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acquired brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149149/decreased-regional-grey-matter-volume-in-women-with-chronic-whiplash-associated-disorders-relationships-with-cognitive-deficits-and-disturbed-pain-processing
#1
Iris Coppieters, Robby De Pauw, Karen Caeyenberghs, Lieven Danneels, Jeroen Kregel, Astrid Pattyn, Mira Meeus, Barbara Cagnie
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (CWAD) are characterized by pain of traumatic origin, cognitive deficits, and central sensitization (CS). Previous neuroimaging studies revealed altered grey matter volume (GMV) in mild traumatic brain injury patients and chronic pain conditions also characterized by CS. It can therefore be hypothesized that GMV alterations also play a role in the persistent complaints of CWAD. However, brain alterations remain poorly investigated in these patients...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148114/on-the-character-and-production-of-active-participation-in-neuro-rehabilitation-an-actor-network-perspective
#2
Simon Horton, Kathryn Mares, Neil Coull, Fiona Poland
The importance of patients' active involvement in neuro-rehabilitation after acquired brain injury has been consistently emphasised in recent years. However, most approaches fail to show how 'active participation' is practically enacted, focusing on individualised explanations of patient choice and behaviours, or notions of inherent patient traits. Using actor-network theory (ANT) as a sensitising concept, we investigated neuro-rehabilitation practices, asking how participation is shaped through biological and socio-material specificities, how rights to knowledge and expertise are constructed, and how a body acclimatises and adjusts within an order of participation and transformation...
November 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144107/safe-return-to-driving-following-severe-acquired-brain-injury-role-of-a-short-neuropsychological-assessment
#3
Donatella Saviola, Antonio DE Tanti, Jessica Conforti, Lucio Posteraro, Alessia Manfredini, Chiara Bagattini, Benedetta Basagni
BACKGROUND: Driving is a complex ability requiring a broad range of motor, cognitive- behavioural and visual skills that may be impaired after severe Acquired Brain Injury (sABI). Resumption of driving is perceived as a major need by patients, being closely linked to personal autonomy, work and social activities. AIM: The objective of this study was to identify a short battery of neuropsychological tests with predictive value with regard to safe return to driving after sABI...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139017/short-term-and-long-term-outcomes-of-a-vocational-rehabilitation-program-for-patients-with-acquired-brain-injury-in-the-netherlands
#4
Caroline H van Dongen, Paulien H Goossens, Inge E van Zee, Kirsten N Verpoort, Thea P M Vliet Vlieland, Judith M van Velzen
Purpose To describe short-term and long-term work status after a vocational rehabilitation (VR) program in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) in the Netherlands. Methods Patients with ABI who participated in a VR program between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. The 4-month VR program included a multidisciplinary assessment, three meetings with all stakeholders and reintegration with coaching on the job. Short-term results at the end of the VR program were based on data extracted from medical records...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132379/effects-of-somatosensory-electrical-stimulation-on-motor-function-and-cortical-oscillations
#5
Adelyn P Tu-Chan, Nikhilesh Natraj, Jason Godlove, Gary Abrams, Karunesh Ganguly
BACKGROUND: Few patients recover full hand dexterity after an acquired brain injury such as stroke. Repetitive somatosensory electrical stimulation (SES) is a promising method to promote recovery of hand function. However, studies using SES have largely focused on gross motor function; it remains unclear if it can modulate distal hand functions such as finger individuation. OBJECTIVE: The specific goal of this study was to monitor the effects of SES on individuation as well as on cortical oscillations measured using EEG, with the additional goal of identifying neurophysiological biomarkers...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131878/association-of-brain-structure-changes-and-cognitive-function-with-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#6
Ryan Sanford, Lesley K Fellows, Beau M Ances, D Louis Collins
Importance: Despite the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continue to be a problem for treated HIV-positive individuals. The cause of this impairment remains unclear. Objective: To determine if detectable brain changes occur during a 2-year period in HIV-positive individuals who were aviremic and treated with cART. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this longitudinal case-control study, participants underwent neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment approximately 2 years apart...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130506/animal-models-of-acquired-epilepsy-insights-into-mechanisms-of-human-epileptogenesis
#7
Albert J Becker
In many patients who suffer from epilepsies, recurrent epileptic seizures do not start at birth but develop later in life. This holds particularly true for epilepsies with a focal seizure origin including focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). TLE most frequently has its seizure onset in the hippocampal formation. Hippocampal biopsies of pharmacoresistant TLE patients undergoing epilepsy surgery for seizure control most frequently reveal the damage pattern of hippocampal sclerosis, i...
November 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128284/-brain-injury-knowledge-in-family-members-of-neurosurgical-patients
#8
Blanca Navarro-Main, Ana M Castaño-León, Pablo M Munarriz, Pedro A Gómez, Marcos Rios-Lago, Alfonso Lagares
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several studies have shown misconceptions about brain injury in different populations. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and perceptions about brain injury of family members of neurosurgical patients in our hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The participants (n=81) were relatives of patients admitted to the neurosurgery department between February and August 2016. They voluntarily completed a 19-item true-false format survey about brain injury based on a translation of other questionnaires used in previous studies from other countries (USA, Canada, UK, Ireland and New Zealand)...
November 8, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115864/inter-and-intra-tester-reliability-of-the-acute-brain-injury-physiotherapy-assessment-abipa-in-patients-with-acquired-brain-injury
#9
Janelle M Gesch, Nancy L Low Choy, Benjamin K Weeks, Margarida Nascimento, Michael Steele, Suzanne S Kuys
BACKGROUND: The Acute Brain Injury Physiotherapy Assessment (ABIPA) is a new outcome measure with face validity and sensitivity to change in the early stages of neuromotor recovery after acquired brain injury (ABI). Reliability of physiotherapists using the tool has not been established. OBJECTIVE: Determine inter- and intra-tester reliability of physiotherapists using the ABIPA. METHODS: An observational study using video-recorded assessments of patient performance (n = 7) was undertaken with two cohorts of physiotherapists: those receiving training (n = 23) and those provided with guidelines only (n = 7) to administer the ABIPA...
November 8, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108478/evaluation-of-a-computer-based-prompting-intervention-to-improve-essay-writing-in-undergraduates-with-cognitive-impairment-after-acquired-brain-injury
#10
Alexander K Ledbetter, McKay Moore Sohlberg, Stephen F Fickas, Mark A Horney, Kent McIntosh
This study evaluated a computer-based prompting intervention for improving expository essay writing after acquired brain injury (ABI). Four undergraduate participants aged 18-21 with mild-moderate ABI and impaired fluid cognition at least 6 months post-injury reported difficulty with the writing process after injury. The study employed a non-concurrent multiple probe across participants, in a single-case design. Outcome measures included essay quality scores and number of revisions to writing counted then coded by type using a revision taxonomy...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105061/annual-research-review-not-just-a-small-adult-brain-understanding-later-neurodevelopment-through-imaging-the-neonatal-brain
#11
REVIEW
Dafnis Batalle, A David Edwards, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh
BACKGROUND: There has been a recent proliferation in neuroimaging research focusing on brain development in the prenatal, neonatal and very early childhood brain. Early brain injury and preterm birth are associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, indicating the importance of this early period for later outcome. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY: Although using a wide range of different methodologies and investigating diverse samples, the common aim of many of these studies has been to both track normative development and investigate deviations in this development to predict behavioural, cognitive and neurological function in childhood...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103422/novel-inflammatory-neuropathology-in-immature-brain-1-fetal-tuberous-sclerosis-2-febrile-seizures-3-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-and-4-role-of-astrocytes
#12
Harvey B Sarnat, Morris H Scantlebury
Though the term "inflammation" is traditionally defined as proliferation or infiltration of lymphatic cells of the lymphatic immune system and macrophages or as immunoreactive proteins including cytokines, interleukins and major histocompatibility complexes, recently recognized reactions to tissue injury also are inflammation, often occurring in the central nervous system in conditions where they previously were not anticipated and where they may play a role in both pathogenesis and repair. We highlight 4 such novel inflammatory conditions revealed by neuropathologic studies: (1) inflammatory markers and cells in the brain of human fetuses with tuberous sclerosis complex and perhaps other disorders of the mechanistic target of rapamycin genetic or metabolic pathway, (2) inflammatory markers in the brain related to febrile seizures of infancy and early childhood, (3) heat-shock protein upregulation in glial cells and neurons at sites of chronic epileptic foci, and (4) the emerging role of astrocytes in the presence of and participation in inflammation...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101080/the-secretome-of-microglia-regulate-neural-stem-cell-function
#13
Ahmed M Osman, Johanna Rodhe, Xianli Shen, Cecilia A Dominguez, Bertrand Joseph, Klas Blomgren
Brain injury is associated with neuroinflammation, and microglia are key players in this process. Microglia can acquire pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory properties, but how this affects neural stem cells (NSCs) remains controversial. Here, NSCs were grown in conditioned media collected from either non-stimulated microglia, or microglia stimulated with pro- or anti-inflammatory agents. NSC survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation were investigated thereafter. We found that NSCs kept in conditioned medium from the anti-inflammatory microglial subtype had better survival, increased migration, and lower astrocytic differentiation compared to NSCs grown in conditioned medium collected from the pro-inflammatory subtype...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089437/transient-hypoxemia-chronically-disrupts-maturation-of-preterm-fetal-ovine-subplate-neuron-arborization-and-activity
#14
Evelyn McClendon, Daniel C Shaver, Kiera Degener-O'Brien, Xi Gong, Thuan Nguyen, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Zoltán Molnár, Claudia Mohr, Ben D Richardson, David J Rossi, Stephen A Back
Preterm infants are at risk for a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral disabilities associated with diffuse disturbances in cortical growth and development. During brain development, subplate neurons (SPNs) are a largely transient population that serves a critical role to establish functional cortical circuits. By dynamically integrating into developing cortical circuits they assist in consolidation of intra and extracortical circuits. Although SPNs reside in close proximity to cerebral white matter, which is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, the susceptibility of SPNs remains controversial...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083267/-shared-destiny-the-dynamics-of-relationships-in-families-of-patients-with-brain-injury
#15
Einav Segev, Miriam Levinger, Yael Hochman
This qualitative research focused on the relationships between family members of patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The aim was to explore the dynamics between caregivers of the family member with a brain injury during rehabilitation hospitalization, and the relationships between them and the rest of the extended family. Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted with family members. In each family, the spouse of the patient and another family member involved in caregiving were interviewed. The importance of the relationships between family members during rehabilitation hospitalization justifies the examination undertaken in this research...
October 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064304/introducing-the-model-of-cognitive-communication-competence-a-model-to-guide-evidence-based-communication-interventions-after-brain-injury
#16
Sheila MacDonald
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Communication impairments associated with acquired brain injury (ABI) are devastating in their impact on family, community, social, academic, and vocational participation. Despite international evidence-based guidelines for communication interventions, evidence practice gaps include under identification of communication deficits, infrequent referrals, and inadequate treatment to realize functional communication outcomes. Evidence-informed communication intervention requires synthesis of abundant interdisciplinary research...
October 24, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064019/stability-of-mri-metrics-in-the-advanced-research-core-of-the-ncaa-dod-concussion-assessment-research-and-education-care-consortium
#17
Andrew S Nencka, Timothy B Meier, Yang Wang, L Tugan Muftuler, Yu-Chien Wu, Andrew J Saykin, Jaroslaw Harezlak, M Alison Brooks, Christopher C Giza, John Difiori, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Jason P Mihalik, Stephen M LaConte, Stefan M Duma, Steven Broglio, Thomas McAllister, Michael A McCrea, Kevin M Koch
The NCAA-DoD Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) consortium is performing a large-scale, comprehensive study of sport related concussions in college student-athletes and military service academy cadets. The CARE "Advanced Research Core" (ARC), is focused on executing a cutting-edge investigative protocol on a subset of the overall CARE athlete population. Here, we present the details of the CARE ARC MRI acquisition and processing protocol along with preliminary analyzes of within-subject, between-site, and between-subject stability across a variety of MRI biomarkers...
October 24, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060942/family-and-home-in-cognitive-rehabilitation-after-brain-injury-the-importance-of-family-oriented-interventions
#18
Camilla Wulf-Andersen, Jesper Mogensen
Acquired brain injury (ABI) severely affects both the injured patient and her/his family. This fact alone calls for a therapeutic approach addressing not only the individual victim of ABI but also her/his family. Additionally, the optimal outcome of posttraumatic cognitive rehabilitation may be best obtained by supplementing the institution-based cognitive training with home-based training. Moving cognitive training and other therapeutic interventions into the home environment does, however, constitute an additional challenge to the family structure and psychological wellbeing of all family members...
2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055271/neurocysticercosis-as-an-infectious-acquired-epilepsy-worldwide
#19
REVIEW
Doodipala Samba Reddy, Randy Volkmer
Aside from brain injury and genetic causes, there is emerging information on brain infection and inflammation as a common cause of epilepsy. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the most common cause of epilepsy worldwide, is caused by brain cysts from the Taenia solium tapeworm. In this article, we provide a critical analysis of current and emerging information on the relationship between NCC infection and epilepsy occurrence. We searched PubMed and other databases for reports on the prevalence of NCC and incidence of epilepsy in certain regions worldwide...
November 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045569/altered-expression-of-reorganized-inputs-as-they-ascend-from-the-cuneate-nucleus-to-cortical-area-3b-in-monkeys-with-long-term-spinal-cord-injuries
#20
Priyabrata Halder, Niranjan Kambi, Prem Chand, Neeraj Jain
Chronic deafferentations in adult mammals result in reorganization of the brain. Lesions of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord at cervical levels in monkeys result in expansion of the intact chin inputs into the deafferented hand representation in area 3b, second somatosensory (S2) and parietal ventral (PV) areas of the somatosensory cortex, ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus, and cuneate nucleus of the brainstem. Here, we describe the extent and nature of reorganization of the cuneate and gracile nuclei of adult macaque monkeys with chronic unilateral lesions of the dorsal columns, and compare it with the reorganization of area 3b in the same monkeys...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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