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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087575/treating-inflammation-and-infection-in-the-21st-century-new-hints-from-decoding-resolution-mediators-and-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Charles N Serhan
Practitioners of ancient societies from the time of Hippocrates and earlier recognized and treated the signs of inflammation, heat, redness, swelling, and pain with agents that block or inhibit proinflammatory chemical mediators. More selective drugs are available today, but this therapeutic concept has not changed. Because the acute inflammatory response is host protective to contain foreign invaders, much of today's pharmacopeia can cause serious unwanted side effects, such as immune suppression. Uncontrolled inflammation is now considered pathophysiologic and is associated with many widely occurring diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity, and asthma, as well as classic inflammatory diseases (e...
January 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087294/bioactive-metabolites-of-docosahexaenoic-acid
#2
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential fatty acid that is recognized as a beneficial dietary constituent and as a source of the anti-inflammatory specialized proresolving mediators (SPM): resolvins, protectins and maresins. Apart from SPMs, other metabolites of DHA also exert potent biological effects. This article summarizes current knowledge on the metabolic pathways involved in generation of DHA metabolites. Over 70 biologically active metabolites have been described, but are often discussed separately within specific research areas...
January 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002074/resolving-inflammation-by-using-nutrition-therapy-roles-for-specialized-proresolving-mediators
#3
Lucy V Norling, Lucy Ly, Jesmond Dalli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammation is a unifying component of many of the diseases that afflict Western civilizations. Nutrition therapy and, in particular, essential fatty acid supplementation is one of the approaches that is currently in use for the treatment and management of many inflammatory conditions. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the recent literature in light of the discovery that essential fatty acids are converted by the body to a novel genus of lipid mediators, termed specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs)...
December 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993701/comprehensive-expression-analysis-of-pathogenicity-genes-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-strains
#4
Gloria Luz Paniagua-Contreras, Tania Hernández-Jaimes, Eric Monroy-Pérez, Felipe Vaca-Paniagua, Clara Díaz-Velásquez, Alina Uribe-García, Sergio Vaca
In this study, we investigated distinct expression patterns of genes encoding iron-acquisition systems, adhesins, protectins, and toxins in human uroepithelial cells infected with 194 uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains in vitro. We assessed the association of these genes with antibiotic resistance genes in this group of UPEC strains, previously characterised by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Strains were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) from Unidad Médica Familiar de Salud Pública, located in Estado de México, México...
December 18, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988338/dha-derived-oxylipins-neuroprostanes-and-protectins-differentially-and-dose-dependently-modulate-the-inflammatory-response-in-human-macrophages-putative-mechanisms-through-ppar-activation
#5
Rémy Bosviel, Laurie Joumard-Cubizolles, Giulia Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Dominique Bayle, Corinne Copin, Nathalie Hennuyer, Isabelle Duplan, Bart Staels, Giuseppe Zanoni, Alessio Porta, Laurence Balas, Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Andrzej Mazur, Thierry Durand, Cécile Gladine
Whereas the anti-inflammatory properties and mechanisms of action of long chain ω3 PUFAs have been abundantly investigated, research gaps remain regarding the respective contribution and mechanisms of action of their oxygenated metabolites collectively known as oxylipins. We conducted a dose-dependent and comparative study in human primary macrophages aiming to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of two types of DHA-derived oxylipins including the well-described protectins (NPD1 and PDX), formed through lipoxygenase pathway and the neuroprostanes (14-A4t- and 4-F4t-NeuroP) formed through free-radical mediated oxygenation and expected to be new anti-inflammatory mediators...
December 14, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862450/arachidonic-acid-and-lipoxin-a4-attenuate-alloxan-induced-cytotoxicity-to-rin5f-cells-in-vitro-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-in-vivo
#6
Naveen K V Gundala, Vegi G M Naidu, Undurti N Das
OBJECTIVE: We studied whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5F) cells against alloxan-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM) in vivo and if so, mechanism of this beneficial action. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In vitro study was conducted using RIN5F cells while in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats. The effect of PUFAs, cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors, various eicosanoids and PUFAs metabolites: lipoxin A4 (LXA4), resolvin D2 and protectin against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells and type 1 DM was studied...
November 15, 2016: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800648/treatment-with-a-novel-agent-combining-docosahexaenoate-and-metformin-increases-protectin-dx-and-il-6-production-in-skeletal-muscle-and-reduces-insulin-resistance-in-obese-diabetic-db-db-mice
#7
Patricia L Mitchell, Renato Nachbar, Dominic Lachance, Philippe St-Pierre, Jocelyn Trottier, Olivier Barbier, André Marette
AIMS: To compare the therapeutic potential of TP-113, a unique molecular entity linking DHA with metformin, for alleviating insulin resistance in obese diabetic mice through the PDX/IL-6 pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We utilized the generically obese diabetic db/db mouse model for all experiments. Initial studies investigated both a dose and time course response. These results were then utilized to design a long-term (5 week) treatment protocol. Mice were gavaged twice daily with 1 of 3 treatments: 200 mg/kg BW TP113, an equivalent dose of metformin alone (70 mg/kg BW) or water...
November 1, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777380/aging-dysregulates-d-and-e-series-resolvins-to-modulate-cardiosplenic-and-cardiorenal-network-following-myocardial-infarction
#8
Ganesh V Halade, Vasundhara Kain, Laurence M Black, Sumanth D Prabhu, Kevin A Ingle
Post-myocardial infarction (MI), overactive inflammation is the hallmark of aging, however, the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that excess influx of omega 6 fatty acids may impair resolution, thus impacting the cardiosplenic and cardiorenal network post-MI. Young and aging mice were fed on standard lab chow (LC) and excess fatty acid (safflower oil; SO)-enriched diet for 2 months and were then subjected to MI surgery. Despite similar infarct areas and left ventricle (LV) dysfunction post-MI, splenic mass spectrometry data revealed higher levels of arachidonic acid (AA) derived pro-inflammatory metabolites in young-SO, but minimal formation of docosanoids, D- and E- series resolvins in SO-fed aged mice...
October 18, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647830/signaling-and-immunoresolving-actions-of-resolvin-d1-in-inflamed-human-visceral-adipose-tissue
#9
Esther Titos, Bibiana Rius, Cristina López-Vicario, José Alcaraz-Quiles, Verónica García-Alonso, Aritz Lopategi, Jesmond Dalli, Juan José Lozano, Vicente Arroyo, Salvadora Delgado, Charles N Serhan, Joan Clària
Persistent activation of the innate immune system greatly influences the risk for developing metabolic complications associated with obesity. In this study, we explored the therapeutic potential of the specialized proresolving mediator (SPM) resolvin D1 (RvD1) to actively promote the resolution of inflammation in human visceral adipose tissue from obese (Ob) patients. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabololipidomic analysis, we identified unbalanced production of SPMs (i.e., D- and E-series resolvins, protectin D1, maresin 1, and lipoxins) with respect to inflammatory lipid mediators (i...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632672/human-sepsis-eicosanoid-and-proresolving-lipid-mediator-temporal-profiles-correlations-with-survival-and-clinical-outcomes
#10
Jesmond Dalli, Romain A Colas, Carolina Quintana, Diana Barragan-Bradford, Shelley Hurwitz, Bruce D Levy, Augustine M Choi, Charles N Serhan, Rebecca M Baron
OBJECTIVE: To identify and measure recently described chemical mediators, termed specialized pro-resolving mediators that actively regulate the resolution of acute-inflammation, and correlate measurements with clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Herein, deidentified plasma was collected from sepsis patients (n = 22 subjects) within 48 hours of admission to the ICU and on days 3 and 7 thereafter and subjected to lipid mediator profiling. SETTING: Brigham and Women's Hospital Medical Intensive Care Unit...
January 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531277/omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-influences-the-whole-blood-transcriptome-in-women-with-obesity-associated-with-pro-resolving-lipid-mediator-production
#11
Anna Polus, Barbara Zapala, Urszula Razny, Anna Gielicz, Beata Kiec-Wilk, Malgorzata Malczewska-Malec, Marek Sanak, Caroline E Childs, Philip C Calder, Aldona Dembinska-Kiec
The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may reduce low-grade inflammation associated with obesity. The relationship between therapeutic response to n-3 PUFAs and modification of the transcriptome in obesity or metabolic syndrome remains to be explored. Blood samples were obtained from women with obesity before and after three-months supplementation with a moderate dose of n-3 PUFAs (1.8g EPA+DHA per day) or from controls. n-3 PUFAs (GC) and plasma concentrations of lipoxins, resolvins, protectin X (GC-MS/MS) and inflammatory markers (ELISA) were measured...
November 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525060/selective-identification-of-specialized-pro-resolving-lipid-mediators-from-their-biosynthetic-double-di-oxygenation-isomers
#12
Trond V Hansen, Jesmond Dalli, Charles N Serhan
The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are substrates for lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases. During inflammatory processes, these enzymes form several distinct families of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids coined specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Structural elucidation of these natural products using LC-MS/MS based metabololipidomics with the pico- to nanogram amounts of biosynthetic material available have been performed. The specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators display stereospecific and potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions...
2016: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422370/cyclopentenone-containing-oxidized-phospholipids-and-their-isoprostanes-as-pro-resolving-mediators-of-inflammation
#13
Olivier Friedli, Stefan Freigang
Inflammation represents a powerful innate immune response that defends tissue homeostasis. However, the appropriate termination of inflammatory processes is essential to prevent the development of chronic inflammatory disorders. The resolution of inflammation is actively induced by specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators, which include eicosanoids, resolvins, protectins and maresins. The responsible pro-resolution pathways have emerged as promising targets for anti-inflammatory therapies since they mitigate excessive inflammation without compromising the anti-microbial defenses of the host...
July 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313314/docosahexaenoic-acid-derived-fatty-acid-esters-of-hydroxy-fatty-acids-fahfas-with-anti-inflammatory-properties
#14
Ondrej Kuda, Marie Brezinova, Martina Rombaldova, Barbora Slavikova, Martin Posta, Petr Beier, Petra Janovska, Jiri Veleba, Jan Kopecky, Eva Kudova, Terezie Pelikanova, Jan Kopecky
White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obese individuals, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of marine origin play an important role in the resolution of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using experiments in mice and overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids-lipokines derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid, which were present in serum and WAT after n-3 PUFA supplementation...
September 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297719/combinations-of-distinct-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-species-for-improved-dietary-treatment-against-allergic-bronchial-asthma
#15
Christopher Beermann, Sandy Neumann, Daniela Fußbroich, Stefan Zielen, Ralf Schubert
Allergic bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways with an increasing incidence in Western societies. Exposure to allergens provokes recurrent attacks of breathlessness, airway hyperreactivity, wheezing, and coughing. For the early phase and milder forms of allergic asthma, dietary supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), predominantly fish oil-associated eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 ω-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 ω-3), and distinct crop oil-derived fatty acids might provide a sustainable treatment strategy, as discussed in several studies...
November 2016: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211554/a-transcriptomic-biomarker-to-quantify-systemic-inflammation-in-sepsis-a-prospective-multicenter-phase-ii-diagnostic-study
#16
Michael Bauer, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Andreas Kortgen, Eva Möller, Karen Felsmann, Jean Marc Cavaillon, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Olivier Rutschmann, Andriy Ruryk, Matthias Kohl, Britta Wlotzka, Stefan Rußwurm, John C Marshall, Konrad Reinhart
Development of a dysregulated immune response discriminates sepsis from uncomplicated infection. Currently used biomarkers fail to describe simultaneously occurring pro- and anti-inflammatory responses potentially amenable to therapy. Marker candidates were screened by microarray and, after transfer to a platform allowing point-of-care testing, validated in a confirmation set of 246 medical and surgical patients. We identified up-regulated pathways reflecting innate effector mechanisms, while down-regulated pathways related to adaptive lymphocyte functions...
April 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121596/specialized-proresolving-lipid-mediators-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-and-their-potential-for-clot-remodeling
#17
Tarec K Elajami, Romain A Colas, Jesmond Dalli, Nan Chiang, Charles N Serhan, Francine K Welty
Inflammation in arterial walls leads to coronary artery disease (CAD). Because specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs; lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins) stimulate resolution of inflammation in animal models, we tested whether n-3 fatty acids impact SPM profiles in patients with CAD and promote clot remodeling. Six patients with stable CAD were randomly assigned to either treatment with daily 3.36 g Lovaza for 1 yr or without. Targeted lipid mediator-metabololipidomics showed that both groups had absence of resolvin D1 (RvD1), RvD2, RvD3, RvD5 and resolvin E1-all of which are present in healthy patients...
August 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27033423/specialised-pro-resolving-mediators-of-inflammation-in-inflammatory-arthritis
#18
Anne E Barden, Mahin Moghaddami, Emilie Mas, Michael Phillips, Leslie G Cleland, Trevor A Mori
INTRODUCTION: Specialised pro-resolving mediators (SPM) are derived from n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3FA). They promote resolution of inflammation and may contribute to the beneficial effects of n-3FA in patients with arthritis. This study compared SPM in knee effusions and plasma of patients with arthritis taking n-3FA, and plasma of healthy volunteers taking n-3FA. METHODS: Thirty six patients taking n-3FA undergoing arthrocentesis for an inflammatory knee effusion and 36 healthy volunteers who had taken n-3FA (2...
April 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26999389/population-phylogenomics-of-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#19
Jérôme Tourret, Erick Denamur
The emergence of genomics over the last 10 years has provided new insights into the evolution and virulence of extraintestinal Escherichia coli. By combining population genetics and phylogenetic approaches to analyze whole-genome sequences, it became possible to link genomic features to specific phenotypes, such as the ability to cause urinary tract infections. An E. coli chromosome can vary extensively in length, ranging from 4.3 to 6.2 Mb, encoding 4,084 to 6,453 proteins. This huge diversity is structured as a set of less than 2,000 genes (core genome) that are conserved between all the strains and a set of variable genes...
February 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26955849/protectin-d1-reduces-concanavalin-a-induced-liver-injury-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-axis-and-nlr-family-pyrin-domain-containing-3-inflammasome-activation
#20
Jun Ren, Shanshan Meng, Bingdi Yan, Jinyan Yu, Jing Liu
Protectin D1 (PD1) is a bioactive product generated from docosahexaenoic acid, which may exert anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its anti‑inflammatory activity on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of PD1 against Con A‑induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms via intravenous injection of PD1 prior to Con A administration. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups as follows: Control group, Con A group (30 mg/kg), 20 µg/kg PD1 + Con A (30 mg/kg) group and 10 µg/kg PD1 + Con A (30 mg/kg) group...
April 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
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