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Tiago Falótico, Paulo Henrique M Coutinho, Carolina Q Bueno, Henrique P Rufo, Eduardo B Ottoni
Capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) are proficient tool users, and the use of stone tools occurs in several populations, mostly to crack open encased foods. Two well-studied Brazilian populations of Sapajus libidinosus inhabit Fazenda Boa Vista and Serra da Capivara National Park and present different behavioral sets regarding tool use. Serra das Confusões National Park (SCoNP) lies between those sites, but little is known about the capuchin monkey population that lives there. To begin unraveling the capuchin behavior in this area, we conducted a brief survey for tool use sites...
March 17, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tiago Falótico, José O Siqueira, Eduardo B Ottoni
Capuchin monkeys at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) usually forage on the ground for roots and fossorial arthropods, digging primarily with their hands but also using stone tools to loosen the soil and aid the digging process. Here we describe the stone tools used for digging by two groups of capuchins on SCNP. Both groups used tools while digging three main food resources: Thiloa glaucocarpa tubers, Ocotea sp roots, and trapdoor spiders. One explanation for the occurrence of tool use in primates is the "necessity hypothesis", which states that the main function of tool use is to obtain fallback food...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gabriela Silva Ribeiro Gonçalves, Pablo Vieira Cerqueira, Leandro Schlemmer Brasil, Marcos Pérsio Dantas Santos
Understanding the processes that influence species diversity is still a challenge in ecological studies. However, there are two main theories to discuss this topic, the niche theory and the neutral theory. Our objective was to understand the importance of environmental and spatial processes in structuring bird communities within the hydrological seasons in dry forest areas in northeastern Brazil. The study was conducted in two National Parks, the Serra da Capivara and Serra das Confusões National Parks, where 36 areas were sampled in different seasons (dry, dry/rainy transition, rainy, rainy/dry transition), in 2012 and 2013...
2017: PloS One
Elisabetta Visalberghi, Cecilia Di Bernardi, Luca A Marino, Dorothy Fragaszy, Patricia Izar
Female wild bearded capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) living at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) that use stone and stick tools during foraging occasionally toss or throw stones at the male during courtship. We report similar behaviors in a different population that uses stones as tools in foraging. We video-recorded the sexual behavior of four females (27 days during nine proceptive periods) belonging to a group of wild capuchins living in Fazenda Boa Vista (FBV), 320 km from SCNP. Three females used stones or branches when they solicited the alpha male (79 episodes)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Tiago Falótico, Lydia V Luncz, Magdalena S Svensson, Michael Haslam
Wild capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) at Serra da Capivara National Park, Brazil, regularly use stone tools to break open cashew nuts (Anacardium spp.). Here we examine 2 approaches used by the capuchins to position the kidney-shaped cashew nuts on an anvil before striking with a stone tool. Lateral positioning involves placing the nut on its flatter, more stable side, therefore requiring less attention from the monkey during placement. However, the less stable and never previously described arched position, in which the nut is balanced with its curved side uppermost, requires less force to crack the outer shell...
2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Angela Kinoshita, Michelle Mollemberg, William Santana, Ana Maria G Figueiredo, Niede Guidon, Maria de Fátima da Luz, Claude Guérin, Oswaldo Baffa
Smilodon is a genus of big cats that lived from the early to the late Pleistocene in regions extending from North to South America. The fossil records of the "saber-toothed cats" are uneven, with some taxa being quite abundant in certain regions. In Brazil, Smilodon populator is a well-known species whose remains, although scarce in comparison to other large mammals, are found all across the country. In particular, there are multiple records of this species in the region of the Serra da Capivara National Park...
February 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
E G N Santos, M Chame, V A Chagas-Moutinho, C P Santos
Oncicola venezuelensis Marteau, 1977 was found parasitizing adults of Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus) found dead in Serra da Capivara National Park, Piauí state, Brazil, a new geographical locality reported for the species. The diversity of Oncicola Travassos, 1916 species is large, but genetic data are scarce. This article presents the results of genetic, morphological and ultrastructural studies carried out for taxonomic purposes. The first ultrastructural view showed a globular, short proboscis with 36 hooks, divided into six longitudinal rows of six hooks each...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Lydia V Luncz, Tiago Falótico, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido, Clara Corat, Hannah Mosley, Michael Haslam
Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases...
2016: Scientific Reports
Frederico S Kremer, Marcus R Eslabão, Sérgio Jorge, Natasha R Oliveira, Julia Labonde, Monize N P Santos, Leonardo G Monte, André A Grassmann, Carlos E P Cunha, Karine M Forster, Luísa Z Moreno, Andrea M Moreno, Vinicius F Campos, Alan J A McBride, Luciano S Pinto, Odir A Dellagostin
In the present paper, we announce new draft genomes of four Leptospira interrogans strains named Acegua, RCA, Prea, and Capivara. These strains were isolated in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from cattle, dog, Brazilian guinea pig, and capybara, respectively.
April 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Antonio Christian de A Moura
The preferential use of one limb (lateralization) has been observed in many species. This lateralization reflects functional asymmetries of the brain. Right-handedness and left-hemisphere dominance seem to be the norm in humans. However, suggestions that vertebrates, particularly non-human primates, show handedness are contentious. Tool use could be a driver of handedness. Here I investigated hand bias during tool use activities in groups of wild capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus). I observed the use of feeding tools in wild capuchin monkeys living in the dry Caatinga forests of the Serra da Capivara National Park, Piaui, Brazil...
2015: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Michael Haslam, Tiago Falótico
We report the first observation of probe tool use by a wild adult female bearded capuchin (Sapajus libidniosus), at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP), Brazil. This individual used several stick tools and one grass stem to probe her nostrils, usually triggering a sneeze reaction, and also used stick tools to probe her teeth or gum. Both of these behaviours were accompanied by inspection and licking of the tool following use. We have termed these self-directed actions nasal probe and toothpick, and neither has been previously reported in wild capuchins...
July 2015: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tiago Falótico, Eduardo B Ottoni
Here we examine data from a two-year research on the use of sticks as probes by two groups of wild capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) in Serra da Capivara National Park (PI), Brazil. The use of sticks as probes is not usually observed among wild tufted capuchin (Sapajus spp.) populations, having been reported as a customary behavior only in SCNP groups. Probe tools are used to access small prey (insects or lizards) in rock cracks or tree trunks, or honey from wasps' nests, and also to poke toads and poisonous snakes...
October 2014: Behavioural Processes
Luiz Ricardo L Simone, Rafael Casati
Five new species and one new genus are described from the Serra da Capivara, Piaui, Brazil, a region of semi-dry, Caatinga environment. The described taxa are: Odontostomidae: 1) Clinispira insolita, n. gen. n. sp., possessing strange spire inclination and aperture approaching to the shell apex, it looks closely related to Anostoma, Tomigerus and Biotocus; 2) Cyclodontina capivara n. sp., with well-developed axial ribs and 6 teeth at peristome; 3) Anctusprolatus n. sp., very elongated, with aperture lacking teeth; Simpulopsidae: 4) Rhinus gilbertus n...
2013: Zootaxa
Angela Kinoshita, Elver Mayer, Vinícius Ribau Mendes, Ana Maria G Figueiredo, Oswaldo Baffa
Excavations performed at Lagoa dos Porcos site revealed a vast amount of extinct mammal fossil remains, becoming one of the richest palaeontological occurrences in the Serra da Capivara National Park region, a UNESCO World Heritage. Although anatomic and taxonomic aspects of extinct Quaternary mammals are relatively well known, chronologic information for deposits is rare. In this context, electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of megafauna samples provides important information for establishing a chronological background...
June 2014: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
M L Orsi, J R Britton
The changes in the fish assemblage of the Capivara Reservoir, Brazil, were assessed over a 20 year period. Of 50 native fishes present in the initial samples, 27 were no longer present in the final samples, but there had been an addition of 11 invasive fishes, suggesting the occurrence of substantial shifts in fish diversity and abundance.
June 2014: Journal of Fish Biology
Tiago Falótico, Eduardo B Ottoni
Capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) in captive settings frequently manipulate and throw objects. In the wild, they may push or drop stones and sticks toward targets during inter- or intraspecific threat displays. In addition, female capuchin monkeys exhibit a broad repertoire of behaviors during their proceptive period, including facial expressions, vocalizations, stereotyped body postures, and touch-and-run behavior. This study reports stone throwing as a newly-described communicative behavior during the proceptive display of females in a group of bearded capuchin monkeys (S...
2013: PloS One
Emanuel R M Martinez, Anderson L Alves, Sara M Silveira, Fausto Foresti, Claudio Oliveira
Cytogenetic analyses were accomplished in two populations of Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britzki, 2000 and one population of Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882, considered incertae sedis in Characidae family. Two populations of Astyanax altiparanae (Mogi-Guaçu and Tietê rivers) presented 2n=50, with the same karyotype formula: 6M+12SM+20ST+12A (FN=88). Hyphessobrycon eques from Capivara river presented 2n=52 and karyotype formula 14M+16SM+4ST+18A (FN=86). In each karyotype, the nucleolus organizer regions were detected at the end of the short arm of a single medium-sized subtelocentric chromosome...
2012: Comparative Cytogenetics
M F Alves, P A V Barroso, A Y Ciampi, L V Hoffmann, V C R Azevedo, U Cavalcante
Gossypium mustelinum is the only cotton species native to Brazil; it is endemic to the semi-arid region of the northeast. The populations are found near perennial and semi-perennial sources of water, such as ponds or pools in intermittent streams. Problems with in situ conservation derive from human interference in its habitat, mainly because of excessive cattle grazing and deforestation. Establishing efficient strategies for in situ conservation requires knowledge of the genetic structure of the populations...
2013: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Mônica Vieira de Souza, Luciana Sianto, Marcia Chame, Luiz Fernando Ferreira, Adauto Araújo
We present the results of paleoparasitological analyses in coprolites of Kerodon rupestris, rodent endemic to rocky areas of Brazil's semiarid region. The coprolites were collected from excavations at the archaeological site of Toca dos Coqueiros, in the National Park of Serra da Capivara, southeastern of state of Piauí. Syphacia sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) eggs were identified in coprolites dated at 5,300 ± 50 years before present. This is the first record of the genus Syphacia in rodent coprolites in the Americas...
June 2012: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Rute Maria Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rogério Bertani, Roberto Hiroaki Nagahama, Maria Fatima Ribeiro Barbosa
A new species of recluse spider, Loxosceles niedeguidonaesp. n., is described from the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, State of Piauí, Brazil. This is the first endemic species described from Brazilian semi-arid environment. The species is included in gaucho group of Gertsch (1967) due to its spermathecal shape and is considered close to Loxosceles chapadensis Bertani, Fukushima & Nagahama, 2010 by the unusual long male palpal tibia, a character not common for species of this group. An updated key for Loxosceles species of gaucho group is presented...
2012: ZooKeys
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