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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160087/glyoxalase-1-modulation-in-obesity-and-diabetes
#1
Naila Rabbani, Paul J Thornalley
SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are increasing globally. There is also increasing associated complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and vascular complications of diabetes. There is currently no licensed treatment for NAFLD and no recent treatments for diabetic complications. New approaches are required, particularly addressing mechanism-based risk factors for health decline and disease progression. Recent advances: Dicarbonyl stress is the abnormal accumulation of reactive dicarbonyl metabolites such as methylglyoxal leading to cell and tissue dysfunction...
November 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159825/modulation-of-the-intestinal-bile-acid-fxr-fgf15-axis-improves-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-mice
#2
Phillipp Hartmann, Katrin Hochrath, Angela Horvath, Peng Chen, Caroline T Seebauer, Cristina Llorente, Lirui Wang, Yazen Alnouti, Derrick E Fouts, Peter Stärkel, Rohit Loomba, Sally Coulter, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Lei Ling, Stephen J Rossi, Alex M DePaoli, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans, David A Brenner, Bernd Schnabl
Alcoholic liver disease is associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota. Functional consequences of alcohol-associated dysbiosis are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify a mechanism of how changes in the intestinal microbiota contribute to alcoholic liver disease. Metagenomic sequencing of intestinal contents demonstrated that chronic ethanol feeding in mice is associated with an overrepresentation of bacterial genomic DNA encoding choloylglycine hydrolase, which deconjugates bile acids in the intestine...
November 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156373/mitochondria-targeted-ubiquinone-mitoq-enhances-acetaldehyde-clearance-by-reversing-alcohol-induced-posttranslational-modification-of-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-a-molecular-mechanism-of-protection-against-alcoholic-liver-disease
#3
Liuyi Hao, Qian Sun, Wei Zhong, Wenliang Zhang, Xinguo Sun, Zhanxiang Zhou
Alcohol metabolism in the liver generates highly toxic acetaldehyde. Breakdown of acetaldehyde by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) in the mitochondria consumes NAD(+) and generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, which represents a fundamental mechanism in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). A mitochondria-targeted lipophilic ubiquinone (MitoQ) has been shown to confer greater protection against oxidative damage in the mitochondria compared to untargeted antioxidants. The present study aimed to investigate if MitoQ could preserve mitochondrial ALDH2 activity and speed up acetaldehyde clearance, thereby protects against ALD...
November 11, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155082/association-of-gastric-intestinal-metaplasia-and-east-asian-ethnicity-with-the-risk-of-gastric-adenocarcinoma-in-a-u-s-population
#4
Alyssa Y Choi, Lisa L Strate, Matthew C Fix, Rodney A Schmidt, Alexander R Ende, Matthew M Yeh, John M Inadomi, Joo Ha Hwang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although the incidence of gastric cancer is higher than esophageal cancer in the United States, no screening or surveillance guidelines exist. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between gastric intestinal metaplasia and the risk of gastric cancer in a U.S. tertiary care system with a large immigrant population. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study with cases of biopsy-proven gastric cancer matched (by age and gender) to controls without gastric cancer who had undergone EGD...
November 16, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139555/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-inhibits-intestinal-inflammation-and-barrier-disruption-in-nafld-mice
#5
Weijun Wang, Jinfang Zhao, Wenfang Gui, Dan Sun, Haijiang Dai, Li Xiao, Huikuan Chu, Fan Du, Qingjing Zhu, Bernd Schnabl, Kai Huang, Ling Yang, Xiaohua Hou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The gut-liver axis is associated with the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Targeting the gut-liver axis and bile acid-based pharmaceuticals are potential therapies for NAFLD. The effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a candidate medicine for NAFLD, on intestinal barrier function, intestinal inflammation, gut lipid transport and microbiota composition in a murine NAFLD model were analysed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: An NAFLD mouse model was established by feeding mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130231/-effect-of-postoperative-hyperglycemia-on-clinical-outcome-of-gastrointestinal-fistula-patients-undergoing-gastrointestinal-reconstruction
#6
Qiongyuan Hu, Jian'an Ren, Wenhao Tang, Jieshou Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of hyperglycemia within postoperative 48 hours on gastrointestinal (GI) fistula patients without preoperative diagnosis of diabetes undergoing selective GI reconstruction. METHODS: Clinical data of GI fistula patients with age of 18 to 70 years and without diffuse peritonitis and systemic infection undergoing definitive GI reconstruction at Intestinal Fistula Center of Jinling Hospital from September 2012 to December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128903/impairment-of-thiamine-transport-at-the-gut-bbb-axis-contributes-to-wernicke-s-encephalopathy
#7
P M Abdul-Muneer, Saleena Alikunju, Heather Schuetz, Adam M Szlachetka, Xiaotang Ma, James Haorah
Wernicke's encephalopathy, a common neurological disease, is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Neuropathy resulting from thiamine deficiency is a hallmark of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in chronic alcohol users. The underlying mechanisms of this deficiency and progression of neuropathy remain to be understood. To uncover the unknown mechanisms of thiamine deficiency in alcohol abuse, we used chronic alcohol consumption or thiamine deficiency diet ingestion in animal models. Observations from animal models were validated in primary human neuronal culture for neurodegenerative process...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127885/summary-of-the-2016-alcohol-and-immunology-research-interest-group-airig-meeting
#8
REVIEW
Lisbeth A Boule, Cynthia Ju, Marisela Agudelo, Tiyash Parira, Abigail Cannon, Booker Davis, Jonathan Eby, Gail Cresci, Derrick R Samuelson, Pradeep Shukla, Waddah A Alrefai, Suhas Sureshchandra, Subhash C Pandey, Bernd Schnabl, Brenda J Curtis, Todd A Wyatt, Mashkoor A Choudhry, Elizabeth J Kovacs
On November 18, 2016 the 21st annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Center for Translational Research and Education at Loyola University Chicago's Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, IL. The 2016 meeting focused broadly on alcohol and inflammation, epigenetics, and the microbiome. The four plenary sessions of the meeting were Alcohol, Inflammation, and Immunity; Alcohol and Epigenetics; Alcohol, Transcriptional Regulation, and Epigenetics; and Alcohol, Intestinal Mucosa, and the Gut Microbiome...
September 23, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104811/bile-acid-metabolism-and-signaling-in-liver-disease-and-therapy
#9
John Y L Chiang
Bile acids play a critical role in the regulation of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism through activation of the nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar-1, aka TGR5). Agonist activation of FXR and TGR5 improves insulin and glucose sensitivity and stimulates energy metabolism to prevent diabetes, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Bile acids have both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions through FXR and TGR5 in the intestine and liver...
June 2017: Liver Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101772/liver-disease-symptoms-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth
#10
Rahmatollah Rafiei, Mahboobeh Bemanian, Fereshteh Rafiei, Mahmood Bahrami, Lotfollah Fooladi, Giti Ebrahimi, Ahmadreza Hemmat, Zahra Torabi
INTRODUCTION: It seems that there is a relationship between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of SIBO among NAFLD patients. METHODS: In this descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study, 98 eligible NAFLD patients were evaluated for SIBO using hydrogen breath test (HBT). They were divided into SIBO-positive and SIBO-negative groups. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained...
October 26, 2017: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098111/bile-acid-receptors-link-nutrient-sensing-to-metabolic-regulation
#11
Jibiao Li, Tiangang Li
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease in Western populations. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a more debilitating form of NAFLD characterized by hepatocellular injury and inflammation, which significantly increase the risk of end-stage liver and cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, there are no available drug therapies for NASH. Bile acids are physiological detergent molecules that are synthesized from cholesterol exclusively in the hepatocytes. Bile acids circulate between the liver and intestine, where they are required for cholesterol solubilization in the bile and dietary fat emulsification in the gut...
June 2017: Liver Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097439/mucosa-associated-invariant-t-cells-link-intestinal-immunity-with-antibacterial-immune-defects-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#12
Antonio Riva, Vishal Patel, Ayako Kurioka, Hannah C Jeffery, Gavin Wright, Sarah Tarff, Debbie Shawcross, Jennifer M Ryan, Alexander Evans, Sarah Azarian, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Andrew Fagan, Vinood Patel, Kosha Mehta, Carlos Lopez, Marieta Simonova, Krum Katzarov, Tanya Hadzhiolova, Slava Pavlova, Julia A Wendon, Ye Htun Oo, Paul Klenerman, Roger Williams, Shilpa Chokshi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intestinal permeability with systemic distribution of bacterial products are central in the immunopathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), yet links with intestinal immunity remain elusive. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in liver, blood and intestinal mucosa and are a key component of antibacterial host defences. Their role in ALD is unknown. METHODS/DESIGN: We analysed frequency, phenotype, transcriptional regulation and function of blood MAIT cells in severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH), alcohol-related cirrhosis (ARC) and healthy controls (HC)...
November 2, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096734/endocrine-adiponectin-fgf15-19-axis-in-ethanol-induced-inflammation-and-alcoholic-liver-injury
#13
Min You, Zhou Zhou, Michael Daniels, Alvin Jogasuria
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent form of liver diseases, encompassing a spectrum of progressive pathological changes from steatosis to steatohepatitis to fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcoholic steatosis/steatohepatitis is the initial stage of ALD and a major risk factor for advanced liver injuries. Adiponectin is a hormone secreted from adipocytes. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 (human homolog, FGF19) is an ileum-derived hormone. Adipocyte-derived adiponectin and gut-derived FGF15/19 regulate each other, share common signaling cascades and exert similar beneficial functions...
November 2, 2017: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089934/prebiotic-and-synbiotic-modifications-of-beta-oxidation-and-lipogenic-gene-expression-after-experimental-hypercholesterolemia-in-rat-liver
#14
Claudia C Alves, Dan L Waitzberg, Laila S de Andrade, Laís Dos Santos Aguiar, Milene B Reis, Camila C Guanabara, Odair A Júnior, Daniel A Ribeiro, Priscila Sala
Background and aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the presence of fat in hepatocytes because of decreased β-oxidation and increased lipogenesis. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotic have modulatory effects on intestinal microbiota and may influence the gut-liver axis. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of prebiotic, probiotics, and synbiotic on liver histopathology and gene expression related to β-oxidation and lipogenesis after hypercholesterolemia. Methods: Wistar male adult rats (n = 40) were submitted to hypercholesterolemic conditions (HPC) (60 days)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083504/the-circulating-microbiome-signature-and-inferred-functional-metagenomics-in-alcoholic-hepatitis
#15
Puneet Puri, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Jeffrey E Christensen, Vijay H Shah, Patrick S Kamath, Gregory J Gores, Susan Walker, Megan Comerford, Barry Katz, Andrew Borst, Qigui Yu, Divya P Kumar, Faridoddin Mirshahi, Svetlana Radaeva, Naga P Chalasani, David W Crabb, Arun J Sanyal
Intestinal dysbiosis is implicated in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). However, changes in the circulating microbiome, its association with the presence and severity of AH and its functional relevance in AH is unknown. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of changes in the circulating microbiome were performed by sequencing bacterial DNA in subjects with moderate (n=18) or severe AH (n=19). These data were compared to heavy drinking controls (HDC) without obvious liver disease (n=19) and non-alcohol consuming controls (NAC, n=20)...
October 30, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075899/immunoglobulin-a-and-liver-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Tatsuo Inamine, Bernd Schnabl
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a major immunoglobulin isotype in the gut and plays a role in maintenance of gut homeostasis. Secretory IgA (SIgA) has multiple functions in the gut, such as to regulate microbiota composition, to protect intestinal epithelium from pathogenic microorganisms, and to help for immune-system development. The liver is the front-line organ that receives gut-derived products through the portal vein, implying that the liver could be severely affected by a disrupted intestinal homeostasis. Indeed, some liver diseases like alcoholic liver disease are associated with an altered composition of gut microbiota and increased blood endotoxin levels...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074484/diurnal-variations-in-intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-liver-pathology-in-mice-implications-for-alcohol-binge
#17
Robin M Voigt, Christopher B Forsyth, Maliha Shaikh, Lijuan Zhang, Shohreh Raeisi, Costica Aloman, Nailliw Zanini Preite, Terrence M Donohue, Louis F Fogg, Ali Keshavarzian
Recent studies suggest that circadian rhythms regulate intestinal barrier integrity but it is not clear whether there are daily variations in barrier integrity. This study investigated daily variations in intestinal barrier integrity, including if there are differences in alcohol-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction after an alcohol binge at different times of day and if this is associated with concurrent liver injury. C57BL6/J male mice were fed a standard chow diet, an alcohol-containing liquid diet, or an alcohol control diet for four weeks...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066462/genetic-ablation-of-cyp8b1-preserves-host-metabolic-function-by-repressing-steatohepatitis-and-altering-gut-microbiota-composition
#18
Jay V Patankar, Chi K Wong, Vijay Morampudi, William T Gibson, Bruce Vallance, George N Ioannou, Michael Hayden
Both, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are associated with a reduced hepatic mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Cholic acid (CA) is the predominant 12α-hydroxylated bile acid that regulates hepatic lipid metabolism and its circulating levels are negatively correlated with insulin resistance. Abolishing CA synthesis via the genetic disruption of the enzyme sterol 12α-hydroxylase (Cyp8b1(-/-)) leads to a resistance from diabetes and hepatic steatosis. Here we show that a long-term stimulation of hepatic lipogenesis leads to a severe impairment in overall metabolic and respiratory function in control mice (Cyp8b1(+/+)) but strikingly not in Cyp8b1(-/-) mice...
October 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057675/hydro-alcoholic-media-effects-on-theophylline-release-from-sesamum-polysaccharide-gum-matrices
#19
E I Nep, M H Mahdi, A O Adebisi, N C Ngwuluka, B R Conway, A M Smith, K Asare-Addo
Concomitant ingestion of alcohol and medications can greatly affect drug plasma concentrations as dose dumping or failure may occur as a result of the fact that formulation excipients may not always be resistant to alcohol. In this study, a natural polysaccharide (Sesamum radiatum gum) (SG) was extracted, characterized and used to formulate sustained release theophylline compacts to study the effect of varying alcohol concentrations (v/v) in dissolution media on drug release from these compacts. X-ray powder diffraction showed that the extracted gum was amorphous in nature with the powder having excellent compaction properties as observed with its compact being significantly harder than those prepared with pure hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M...
October 23, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056150/substance-p-and-the-neurokinin-1-receptor-the-new-crf
#20
Jesse R Schank, Markus Heilig
Substance P (SP) is an 11-amino acid neuropeptide of the tachykinin family that preferentially activates the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). First isolated 85 years ago and sequenced 40 years later, SP has been extensively studied. Early studies identified a role for SP and the NK1R in contraction of intestinal smooth muscle, central pain processing, and neurogenic inflammation. An FDA-approved NK1R antagonist, aprepitant, is used clinically for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea, as the NK1R influences the activity of the brain stem emesis centers...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
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