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Mehdi Farokhnia, Mikela B Sheskier, Mary R Lee, April N Le, Erick Singley, Sofia Bouhlal, Timmy Ton, Zhen Zhao, Lorenzo Leggio
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, plays an important role in biobehavioral processes that regulate alcohol seeking, food intake, and stress response. The metabotropic GABA-B receptor has been investigated as a potential therapeutic target for alcohol use disorder, by using orthosteric agonists (e.g., baclofen) and positive allosteric modulators. Whether and how pharmacological manipulation of the GABA-B receptor, in combination with alcohol intake, may affect feeding- and stress-related neuroendocrine pathways remains unknown...
April 14, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Qian Wang, Xin Sui, Rui Chen, Peiyong Ma, Tao Ding, Dianjun Sui, Ping Yang
This study aims to investigate whether the molecular mechanisms by which Ghrelin inhibits cardiac fibrosis are linked to the NADPH oxidase-ROS signaling pathway. Adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham, myocardial infarction (MI), MI + Ghrelin (100 μg/kg, twice daily, subcutaneous for 4 weeks beginning 24 h post-MI), or Ghrelin alone. Adult rat cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were isolated and pretreated with or without Ghrelin for 24 h, followed by stimulation with or without angiotensin II (Ang II) for another 24 h...
April 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Roberta Lupoli, Annalisa Creanza, Ettore Griffo, Gerardo Nardone, Alba Rocco, Lutgarda Bozzetto, Giovanni Annuzzi, Gabriele Riccardi, Brunella Capaldo
Context: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with gastrointestinal (GI) motility dysfunction, ranging from delayed to accelerated gastric emptying (GE). Objective: To evaluate GE in type 1 DM (T1DM) patients without chronic complications and to investigate its relation with postprandial glucose and GI hormones responses. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting/Participants: Forty-two T1DM patients free of chronic complications referred to "Federico II" University and 31 healthy controls comparable for age, gender and BMI...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Qingjie Li, Quan Yu, Li Lin, Heng Zhang, Miao Peng, Chunxia Jing, Geyang Xu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) regulates fatty acid storage, glucose metabolism, and food intake. Ghrelin, a gastric hormone, provides a hunger signal to the central nervous system to stimulate appetite. However, the effects of PPARγ on ghrelin production are still unclear. In the present study, the effects of PPARγ on ghrelin production were examined in lean- or high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice and mHypoE-42 cells, a hypothalamic cell line. 3rd intracerebroventricular injection of adenoviral-directed overexpression of PPARγ (Ad-PPARγ) reduced hypothalamic and plasma ghrelin, food intake in both lean C57BL/6J mice and diet-induced obese mice...
April 9, 2018: Neuropeptides
Muhammad I Ul Akbar Yousufzai, Elia S Harmatz, Mohsin Shah, Muhammad O Malik, Ki A Goosens
Prolonged stressor exposure in adolescence enhances the risk of developing stress-sensitive mental illnesses, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for many years following exposure cessation, but the biological underpinnings of this long-term vulnerability are unknown. We show that severe stressor exposure increased circulating levels of the hormone acyl-ghrelin in adolescent rats for at least 130 days and in adolescent humans for at least 4.5 years. Using a rodent model of longitudinal PTSD vulnerability in which rodents with a history of stressor exposure during adolescence display enhanced fear in response to fear conditioning administered weeks after stressor exposure ends, we show that systemic delivery of a ghrelin receptor antagonist for 4 weeks surrounding stressor exposure (2 weeks during and 2 weeks following) prevented stress-enhanced fear memory...
April 11, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
M Zhang, X Zhu, X Xu, X Jin, H Bao, S Dugeer, C Du, G Cao, Y Yang
Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide, which has been identified as an endogenous ligand for the GH-sretagogue receptor. The sequence and expression of ghrelin has been determined in many species. In this study, to reveal the molecular characterization and expression patterns of ghrelin in the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), the full-length DNA and cDNA encoding ghrelin were cloned from reindeer stomach using genome walking and rapid amplification of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid ends (RACE)...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Nara Szostaczuk, Juana Sánchez, Jadwiga Konieczna, Andreu Palou, Catalina Picó
Introduction: Gestational under nutrition in rats has been shown to decrease expression of sympathetic innervation markers in peripheral tissues of offspring, including the stomach. This has been linked to lower gastric secretion and decreased circulating levels of ghrelin. Considering the critical role of leptin intake during lactation in preventing obesity and reversing adverse developmental programming effects, we aimed to find out whether leptin supplementation may reverse the above mentioned alterations caused by mild gestational calorie restriction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ali Kordzadeh, Bruno Lorenzi, Muhammad A Hanif, Alexandros Charalabopoulos
BACKGROUND: Endovascular left gastric artery (LGA) embolisation has gained significant attention in the treatment of obesity/morbid obesity and reduction of ghrelin. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the recent literature, strengths, limitations and practical aspects of this new procedure in combination with its physiological and anatomical paradigm. METHODS: A systematic electronic search of literature from 1966 to June 2017 in Medline, CINHAL, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane library in English language and adult subjects was conducted...
April 3, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Gioacchini Giorgia, Ciani Elia, Pessina Andrea, Cecchini Cinzia, Silvi Stefania, Rodiles Ana, Merrifield L Daniel, Olivotto Ike, Carnevali Oliana
In the present study, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus was used as experimental model to study the molecular effects of a new probiotic preparation, Lactogen 13 (Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® encapsulated with vegetable fat matrices by spray chilling and further indicated as probiotic microgranules), on growth and appetite during larval development. Probiotic microgranules were administered for 30 days to tilapia larvae starting from first feeding. Molecular analysis using high-throughput sequencing revealed that the probiotic could populate the gastrointestinal tract and modulate the microbial communities by significantly increasing the proportion of Lactobacillus as well as reducing the proportion of potential pathogens such as members of the Family Microbacteriaceae, Legionellaceae, and Weeksellaceae...
April 4, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Raul M Luque, Rhonda D Kineman
Neuronostatin, a somatostatin gene-encoded peptide, exerts important physiological and metabolic actions in diverse tissues. However, the direct biological effects of neuronostatin on pituitary function of humans and primates are still unknown. This study used baboon (Papio anubis) primary pituitary cell cultures, a species that closely models human physiology, to demonstrate that neuronostatin inhibits basal, but not ghrelin-/GnRH-stimulated, GH and LH secretion in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, without affecting the secretion of other pituitary hormones (prolactin, ACTH, FSH, TSH) or changing mRNA levels...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Kensuke Nakajima, Shigeru Oiso, Hiroko Kariyazono
Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide hormone produced in the stomach. The major active form is octanoylated ghrelin, which is modified with an n-octanoic acid at the serine-3 residue. Inhibition of octanoylated ghrelin production is useful for the prevention and improvement of obesity. We previously developed a cell-based assay system employing a ghrelin-expressing cell line, AGS-GHRL8, and found various compounds that decreased octanoylated ghrelin levels using this system. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) is a bioactive catechin in green tea and reportedly has an anti-obesity effect; however, it remains unclear whether EGCG inhibits octanoylated ghrelin production...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Julie Iven, Jessica R Biesiekierski, Dongxing Zhao, Eveline Deloose, Owen G O'Daly, Inge Depoortere, Jan Tack, Lukas Van Oudenhove
OBJECTIVES: Intragastric bitter tastants may decrease appetite and food intake. We aimed to investigate the gut-brain signaling and brain mechanisms underlying these effects. METHODS: Brain responses to intragastric quinine-hydrochloride (QHCl, 10 µmol/kg) or placebo infusion were recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 15 healthy women. Appetite-related sensations, plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones and hedonic food intake (ad libitum drink test) were assessed...
April 2, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Maddalena Marchiò, Laura Roli, Carmela Giordano, Tommaso Trenti, Azzurra Guerra, Giuseppe Biagini
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gastric hormones ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin have been found to be altered in patients treated with antiepileptic drugs. However, it is unknown if these hormones could be modified by other antiepileptic treatments, such as the ketogenic diet. Especially, a reduction in ghrelin levels could be relevant in view of the growth retardation observed under ketogenic diet treatment. For this reason we aimed to determine the changes in ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin plasma levels in children affected by refractory epilepsy and treated with the ketogenic diet up to 90 days...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
F Coppedè, M Seghieri, A Stoccoro, E Santini, L Giannini, C Rossi, L Migliore, A Solini
PURPOSE: Epigenetic traits are influenced by clinical variables; interaction between DNA methylation (DNAmeth) and bariatric surgery-induced weight loss has been scarcely explored. We investigated whether DNAmeth of genes encoding for molecules/hormones regulating appetite, food intake or obesity could predict successful weight outcome following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Forty-five obese individuals with no known comorbidities were stratified accordingly to weight decrease one-year after RYGB (excess weight loss, EWL ≥ 50%: good responders, GR; EWL < 50%: worse responders, WR)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Bodil Ohlsson, Gassan Darwiche, Bodil Roth, Peter Höglund
Background: An Okinawa-based Nordic diet with moderately low carbohydrate content and high fat and protein content has been shown to improve anthropometry and metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Objective: The objectives of this study were to measure plasma or serum levels of hormones regulating energy metabolism and metabolic control, that is, cholecystokinin (CCK), Cortisol, C-peptide, ghrelin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), insulin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), polypeptide YY (PYY), resistin, and visfatin after this diet intervention, and to determine partial correlations between hormonal levels and anthropometric and metabolic responses...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Mlindeli Gamede, Lindokuhle Mabuza, Phikelelani Ngubane, Andile Khathi
Prolonged exposure to high energy diets has been implicated in the development of pre-diabetes, a long-lasting condition that precedes type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A combination of pharmacological and dietary interventions is used to prevent the progression of pre-diabetes to T2DM. However, poor patient compliance leads to negligence of the dietary intervention and thus reduced drug efficiency. Oleanolic acid (OA) has been reported to possess anti-diabetic effects in type 1 diabetic rats. However, the effects of this compound on pre-diabetes have not yet been established...
March 29, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Vijayakumar Sukumaran, Hirotsugu Tsuchimochi, Yutaka Fujii, Hiroshi Hosoda, Kenji Kangawa, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Mikiyasu Shirai, Eisuke Tatsumi, James T Pearson
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induced systemic inflammation significantly contributes to the development of postoperative complications, including respiratory failure, myocardial, renal and neurological dysfunction and ultimately can lead to failure of multiple organs. Ghrelin is a small endogenous peptide with wide ranging physiological effects on metabolism and cardiovascular regulation. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of ghrelin against CPB-induced inflammatory reactions, oxidative stress and acute organ damage...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Miki Itai, Yuki Kuwano, Tatsuya Nishikawa, Kazuhito Rokutan, Nishida Kensei
Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is a chaperon inducer that protects various types of cell and tissue against stress. We examined whether GGA modulated energy intake and expenditure under stressful conditions. After mice were untreated or treated orally with GGA (0.16 g per kg body weight per day) for 10 days, they were subjected to 2-h restraint stress once or once a day for 5 consecutive days. GGA administration did not affect corticosterone response to the stress. Restraint stress rapidly decreased plasma leptin levels in control mice...
2018: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
Sarah J Terrill, Kaylee D Wall, Nelson D Medina, Calyn B Maske, Diana L Williams
The hormone ghrelin promotes eating and is widely considered to be a hunger signal. Ghrelin receptors, growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSRs), are found in a number of specific regions throughout the brain, including the lateral septum (LS), an area not traditionally associated with the control of feeding. Here we investigated whether GHSRs in the LS play a role in the control of food intake. We examined the feeding effects of ghrelin and the GHSR antagonists ([D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and JMV 2959), at doses subthreshold for effect when delivered to the lateral ventricle...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Sascha Hunschede, Alexander Schwartz, Ruslan Kubant, Scott G Thomas, G Harvey Anderson
BACKGROUND: Our previous study showed that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is associated with a suppression of appetite after high-intensity exercise (HIEX), but an independent role within food intake (FI) was not defined. HYPOTHESIS: IL-6 after HIEX (75% VO2peak) is independent of appetite-hormones in suppressing appetite and FI in normal-weight (NW) boys. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of HIEX, with and without the inflammation inhibitor, ibuprofen (IBU), on IL-6 and selective biomarkers of inflammation and appetite on FI and ratings of appetite in NW boys...
March 28, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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