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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336292/structural-elucidation-and-physiologic-functions-of-specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-and-their-receptors
#1
REVIEW
Nan Chiang, Charles N Serhan
The acute inflammatory response is host protective to contain foreign invaders. Many of today's pharmacopeia that block pro-inflammatory chemical mediators can cause serious unwanted side effects such as immune suppression. Uncontrolled inflammation is now considered a pathophysiologic basis associated with, many widely occurring diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity and asthma, as well as the classic inflammatory diseases, e.g. arthritis, periodontal diseases...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302406/docosahexaenoic-acid-in-the-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-a%C3%A2-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-cross-over-study-with-microalgae-vs-sunflower-oil
#2
C Dawczynski, M Dittrich, T Neumann, K Goetze, A Welzel, P Oelzner, S Völker, A M Schaible, F Troisi, L Thomas, S Pace, A Koeberle, O Werz, P Schlattmann, S Lorkowski, G Jahreis
The potential of fish or fish oil as supplier for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n3) for reducing cardiovascular risk factors and supporting therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases, has been investigated intensively, but our knowledge about the physiological effects of the individual compounds EPA and DHA are limited. STUDY DESIGN: In this double-blind pilot study, thirty-eight patients with defined RA were allocated to consume foods enriched with microalgae oil from Schizochytrium sp...
March 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263773/discovery-of-specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-marks-the-dawn-of-resolution-physiology-and-pharmacology
#3
REVIEW
Charles N Serhan
It is with great pleasure that I write this foreword and introduction to this Special Issue dedicated to the protective actions of the pro-resolving mediators and edited by my colleague Dr. Jesmond Dalli. Many of my collaborators and colleagues that helped to uncover the actions and clinical potential of the resolvins and other specialized proresolving mediators (SPM), namely, the superfamily of pro-resolving mediators that includes the resolvin (E-series, D-series and DPA-derived), protectin and maresin families, as well as the arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins, join me in this special issue...
March 3, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257820/specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Gabrielle Fredman, Matthew Spite
The resolution of inflammation is a highly regulated process enacted by endogenous mediators including specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs): the lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins. SPMs activate specific cellular receptors to temper the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, diminish the recruitment of neutrophils, and promote the clearance of dead cells by macrophages. These mediators also enhance host-defense and couple resolution of inflammation to subsequent phases of tissue repair...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241480/pro-resolving-molecules-new-approaches-to-treat-sepsis
#5
REVIEW
Christa Buechler, Rebekka Pohl, Charalampos Aslanidis
Inflammation is a complex response of the body to exogenous and endogenous insults. Chronic and systemic diseases are attributed to uncontrolled inflammation. Molecules involved in the initiation of inflammation are very well studied while pathways regulating its resolution are insufficiently investigated. Approaches to down-modulate mediators relevant for the onset and duration of inflammation are successful in some chronic diseases, while all of them have failed in sepsis patients. Inflammation and immune suppression characterize sepsis, indicating that anti-inflammatory strategies alone are inappropriate for its therapy...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237084/identification-and-profiling-of-specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-in-human-tears-by-lipid-mediator-metabolomics
#6
Justin T English, Paul C Norris, Robin R Hodges, Darlene A Dartt, Charles N Serhan
Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM), e.g. Resolvin D1, Protectin D1, Lipoxin A₄, and Resolvin E1 have each shown to be active in ocular models reducing inflammation. In general, SPMs have specific agonist functions that stimulate resolution of infection and inflammation in animal disease models. The presence and quantity of SPM in human emotional tears is of interest. Here, utilizing a targeted LC-MS-MS metabololipidomics based approach we document the identification of pro-inflammatory (Prostaglandins and Leukotriene B₄) and pro-resolving lipid mediators (D-series Resolvins, Protectin D1, and Lipoxin A₄) in human emotional tears from 12 healthy individuals...
February 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210259/resolution-of-cancer-promoting-inflammation-a-new-approach-for-anticancer-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Qi Zhang, Bo Zhu, Yongsheng Li
Inflammation is a protective response that eliminates harmful stimuli and restores tissue homeostasis, whereas the failure to resolve inflammation leads to the development of malignancies. Immune cells in the tumor inflammatory microenvironment endow cancer cells with their specific hallmarks, including mutations, metabolic reprograming, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Targeting the inflammatory microenvironment with anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., aspirin) or by enhancing antitumor immunity (e.g., chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy) has been extensively investigated and has achieved promising results in many cancers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188173/maresin-1-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-attenuates-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-ob-ob-and-diet-induced-obese-mice
#8
Leyre Martínez-Fernández, Pedro González-Muniesa, Laura M Laiglesia, Neira Sáinz, Pedro L Prieto-Hontoria, Xavier Escoté, Leticia Odriozola, Fernando J Corrales, Jose M Arbones-Mainar, José A Martínez, María J Moreno-Aliaga
The beneficial actions of n-3 fatty acids on obesity-induced insulin resistance and inflammation have been related to the synthesis of specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs) like resolvins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of one of these SPMs, maresin 1 (MaR1), to reverse adipose tissue inflammation and/or insulin resistance in two models of obesity: diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and genetic (ob/ob) obese mice. In DIO mice, MaR1 (2 μg/kg; 10 d) reduced F4/80-positive cells and expression of the proinflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype marker Cd11c in white adipose tissue (WAT)...
February 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182085/maresin-1-mitigates-high-glucose-induced-mouse-glomerular-mesangial-cell-injury-by-inhibiting-inflammation-and-fibrosis
#9
Shi Tang, Chenlin Gao, Yang Long, Wei Huang, Jiao Chen, Fang Fan, Chunxia Jiang, Yong Xu
Background. Inflammation and fibrosis are the important pathophysiologic processes in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Maresin 1 is a potential anti-inflammatory lipid mediator, which has displayed powerful proresolving activities. Aim. We determine whether maresin 1 has protective effect on mouse glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) induced by high glucose. Methods. We cultured GMCs stimulated by high glucose and categorized as follows: normal glucose group (5.6 mmol/L), high glucose group (30 mmol/L), mannitol group, maresin 1 intervention group (1, 10, and 100 nmol/L), maresin 1 and normal glucose group, and the N-acetylcysteine (NAC) intervention group (10 μmol/L NAC)...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158236/pro-resolving-lipid-mediator-resolvin-d1-serves-as-a-marker-of-lung-disease-in-cystic-fibrosis
#10
Olaf Eickmeier, Daniela Fussbroich, Klaus Mueller, Friederike Serve, Christina Smaczny, Stefan Zielen, Ralf Schubert
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that affects multiple organs, including the lungs, pancreas, liver and intestine. Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) locus lead to defective proteins and reduced Cl- secretion and Na+ hyperabsorption in the affected organs. In addition, patients suffering from CF display chronic inflammation that contributes to the pathogenesis of CF. Recent work suggests that CF patients have a reduced capacity to biosynthesize specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), which contributes to the development and duration of the unwanted inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087575/treating-inflammation-and-infection-in-the-21st-century-new-hints-from-decoding-resolution-mediators-and-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Charles N Serhan
Practitioners of ancient societies from the time of Hippocrates and earlier recognized and treated the signs of inflammation, heat, redness, swelling, and pain with agents that block or inhibit proinflammatory chemical mediators. More selective drugs are available today, but this therapeutic concept has not changed. Because the acute inflammatory response is host protective to contain foreign invaders, much of today's pharmacopeia can cause serious unwanted side effects, such as immune suppression. Uncontrolled inflammation is now considered pathophysiologic and is associated with many widely occurring diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity, and asthma, as well as classic inflammatory diseases (e...
January 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087294/bioactive-metabolites-of-docosahexaenoic-acid
#12
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential fatty acid that is recognized as a beneficial dietary constituent and as a source of the anti-inflammatory specialized proresolving mediators (SPM): resolvins, protectins and maresins. Apart from SPMs, other metabolites of DHA also exert potent biological effects. This article summarizes current knowledge on the metabolic pathways involved in generation of DHA metabolites. Over 70 biologically active metabolites have been described, but are often discussed separately within specific research areas...
January 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079976/maresin-1-induces-a-novel-pro-resolving-phenotype-in-human-platelets
#13
K L Lannan, S L Spinelli, N Blumberg, R P Phipps
Essentials Specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) promote the resolution of inflammation. This study sought to investigate the effects of SPMs on human platelet function. The SPM, Maresin 1, enhanced hemostatic, but suppressed inflammatory functions of platelets. SPMs uniquely regulate platelet function and may represent a new class of antiplatelet agents. SUMMARY: Background Antiplatelet therapy is a cornerstone of modern medical practice and is routinely employed to reduce the likelihood of myocardial infarction, thrombosis and stroke...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002074/resolving-inflammation-by-using-nutrition-therapy-roles-for-specialized-proresolving-mediators
#14
Lucy V Norling, Lucy Ly, Jesmond Dalli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammation is a unifying component of many of the diseases that afflict Western civilizations. Nutrition therapy and, in particular, essential fatty acid supplementation is one of the approaches that is currently in use for the treatment and management of many inflammatory conditions. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the recent literature in light of the discovery that essential fatty acids are converted by the body to a novel genus of lipid mediators, termed specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs)...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877134/modulation-of-the-activities-of-neuronal-ion-channels-by-fatty-acid-derived-pro-resolvents
#15
REVIEW
Geunyeol Choi, Sun Wook Hwang
Progress of inflammation depends on the balance between two biological mechanisms: pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving processes. Many extracellular and intracellular molecular components including cytokines, growth factors, steroids, neurotransmitters, and lipidergic mediators and their receptors contribute to the two processes, generated from cellular participants during inflammation. Fatty acid-derived mediators are crucial in directing the inflammatory phase and orchestrating heterogeneous reactions of participants such as inflamed cells, innate immune cells, vascular components, innervating neurons, etc...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799313/identification-and-actions-of-the-maresin-1-metabolome-in-infectious-inflammation
#16
Romain A Colas, Jesmond Dalli, Nan Chiang, Iliyan Vlasakov, Julia M Sanger, Ian R Riley, Charles N Serhan
Maresin 1 (MaR1) is an immunoresolvent that governs resolution of acute inflammation, and its local metabolism in the context of infectious inflammation is of interest. In this study, we investigated the MaR1 metabolome in infectious exudates and its bioactions in regulating leukocyte responses in the context of bacterial infection. In Escherichia coli infectious exudates, MaR1 was temporally regulated with maximal levels at 4 h (2.2 ± 0.4 pg/lavage). In these exudates we also identified two novel products, and their structure elucidation gave 22-hydroxy-MaR1 and 14-oxo-MaR1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791009/maresin-conjugates-in-tissue-regeneration-biosynthesis-enzymes-in-human-macrophages
#17
Jesmond Dalli, Iliyan Vlasakov, Ian R Riley, Ana R Rodriguez, Bernd W Spur, Nicos A Petasis, Nan Chiang, Charles N Serhan
Macrophages are central in coordinating immune responses, tissue repair, and regeneration, with different subtypes being associated with inflammation-initiating and proresolving actions. We recently identified a family of macrophage-derived proresolving and tissue regenerative molecules coined maresin conjugates in tissue regeneration (MCTR). Herein, using lipid mediator profiling we identified MCTR in human serum, lymph nodes, and plasma and investigated MCTR biosynthetic pathways in human macrophages. With human recombinant enzymes, primary cells, and enantiomerically pure compounds we found that the synthetic maresin epoxide intermediate 13S,14S-eMaR (13S,14S-epoxy- 4Z,7Z,9E,11E,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid) was converted to MCTR1 (13R-glutathionyl, 14S-hydroxy-4Z,7Z,9E,11E,13R,14S,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid) by LTC4S and GSTM4...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647830/signaling-and-immunoresolving-actions-of-resolvin-d1-in-inflamed-human-visceral-adipose-tissue
#18
Esther Titos, Bibiana Rius, Cristina López-Vicario, José Alcaraz-Quiles, Verónica García-Alonso, Aritz Lopategi, Jesmond Dalli, Juan José Lozano, Vicente Arroyo, Salvadora Delgado, Charles N Serhan, Joan Clària
Persistent activation of the innate immune system greatly influences the risk for developing metabolic complications associated with obesity. In this study, we explored the therapeutic potential of the specialized proresolving mediator (SPM) resolvin D1 (RvD1) to actively promote the resolution of inflammation in human visceral adipose tissue from obese (Ob) patients. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabololipidomic analysis, we identified unbalanced production of SPMs (i.e., D- and E-series resolvins, protectin D1, maresin 1, and lipoxins) with respect to inflammatory lipid mediators (i...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613620/maresin-1-maintains-the-permeability-of-lung-epithelial-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Lin Chen, Hong Liu, Yaxin Wang, Haifa Xia, Jie Gong, Bo Li, Shanglong Yao, You Shang
Previous reports showed that Maresin 1 (MaR1) possessed organ protection effects and could attenuate acute lung injury. Here, we aim to figure out whether MaR1 can maintain the permeability of lung epithelial cells by regulating the expression of tight junction protein during lung injury. Monolayer of murine lung epithelial cells was stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without MaR1 and the permeability was evaluated. The expression of Claudin-1 and ZO-1 in lung epithelial cells was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting...
December 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573698/endogenously-synthesized-n-3-fatty-acids-in-fat-1-transgenic-mice-prevent-melanoma-progression-by-increasing-e-cadherin-expression-and-inhibiting-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#20
Xuan Yin, Xiong-Wei Yu, Pan Zhu, Yuan-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Hong Zhang, Feng Wang, Jin-Jie Zhang, Wang Yan, Yang Xi, Jian-Bo Wan, Jing-Xuan Kang, Zu-Quan Zou, Shi-Zhong Bu
Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. Although preclinical studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are beneficial for prevention of melanoma, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of n‑3 PUFAs on melanoma remain largely unknown. In the present study, endogenously increased levels of n-3 PUFAs in the tumor tissues of omega‑3 fatty acid desaturase (fat‑1) transgenic mice was associated with a reduction in the growth rate of melanoma xenografts...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
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