed to compare the intestinal permeation of curcumin-loaded polymer coated nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and uncoated NLCs using the Caco-2 cell model. The uncoated NLCs were prepared using a warm microemulsion technique, while polymer-coated NLCs were prepared with the same method but were followed by coating particle surface with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). After lyophilization, all formulations possessed a mean size of <400 nm with a zeta potential of ∼-30 mV and a high entrapment efficacy up to 90%...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314177/gintonin-attenuates-depressive-like-behaviors-associated-with-alcohol-withdrawal-in-mice
#4
Hyeon-Joong Kim, Sang-Deuk Park, Ra Mi Lee, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng Meyer extracts have been used to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression. However, little is known about the extracts' active ingredients and the molecular mechanisms underlying their reported anti-depressive effects. METHODS: Gintonin is an exogenous lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand isolated from P. ginseng. BON cells, an enterochromaffin cell line, and C57BL/6 mice were used to investigate whether gintonin stimulates serotonin release...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297801/-effect-of-curcumin-on-intestinal-mucosal-mechanical-barrier-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
H T Hou, Y M Qiu, H W Zhao, D H Li, Y T Liu, Y Z Wang, S H Su
Objective: To investigate the effect of curcumin on intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into normal control group, model group, and curcumin intervention group. The rats in the model group and the curcumin intervention group were given high-fat feed for 16 weeks, and those in the curcumin intervention group were given curcumin 200 mg/kg/day by gavage once a day after 8 weeks of high-fat feeding...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297790/-role-of-probiotics-in-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
M Chen, M C Wang, R Ni, J Wang, L Wang, G N Wang, L Y Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases in China and manifests as simple fatty liver, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies have shown that intestinal flora can affect the development and progression of NAFLD via the "gut-liver axis" . Probiotics are active microorganisms with beneficial effects on the host, and more and more studies have found that probiotics play a positive role in improving NAFLD. They are cheaper, less harmful, and safer compared with antibiotics and surgery, and therefore, it may become a new method for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD...
January 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295407/alcoholic-liver-disease-on-the-rise-interorgan-cross-talk-driving-liver-injury
#7
Srinivasan Dasarathy, J Mark Brown
Advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) represents a substantial public health burden, threatening the lives of more than ten million people in the United States. Although the direct harmful effects of alcohol in the liver are nearly universally recognized, emerging evidence suggests alcohol also adversely affects other organs such as the intestine, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and likely many other tissues. In fact, the extrahepatic effects of alcohol clearly converge to impact the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic alcohol abuse...
March 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292663/ileal-strangulation-by-a-secondary-perineal-hernia-after-laparoscopic-abdominoperineal-rectal-resection-a-case-report
#8
Kurokawa Tomohiro, Giichiro Tsurita, Kentaro Yazawa, Masaru Shinozaki
INTRODUCITON: We report a recent case of strangulated bowel obstruction due to an incarcerated secondary perineal hernia that developed after laparoscopic rectal resection. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 75-year-old man undergoing treatment for alcoholic cirrhosis underwent laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection of the rectum (APR) for lower rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Lung metastases were diagnosed 2 months postoperatively. Ten days after chemotherapy initiation, the patient was hospitalized on an emergency basis due to hepatic encephalopathy...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289220/phytosphingosine-degradation-pathway-includes-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-reactions-in-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#9
Takuya Kitamura, Naoya Seki, Akio Kihara
Although normal fatty acids (FAs) are degraded via β-oxidation, unusual FAs such as 2-hydroxy (2-OH) FAs and 3-methyl-branched FAs are degraded via α-oxidation. Phytosphingosine (PHS) is one of the long-chain bases (the sphingolipid components) and exists in specific tissues, including the epidermis and small intestine in mammals. In the degradation pathway, PHS is converted to 2-OH palmitic acid and then to pentadecanoic acid (C15:0-COOH) via FA α-oxidation. However, the detailed reactions and genes involved in the α-oxidation reactions of the PHS degradation pathway have yet to be determined...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280615/the-frequency-of-histologically-confirmed-barrett-s-esophagus-varies-by-the-combination-of-ethnicity-and-gender
#10
Sian S Chisholm, Joe E Khoury, M Mazen Jamal, Carlos Palacio, Sunitha Pudhota, Kenneth J Vega
BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the primary risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Limited data exists regarding the frequency of histologically confirmed BE by both gender and ethnicity in the United States. The study aim was to determine whether the frequency of histologically confirmed BE varies by ethnicity and gender. METHODS: The University of Florida-Jacksonville endoscopy database was reviewed for all cases of salmon colored esophageal mucosa from September 2002 to August 2007...
February 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274625/apd668-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-119-agonist-improves-fat-tolerance-and-attenuates-fatty-liver-in-high-trans-fat-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-model-in-c57bl-6-mice
#11
Umakant Ashok Bahirat, Rekha Raghuveer Shenoy, Rajan Naresh Goel, Kumar V S Nemmani
G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) receptor is a rhodopsin-like, class A Gαs-coupled receptor, predominantly expressed in pancreatic islet cells and intestinal entero-endocrine cells. GPR119 has been emerged as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of APD668, a GPR119 agonist alone and in combination with linagliptin, a DPPIV inhibitor on oral fat tolerance test. Our findings demonstrate that APD668, a GPR119 agonist inhibits the intestinal triglyceride absorption after acute fat load in mice...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272319/facilitated-visual-interpretation-of-scores-in-principal-component-analysis-by-bioactivity-labeling-of-1h-nmr-spectra-metabolomics-investigation-and-identification-of-a-new-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitor-in-radix-astragali
#12
Yueqiu Liu, Nils T Nyberg, Anna K Jäger, Dan Staerk
Radix Astragali is a component of several traditional medicines used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in China. Radix Astragali is known to contain isoflavones, which inhibit α-glucosidase in the small intestines, and thus lowers the blood glucose levels. In this study, 21 samples obtained from different regions of China were extracted with ethyl acetate, then the IC50-values were determined, and the crude extracts were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. A principal component analysis of the 1H-NMR spectra labeled with their IC50-values, that is, bioactivity-labeled 1H-NMR spectra, showed a clear correlation between spectral profiles and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity...
March 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271632/the-role-of-insufficient-copper-in-lipid-synthesis-and-fatty-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Austin Morrell, Savannah Tallino, Lei Yu, Jason L Burkhead
The essential transition metal copper is important in lipid metabolism, redox balance, iron mobilization, and many other critical processes in eukaryotic organisms. Genetic diseases where copper homeostasis is disrupted, including Menkes disease and Wilson disease, indicate the importance of copper balance to human health. The severe consequences of insufficient copper supply are illustrated by Menkes disease, caused by mutation in the X-linked ATP7A gene encoding a protein that transports copper from intestinal epithelia into the bloodstream and across the blood-brain barrier...
March 8, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263833/preparation-and-characterization-of-gastrointestinal-wafer-formulations
#14
Kirsten Kirsch, Ulrike Hanke, Werner Weitschies
Many active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) have a very poor or highly variable bioavailability after oral administration. One possibility to overcome this problem might be found in the application of mucoadhesive dosage forms like gastrointestinal wafers. However, a currently unsolved challenge is the control of the adhesion of the wafer to the intestinal mucus. One suggested solution might be the combination of gastrointestinal wafers and expanding systems. Such a combination requires thin and elastic wafers which are further characterized by an unidirectional drug release...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257601/mir181b-3p-and-its-target-importin-%C3%AE-5-regulate-tlr4-signaling-in-kupffer-cells-and-liver-injury-in-mice-in-response-to-ethanol
#15
Paramananda Saikia, Damien Bellos, Megan R McMullen, Katherine A Pollard, Carol de la Motte, Laura E Nagy
Increased inflammatory signaling by Kupffer cells contributes to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Here we investigated the impact of small-specific sized hyaluronic acid of ∼35kD (HA35) on ethanol-induced sensitization of Kupffer cells, as well as ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. Un-biased analysis of microRNA (miRNA) expression in Kupffer cells identified miRNAs regulated by both ethanol and HA35. TLR4-mediated signaling was assessed in primary cultures of Kupffer cells from ethanol- and pair-fed rats after treatment with HA35...
March 3, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249275/intestinal-farnesoid-x-receptor-signaling-modulates-metabolic-disease
#16
Frank J Gonzalez, Changtao Jiang, Cen Xie, Andrew D Patterson
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates the synthesis, transport and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (BA) by modulating the expression of related genes in the liver and small intestine. The composition of the gut microbiota is correlated with metabolic diseases, notably obesity and non-alcoholic fatty acid disease (NAFLD). Recent studies revealed that bacterial metabolism of BA can modulate FXR signaling in the intestine by altering the composition and concentrations of FXR agonist and antagonist. FXR agonist enhances while FXR antagonist suppresses obesity, NAFLD and insulin resistance...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249273/intestinal-farnesoid-x-receptor-and-takeda-g-protein-couple-receptor-5-signaling-in-metabolic-regulation
#17
John Y L Chiang, Preeti Pathak, Hailiang Liu, Ajay Donepudi, Jessica Ferrell, Shannon Boehme
Bile acids play a critical role in the regulation of glucose, lipid and energy metabolisms by activating the nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (aka takeda G protein couple receptor 5, TGR5) signaling. Paradoxical roles of FXR in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism and metabolic disorder have been reported recently. The activation or inhibition of intestinal FXR signaling has been shown to improve insulin and glucose sensitivity and energy metabolism to prevent diabetes, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245885/olive-oil-bioactive-compounds-increase-body-weight-and-improve-gut-health-and-integrity-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#18
Enric Gisbert, Karl B Andree, José C Quintela, Josep A Calduch-Giner, Ignacio R Ipharraguerre, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
An olive oil bioactive extract (OBE) rich in bioactive compounds like polyphenols, triterpenic acids, long-chain fatty alcohols, unsaturated hydrocarbons, tocopherols and sterols was tested (0, 0·08, 0·17, 0·42 and 0·73 % OBE) in diets fed to sea bream (Sparus aurata) (initial weight: 5·4 (sd 1·2) g) during a 90-d trial (four replicates). Fish fed diets containing 0·17 and 0·42 % OBE were 5 % heavier (61·1 (sd 1·6) and 60·3 (sd 1·1) g, respectively) than those of the control group (57·0 (sd 0·7) g), although feed conversion ratio and specific feed intake did not vary...
March 1, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244981/the-link-between-inflammation-bugs-the-intestine-and-the-brain-in-alcohol-dependence
#19
REVIEW
S Leclercq, P de Timary, N M Delzenne, P Stärkel
In recent years, some new processes have been proposed to explain how alcohol may influence behavior, psychological symptoms and alcohol seeking in alcohol-dependent subjects. In addition to its important effect on brain and neurotransmitters equilibrium, alcohol abuse also affects peripheral organs including the gut. By yet incompletely understood mechanisms, chronic alcohol abuse increases intestinal permeability and alters the composition of the gut microbiota, allowing bacterial components from the gut lumen to reach the systemic circulation...
February 28, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220687/environmental-factors-seven-gwas-identified-susceptibility-loci-and-risk-of-gastric-cancer-and-its-precursors-in-a-chinese-population
#20
Meng Cai, Shuyang Dai, Wanqing Chen, Changfa Xia, Lingeng Lu, Shuguang Dai, Jun Qi, Minjie Wang, Meilin Wang, Lanping Zhou, Fuhua Lei, Tingting Zuo, Hongmei Zeng, Xiaohang Zhao
Gene-environment interactions may increase gastric cancer (GC) risk. Seven susceptibility loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) suggest that genetic factors play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. Meanwhile, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, smoking, and alcohol drinking are also important environmental factors for gastric cancer. However, studies to explore the role of gene-environment interactions in gastric carcinogenesis, and particularly the relationship between the seven susceptibility loci and their potential interactions with H...
March 2017: Cancer Medicine
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