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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723981/intestinal-microbiota-in-digestive-diseases
#1
Maria do Carmo Friche Passos, Joaquim Prado Moraes-Filho
BACKGROUND: In recent years, especially after the development of sophisticated metagenomic studies, research on the intestinal microbiota has increased, radically transforming our knowledge about the microbiome and its association with health maintenance and disease development in humans. Increasing evidence has shown that a permanent alteration in microbiota composition or function (dysbiosis) can alter immune responses, metabolism, intestinal permeability, and digestive motility, thereby promoting a proinflammatory state...
July 6, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722242/therapeutic-application-of-gpr119-ligands-in-metabolic-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Jin Won Yang, Hyo Seon Kim, Yong-Won Choi, Young-Mi Kim, Keon Wook Kang
GPR119 belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor family, and exhibits dual modes of action upon ligand-dependent activation: pancreatic secretion of insulin in a glucose-dependent manner, and intestinal secretion of incretins. Hence, GPR119 has emerged as a promising target for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus without causing hypoglycemia. However, despite continuous efforts by many major pharmaceutical companies, no synthetic GPR119 ligand has been approved as a new class of anti-diabetic agents thus far, nor has one passed beyond phase II clinical studies...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718913/alcohol-consumption-and-gastric-cancer-risk-a-pooled-analysis-within-the-stop-project-consortium
#3
Matteo Rota, Claudio Pelucchi, Paola Bertuccio, Keitaro Matsuo, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Hidemi Ito, Jinfu Hu, Kenneth C Johnson, Domenico Palli, Monica Ferraroni, Guo-Pei Yu, Joshua Muscat, Nuno Lunet, Bárbara Peleteiro, Weimin Ye, Huan Song, David Zaridze, Dmitry Maximovitch, Marcela Guevara, Tania Fernández-Villa, Jesus Vioque, Eva M Navarrete-Muñoz, Alicja Wolk, Nicola Orsini, Andrea Bellavia, Niclas Håkansson, Lina Mu, Roberto Persiani, Robert C Kurtz, Areti Lagiou, Pagona Lagiou, Carlotta Galeone, Rossella Bonzi, Paolo Boffetta, Stefania Boccia, Eva Negri, Carlo La Vecchia
An association between heavy alcohol drinking and gastric cancer risk has been recently reported, but the issue is still open to discussion and quantification. We investigated the role of alcohol drinking on gastric cancer risk in the "Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project", a pooled analysis of case-control studies. A total of 9,669 cases and 25,336 controls from 20 studies from Europe, Asia and North America were included. We estimated summary odds-ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by pooling study-specific ORs using random-effects meta-regression models...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714405/emerging-targets-to-relieve-fat-stress-induced-liver-diseases-udca-tocotrienol-%C3%AF-3-pufas-and-igy-targeted-npc1l1-cholesterol-transporter
#4
Ji-Young Cha, Jong-Min Park, Ho-Jae Lee, Jin-Sik Bae, Young-Min Han, Byung-Chul Oh, Kwang Hyun Ko, Ki-Baik Hahm
Fat stress-induced liver disease is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome initiated by excess fat accumulation and encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a precursor lesion progressing to more aggressive liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the incidence of these fat stress-induced liver diseases is rapidly increasing worldwide in parallel with the growing epidemics of obesity and metabolic diseases, its exact pathogenesis is not well defined...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710145/a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-polyols-on-gastrointestinal-health-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Adrienne Lenhart, William D Chey
Polyols are sugar alcohols found in certain fruits, vegetables, and sugar-free sweeteners. They make up a component of the diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, which is gaining popularity in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of polyols on the gastrointestinal tract in healthy men and women and in patients with IBS. Utilizing PubMed, Ovid, and Embase databases, we conducted a search on individual polyols and each of these terms: fermentation, absorption, motility, permeability, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684599/il-23-restoration-of-th17-effector-function-is-independent-of-il-6-and-tgf-%C3%AE-in-a-mouse-model-of-alcohol-and-burn-injury
#6
Xiaoling Li, Abigail R Cannon, Adam M Hammer, Niya L Morris, Mashkoor A Choudhry
T cells play a critical role in host defense against intestinal bacteria. We have shown that ethanol combined with burn injury suppresses Peyer's patch (PP) Th17 cytokines 1 d after injury. We assessed the mechanism of suppressed Th17 effector functions. Mice were gavaged with ethanol 4 h before burn injury and euthanized 1, 3, and 7 d after injury. Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), PPs, and spleen Th1 and Th17 cytokines were assessed. A significant decrease in IL-17, IL-22, IL-2, and IFN-γ were observed in all 3 lymphoid organs 1 and 3 d after injury...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677287/editorial-new-insights-into-the-relationship-between-the-intestine-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-is-fatty-gut-involved-in-disease-progression
#7
EDITORIAL
L Valenti, S Romeo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673684/the-effect-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-15-deficiency-on-the-development-of-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#8
J D Schumacher, B Kong, Y Pan, L Zhan, R Sun, J Aa, D Rizzolo, J R Richardson, A Chen, M Goedken, L M Aleksunes, D L Laskin, G L Guo
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) characterized by steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis often associated with metabolic syndrome. Fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), an endocrine factor mainly produced in the distal part of small intestine, has emerged to be a critical factor in regulating bile acid homeostasis, energy metabolism, and liver regeneration. We hypothesized that FGF15 alters the development of each of the listed features of NASH. To test this hypothesis, four-week old male Fgf15(-/-) and their corresponding wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a control chow diet for six months...
July 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666094/the-alcohol-extract-of-north-american-ginseng-panax-quinquefolius-reduces-fatty-liver-dyslipidemia-and-other-complications-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-mouse-model
#9
Ratnesh K Singh, Edmund Mk Lui, David Wright, Adrian Taylor, Marica Bakovic
We investigated if the North American ginseng could reduce development of the metabolic syndrome phenotype in a mouse model (ETKO) of the disease. Young ETKO has no disease but similarly to humans starts to develop the fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, and insulin resistance at 25-30 weeks of age, and the disease continues to progress by ageing. ETKO mice were given orally an ethanol extract of ginseng roots at 4 weeks and 32 weeks of age. Treatments with ginseng eliminated the ETKO fatty liver, reduced hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein secretion and the level of circulating lipids...
June 30, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655691/biosynthesis-of-s-naproxen-starch-ester-by-carica-papaya-lipase-in-intermittent-opening-reaction-mode
#10
Yan Wang, Jia Ying Xin, Quan-Hui Li, Li-Rui Sun, Chun-Gu Xia
Inorder to brought S-naproxen into small intestine, an optically pure (S)-naproxen starch ester was produced by lipase through enantio-selective trans-esterification of racemic naproxen methyl ester with pretreatment starch in solvent system. With carefully selection of the reaction medium (isooctane), lipase (Carica Papaya Lipase, CPL) and the reaction mode (intermittent opening), a high conversion rate (48.6%) and enantiomeric excess of product (99.6%) was obtained. The slow release macromolecular (S)-Naproxen had been synthesized to improve the efficacy of racemic naproxen and overcome its side effects...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652663/drug-induced-liver-injury-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-1-year-prospective-observational-study
#11
Tomas Koller, Martina Galambosova, Simona Filakovska, Michaela Kubincova, Tibor Hlavaty, Jozef Toth, Anna Krajcovicova, Juraj Payer
AIM: To analyze 1-year liver injury burden in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. METHODS: During a 6-mo inclusion period, consecutive IBD cases having a control visit at IBD center were included. Basic demographics, IBD phenotype and IBD treatment were recorded on entry. Aminotransferase (AT) activities of ALT, AST, ALP and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were measured at baseline, 3 mo prior to study entry and prospectively every 3 mo for 1 year. Liver injury patterns were predefined as: Grade 1 in ALT 1-3 × upper limit of normal (ULN), grade 2 in ALT > 3 × ULN, hepatocellular injury in ALT > 2 × ULN, cholestatic injury in simultaneous GGT and ALP elevation > ULN...
June 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652650/role-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-on-intestinal-permeability-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
REVIEW
Erika Utzeri, Paolo Usai
The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is widespread worldwide thanks to their analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects. However, even more attention is placed upon the recurrence of digestive system complications in the course of their use. Recent data suggests that the complications of the lower gastro-intestinal tract may be as frequent and severe as those of the upper tract. NSAIDs enteropathy is due to enterohepatic recycling of the drugs resulting in a prolonged and repeated exposure of the intestinal mucosa to the compound and its metabolites...
June 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649963/the-effect-of-growth-medium-on-i-escherichia-coli-i-pathway-mirrored-into-gc-ms-profiles
#13
Ileana Andreea Ratiu, Tomasz Ligor, Victor Bocos-Bintintan, Hossam Al-Suod, Tomasz Kowalkowski, Katarzyna Rafińska, Boguslaw Buszewski
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram-negative coliform bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Most of the strains are harmless, but some serotypes are pathogenic, meaning they can cause illness, either diarrhea or illness outside of the intestinal tract. The aim of this work was to assess which components are generated in case of E. coli target analysis needed. In this purpose our study intends to emphasize the importance of the cultivability and to prove the crucial role of growth media used in bacteria growing...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632181/spirulina-protects-against-hepatic-inflammation-in-aging-an-effect-related-to-the-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota
#14
Audrey M Neyrinck, Bernard Taminiau, Hannah Walgrave, Georges Daube, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect of a Spirulina in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Old mice have been fed a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina for six weeks...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622357/protective-effect-of-aplysin-on-liver-tissue-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-alcohol-fed-rats
#15
Meilan Xue, Ying Liu, Rui Lyu, Na Ge, Man Liu, Yan Ma, Hui Liang
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the protective effect of aplysin on the liver and its influence on inflammation and the gut microbiota in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to an alcohol-containing liquid diet, control liquid diet or treatment with aplysin for 8 weeks. Hepatic and intestinal histopathological analysis was performed, and cytokine levels and the intestinal mucosal barrier were assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616397/development-and-use-of-a-non-biomaterial-model-for-hands-on-training-of-endoscopic-procedures
#16
Hiroki Sato, Ken-Ichi Mizuno, Yuichi Sato, Satoru Hashimoto, Kazunao Hayashi, Satoshi Ikarashi, Yutaka Honda, Junji Yokoyama, Shuji Terai
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) are recently developed techniques that have the potential to significantly improve clinical outcomes. However, training opportunities on these techniques remain limited. To address this issue, we developed a novel ex-vivo ESD/POEM training model. Our aim in this paper is to describe the model and provide preliminary evidence of promising feasibility to improve access to ESD/POEM training. METHODS: The model was developed using polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel, which can easily be modified to reproduce the stiffness of the different intestinal layers, namely the mucosa, submucosa, and muscle layer...
April 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604843/alcohol-associated-intestinal-dysbiosis-impairs-pulmonary-host-defense-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#17
Derrick R Samuelson, Judd E Shellito, Vincent J Maffei, Eric D Tague, Shawn R Campagna, Eugene E Blanchard, Meng Luo, Christopher M Taylor, Martin J J Ronis, Patricia E Molina, David A Welsh
Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs the normal intestinal microbial communities (dysbiosis). To investigate the relationship between alcohol-mediated dysbiosis and pulmonary host defense we developed a fecal adoptive transfer model, which allows us to investigate the impact of alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis on host immune response to an infectious challenge at a distal organ, independent of prevailing alcohol use. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a cocktail of antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, vancomycin, and metronidazole) via daily gavage for two weeks...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598064/emphysematous-gastritis-with-air-in-portal-venous-system
#18
Omesh Goyal, Ajesh Bansal, Prerna Goyal
Emphysematous gastritis is a rare but severe form of phlegmonous gastritis caused by gastric mucosal disruption and infection of stomach wall by gas-forming bacteria. Ingestion of corrosive substances is the most common predisposing factor, followed by alcohol abuse, abdominal surgery, diabetes and immunosuppression. Patients usually present with abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation and/or gastro-intestinal hemorrhage. Characteristic radiological findings include presence of gas in the gastric wall...
May 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588263/gut-microbiota-intestinal-fungi-fuel-the-inflammatory-fire-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#19
Hugh Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580850/-advances-in-the-pathogenesis-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Alajos Pár, Gabriella Pár
Non alcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, and the most common liver disease. Its more aggressive form is the non alcoholic steatohepatitis. Multiple genetic and environmental factors lead to the accumulation of triglicerides and the inflammatory cascade. High fat diet, obesity, adipocyte dysfunction with cytokine production, insulin resistance and increased lipolysis with free fatty acid flux into the liver - all are the drivers of liver cell injury. Activation of inflammasome by damage- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns results in "steril inflammation" and immune response, while the hepatic stellate cells and progenitor cells lead to fibrogenesis...
June 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
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