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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331880/preventive-effects-of-indole-3-carbinol-against-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice-via-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-apoptotic-mechanisms-role-of-gut-liver-adipose-tissue-axis
#1
Youngshim Choi, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Byoung-Joon Song
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in Brassica family vegetables, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties. Here, we aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of I3C against ethanol (EtOH)-induced liver injury and study the protective mechanism(s) by using the well-established chronic-plus-binge alcohol exposure model. The preventive effects of I3C were evaluated by conducting various histological, biochemical, and real-time PCR analyses in mouse liver, adipose tissue, and colon, since functional alterations of adipose tissue and intestine can also participate in promoting EtOH-induced liver damage...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325602/bile-acid-metabolism-in-liver-pathobiology
#2
John Y L Chiang, Jessica M Ferrell
Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 11, 2018: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325587/human-echinostomiasis-a-case-report
#3
Ranjit Sah, Shusila Khadka, Rabin Hamal, Sagar Poudyal
BACKGROUND: Echinostomiasis is a food-borne infection caused by an intestinal trematodes belonging to the family Echinostomatidae. They infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Patients are usually asymptomatic. However, with heavy infections, the worms can produce catarrhal inflammation with mild ulceration and the patient may experience abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss. Infection are associated with common sociocultural practices of eating raw or insufficiently cooked mollusks and fish...
January 11, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290346/predictive-factors-of-catheter-related-bloodstream-infection-in-patients-receiving-home-parenteral-nutrition
#4
Orawan Pichitchaipitak, Sineenuch Ckumdee, Siriluk Apivanich, Darunee Chotiprasitsakul, Prapimporn Chattranukulchai Shantavasinkul
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and predictive factors of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) acquired through a central venous catheter for delivery of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) therapy among a patient population in Thailand. METHODS: This retrospective review was conducted with adult patients with intestinal failure who received HPN from October 2002 to April 2014, at Ramathibodi Home Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Referral Center in Bangkok...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286303/disturbed-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#5
REVIEW
Ali Saeed, Robin P F Dullaart, Tim C M A Schreuder, Hans Blokzijl, Klaas Nico Faber
Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A's functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs).The liver plays a central role in vitamin A metabolism: (1) it produces bile supporting efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2) it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3) it harbors the largest body supply of vitamin A, mostly as retinyl esters, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
December 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285942/-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-as-a-component-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-causal-correlations-with-other-extrahepatic-diseases
#6
Tamás Halmos, Ilona Suba
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common non-infectious chronic liver-disease in our age, and is a spectrum of all the diseases associated with increased fat accumulation in the hepatocytes. Its development is promoted by sedentary life-style, over-feeding, and certain genetic predisposition. Prevalence in the adult population, even in Hungary is ~30%. In a part of cases, this disease may pass into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, later into fibrosis, rarely into primary hepatocellular cancer. Fatty liver is closely and bidirectionally related to the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and nowadays there is a general consensus that fatty liver is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic sycndrome...
December 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282011/common-variants-in-glucuronidation-enzymes-and-membrane-transporters-as-potential-risk-factors-for-colorectal-cancer-a-case-control-study
#7
Sabrina Falkowski, Jean-Baptiste Woillard, Deborah Postil, Nicole Tubiana-Mathieu, Eric Terrebonne, Antoine Pariente, Denis Smith, Rosine Guimbaud, Claire Thalamas, Koukeb Rouguieg-Malki, Pierre Marquet, Nicolas Picard
BACKGROUND: Associations between polymorphisms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) or efflux transporters (e.g., P-glycoprotein and MRP2) and different types of cancer have been described, whereas the role of influx transporters (e.g. OATP1B1 and OATP2B1) has been seldom explored. The GenColon study investigated potential associations between variant alleles of UGTs, efflux and influx transporters and CRC. METHODS: Three hundred CRC cases were matched with 300 controls for age, sex and enrolment site...
December 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250690/difficulty-in-positive-diagnosis-of-ascites-and-in-differential-diagnosis-of-a-pulmonary-tumor
#8
Mircea Cătălin ForŢofoiu, Dragoş Marian Popescu, Vlad Pădureanu, Aurelian Constantin Dobrinescu, Adrian Gabriel Dobrinescu, Adrian Mită, Maria Camelia Foarfă, Violeta Serenada Bălă, Anca Emanuela Muşetescu, Nina Ionovici, Maria ForŢofoiu
Ascites is the most frequent complication of cirrhosis and occurs only when the portal hypertension has already installed but ascites is caused by neoplasms, heart failure, tuberculosis, pancreatic illnesses, as well as other kind of affections. We describe the case of a 67-year-old patient, a retired person, without significant personal or familial history, nonsmoker, infrequent alcohol and coffee consumer with following chief complaints at onset: loss of appetite, weight loss, serious physical asthenia, delayed intestinal transit, diffuse abdominal pain and increase of abdominal circumference...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235693/porcine-intestinal-yeast-species-kazachstania-slooffiae-a-new-potential-protein-source-with-favourable-amino-acid-composition-for-animals
#9
V Urubschurov, K Büsing, W-B Souffrant, N Schauer, A Zeyner
There is little information about Kazachstania slooffiae which dominates among other yeasts in the pigs' intestine. Therefore, the aims of this study were to characterise the yeast cell contents and to investigate which nitrogen sources, organic acids and alcohols may be utilised or produced by this species. The results showed that, K. slooffiae could use urea, ammonium sulphate, peptides and single amino acids and produce thereby ethanol and formic acid. However, this yeast did not metabolise amino acids, lactic, butyric, propionic and acetic acids as sole carbon source...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233961/publisher-correction-gastric-acid-suppression-promotes-alcoholic-liver-disease-by-inducing-overgrowth-of-intestinal-enterococcus
#10
Cristina Llorente, Peter Jepsen, Tatsuo Inamine, Lirui Wang, Sena Bluemel, Hui J Wang, Rohit Loomba, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Mitchell L Schubert, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet, Jun Xu, Tatiana Kisseleva, Samuel B Ho, Jessica DePew, Xin Du, Henrik T Sørensen, Hendrik Vilstrup, Karen E Nelson, David A Brenner, Derrick E Fouts, Bernd Schnabl
In the original PDF version of this Article, which was published on 16 October 2017, the publication date was incorrectly given as 10 October 2017. This has now been corrected in the PDF; the HTML version of the paper was correct from the time of publication.
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232562/tm6sf2-a-novel-target-for-plasma-lipid-regulation
#11
REVIEW
Ting-Ting Li, Tao-Hua Li, Juan Peng, Bei He, Lu-Shan Liu, Dang-Heng Wei, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Xi-Long Zheng, Zhi-Han Tang
Transmembrane 6 superfamily 2 (TM6SF2), a gene identified at the locus 19p12, has been recognized to regulate plasma lipids. Here, we provide an overview of the roles of TM6SF2 as a novel target for plasma lipid regulation. We first review the association of TM6SF2 variant with plasma lipid traits, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Then, we present an overview about the in vivo validation of TM6SF2 as a regulator of plasma lipid levels using mice, with overexpression or knockdown/knockout of TM6SF2...
December 1, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219669/metabolic-profile-elucidation-of-zhi-zi-da-huang-decoction-in-rat-intestinal-bacteria-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-combined-with-multiple-analytical-perspectives
#12
Miao Wang, Qing Hu, Qingshui Shi, Gongjun Yang, Fang Feng
1. Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD) has been widely used for the treatment of alcoholic jaundice, alcoholic liver disease and acute hepatitis in China for thousands of years. Conventionally decoctions are administered orally, after which the metabolism caused by the enzymes in intestinal bacteria may influence significantly on the curative effects or toxicity. 2. In this work, the comprehensive metabolic process of ZZDHD in intestinal bacteria was investigated reliably using high resolution HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS...
December 8, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214107/diet-and-rosacea-the-role-of-dietary-change-in-the-management-of-rosacea
#13
REVIEW
Emma Weiss, Rajani Katta
Dietary change may play a role in the therapy of rosacea. Certain foods and beverages may act as "triggers" for rosacea exacerbations. These may be divided into heat-related, alcohol-related, capsaicin-related, and cinnamaldehyde-related. One potential pathogenic mechanism may be via the activation of transient receptor potential cation channels, which result in neurogenic vasodilatation. Further research is needed on the role of the gut skin connection in rosacea. Epidemiologic studies suggest that patients with rosacea have a higher prevalence of gastrointestinal disease, and one study reported improvement in rosacea following successful treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth...
October 2017: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208693/dysregulation-of-junctional-adhesion-molecule-a-contributes-to-ethanol-induced-barrier-disruption-in-intestinal-epithelial-cell-monolayers
#14
Daniel M Chopyk, Pradeep Kumar, Reben Raeman, Yunshan Liu, Tekla Smith, Frank A Anania
Alcohol consumption promotes loss of intestinal barrier function. However, mechanisms by which ethanol affects the tight junction (TJ), the cellular structure responsible for maintaining the gut epithelial barrier, are not well understood. Three classes of transmembrane proteins comprise TJs: occludin, claudins, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs). It has recently been postulated that JAM-A (F11R), the most abundant JAM expressed in intestinal epithelium, regulates "leak" pathway flux, a paracellular route for the nonselective permeation of large solutes...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204927/augmented-bioavailability-of-felodipine-through-an-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-based-microemulsion
#15
Mahendra Singh, Jovita Kanoujia, Poonam Parashar, Malti Arya, Chandra B Tripathi, V R Sinha, Shailendra K Saraf, Shubhini A Saraf
The oral bioavailability of felodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist, is about 15%. This may be due to poor water solubility, and a lower intestinal permeability than a BCS class I drug, and hepatic first-pass metabolism of the drug. Many drugs are unpopular due to solubility issues. The goal of this study was to develop and optimize a felodipine-containing microemulsion to improve the intestinal permeability and bioavailability of the drug. The felodipine microemulsions were developed with the selected components, i...
December 4, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204249/dietary-polyphenols-in-the-prevention-of-stroke
#16
REVIEW
A Tressera-Rimbau, S Arranz, M Eder, A Vallverdú-Queralt
Polyphenols have an important protective role against a number of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, brain dysfunction, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide: more people die annually from cardiovascular diseases than from any other cause. The most important behavioural risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excess alcohol intake. The dietary consumption of polyphenols has shown to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality by cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203247/co-administration-of-apd668-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-119-agonist-and-linagliptin-a-dppiv-inhibitor-prevents-progression-of-steatohepatitis-in-mice-fed-on-a-high-trans-fat-diet
#17
Umakant Ashok Bahirat, Rekha Raghuveer Shenoy, Rashmi Talwar, Rajan Naresh Goel, Kumar V S Nemmani
Non-Alcoholic SteatoHepatitis (NASH) is the more severe form of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and is characterized by the presence of hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, hepatocyte injury with or without fibrosis. Recently, GPR119 receptor has emerged as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of APD668, a GPR119 agonist alone or in combination with linagliptin, a DPPIV inhibitor on the progression of steatohepatitis in mice fed on a high trans-fat diet...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195686/role-of-bile-acids-in-metabolic-control
#18
REVIEW
Antonio Molinaro, Annika Wahlström, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall
Bile acids are endocrine molecules that in addition to facilitating the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients regulate numerous metabolic processes, including glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. The signaling actions of bile acids are mediated through specific bile-acid-activated nuclear and membrane-bound receptors. These receptors are not only expressed by tissues within the enterohepatic circulation such as the liver and the intestine, but also in other organs where bile acids mediate their systemic actions...
January 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195678/the-interaction-between-smoking-alcohol-and-the-gut-microbiome
#19
REVIEW
Gabriele Capurso, Edith Lahner
The gastrointestinal microbiome is a complex echosystem that establishes a symbiotic, mutually beneficial relation with the host, being rather stable in health, but affected by age, drugs, diet, alcohol, and smoking. Alcohol and smoking contribute to changes in the stomach and affect H pylori-related disorders including the risk of gastric cancer. In the small intestine and in the colon alcohol causes depletion of bacteria with anti-inflammatory activity, eventually resulting in intestinal damage with "leaky gut"...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191128/suppressive-effect-of-nobiletin-and-epicatechin-gallate-on-fructose-uptake-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-caco-2-cells
#20
Hideo Satsu, Sohei Awara, Tomonori Unno, Makoto Shimizu
Inhibition of excessive fructose intake in the small intestine could alleviate fructose-induced diseases such as hypertension and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We examined the effect of phytochemicals on fructose uptake using human intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells which express the fructose transporter, GLUT5. Among 35 phytochemicals tested, five, including nobiletin and epicatechin gallate (ECg), markedly inhibited fructose uptake. Nobiletin and ECg also inhibited the uptake of glucose but not of L-leucine or Gly-Sar, suggesting an inhibitory effect specific to monosaccharide transporters...
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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