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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457848/effects-of-chronic-heat-exposure-on-growth-performance-intestinal-epithelial-histology-appetite-related-hormones-and-genes-expression-in-broilers
#1
Xiaofang He, Zhuang Lu, Bingbing Ma, Lin Zhang, Jiaolong Li, Yun Jiang, Guanghong Zhou, Feng Gao
BACKGROUND: Heat stress often occurs in the modern poultry industry, which impairs growth performance, particularly via reducing appetite. This study was aimed to investigate the mechanism of attenuating appetite by chronic heat exposure in broilers. A total of 144 broilers (28-d-old) were allocated to three groups containing normal control (NC, 22°C), heat stress (HS, 32°C), and pair-fed (PF, 22°C) group. RESULTS: Chronic heat exposure significantly increased cloacal temperatures and respiration rates, decreased the average daily feed intake and average daily gain, increased feed to gain ratio compared to NC group, and elevated the concentrations of ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) both in serum and intestine, as well as peptide YY and somatostatin in intestine on 35-or 42-d-old broilers...
February 19, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457516/effects-of-chocolate-based-products-intake-on-blood-glucose-insulin-and-ghrelin-levels-and-on-satiety-in-young-people-a-cross-over-experimental-study
#2
Cai-Xia Zhang, Wei-Qing Long, Yan-Bin Ye, Min-Shan Lu, Nai-Qi Zhang, Ming Xu, Jing Huang, Yi-Xiang Su
This cross-over experimental study aimed to examine the effects of filled chocolate consumption on blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels in 20 volunteers. After a one-week run-in period, study participants consumed two chocolate-based products, the tested biscuit or water for 21 days as a morning snack. After a two-week wash-out period, participants consumed another tested food for another 21 days. Each participant consumed all four test foods within an 18-week period. The participants' blood insulin increased slowly after two chocolate-based products intakes on the first day and satiety levels after eating chocolate-based products and the tested biscuit were the same...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456490/limited-access-to-a-high-fat-diet-alters-endocannabinoid-tone-in-female-rats
#3
Valentina Satta, Maria Scherma, Fabiana Piscitelli, Paolo Usai, M Paola Castelli, Tiziana Bisogno, Walter Fratta, Paola Fadda
Emerging evidence suggest an impaired endocannabinoid activity in the pathophysiology of binge eating disorder (BED). Herein, we investigated whether endocannabinoid tone could be modified as a consequence of dietary-induced binge eating in female rats. For this purpose, brain levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), as well as two endocannabinoid-like lipids, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), were assessed in different brain areas involved in the hedonic feeding (i...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453692/unacylated-ghrelin-and-obestatin-in-pediatric-ckd-are-they-important-in-protein-energy-wasting
#4
EDITORIAL
Zhen Wang, Eduardo A Oliveira, Robert H Mak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453460/development-and-initial-characterization-of-a-novel-ghrelin-receptor-crispr-cas9-knockout-wistar-rat-model
#5
L J Zallar, B J Tunstall, C T Richie, Y J Zhang, Z B You, E L Gardner, M Heilig, J Pickel, G F Koob, L F Vendruscolo, B K Harvey, L Leggio
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ghrelin, a stomach-derived hormone implicated in numerous behaviors including feeding, reward, stress, and addictive behaviors, acts by binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Here, we present the development, verification, and initial characterization of a novel GHSR knockout (KO) Wistar rat model created with CRISPR genome editing. METHODS: Using CRISPR/Cas9, we developed a GHSR KO in a Wistar background. Loss of GHSR mRNA expression was histologically verified using RNAscope in wild-type (WT; n = 2) and KO (n = 2) rats...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450407/changes-in-the-cardiac-ghsr1a-ghrelin-system-correlate-with-myocardial-dysfunction-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-in-mice
#6
Rebecca Sullivan, Rebecca McGirr, Shirley Hu, Alice Tan, Derek Wu, Carlie Charron, Tyler Lalonde, Edith Arany, Subrata Chakrabarti, Leonard Luyt, Savita Dhanvantari
Ghrelin and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), are present in cardiac tissue. Activation of GHSR1a by ghrelin promotes cardiomyocyte contractility and survival, and changes in myocardial GHSR1a and circulating ghrelin track with end-stage heart failure, leading to the hypothesis that GHSR1a is a biomarker for heart failure. We hypothesized that GHSR1a could also be a biomarker for diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We used two models of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DCM: group 1, adult mice treated with 35 mg/kg STZ for 3 days; and group 2, neonatal mice treated with 70 mg/kg STZ at days 2 and 5 after birth...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447000/ghrelin-prevents-cardiac-cell-apoptosis-during-cardiac-remodelling-post-experimentally-induced-myocardial-infarction-in-rats-via-activation-of-raf-mek1-2-erk1-2-signalling
#7
Refaat A Eid, Mahmoud A Alkhateeb, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Samy M Eleawa, Abdullah S Shatoor, Attalla Farag El-Kott, Mohamed Samir Ahmed Zaki, Khalid A Shatoor, Ismaeel Bin-Jaliah, Fahaid H Al-Hashem
CONTEXT: Mechanisms by which ghrelin affords its cardioprotection in mammals remained unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine if ghrelin confers cardio-protection during cardiac remodelling post-MI by modulating the RAF-1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signalling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into control, sham, sham + ghrelin, myocardial infarction (MI), and MI + ghrelin groups. Ghrelin (100 µg/kg) was administered for 21 days, starting one-day post-MI...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441654/effect-of-rivastigmine-on-plasma-butyrylcholine-esterase-activity-and-plasma-ghrelin-levels-in-patients-with-dementia-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Atsushi Kuroda, Manabu Setoguchi, Yasushi Uchino, Kazuya Nagata, Daisuke Hokonohara
AIM: Alzheimer's disease causes loss of appetite, resulting in bodyweight reduction. This, in turn, causes progression of cognitive dysfunction and physical complications that hasten death. Earlier care for loss of appetite is essential in Alzheimer's disease management. Rivastigmine is a therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease that has dual inhibition effects on acetylcholine esterase and butyrylcholine esterase. Butyrylcholine esterase is known to degrade the gastric hormone, ghrelin, which regulates appetite; therefore, we considered that rivastigmine might have an effect on appetite...
February 14, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436604/cav-1-2-and-cav-2-2-expression-is-regulated-by-different-endogenous-ghrelin-levels-in-pancreatic-acinar-cells-during-acute-pancreatitis
#9
Jie Zhou, Mengbin Qin, Huilin Wang, Jiaping He, Hongzong Fu, Huirong Shi, Zhihai Liang, Guodu Tang
Ghrelin influences pancreatic endocrine and exocrine functions, regulates intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i levels, and has an anti-inflammatory role in acute pancreatitis. This study investigated the role of endogenous ghrelin in the expression of Cav 1.2 (L-type of Ca2+ channel) and Cav 2.2 (N-type of Ca2+ channel) in acute pancreatitis. For this purpose, acute edematous pancreatitis (AEP) and acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) rat models were established. Cav 1.2 and Cav 2.2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in the pancreatic tissues of rats; ghrelin, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) serum levels were detected using ELISA...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435908/differences-in-metabolic-factors-between-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain-and-non-pharmacological-obesity%C3%A2-in-youths
#10
Simone Pisano, Giangennaro Coppola, Gennaro Catone, Marco Carotenuto, Raffaella Iuliano, Vittoria D'Esposito, Serena Cabaro, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Carmela Bravaccio, Pietro Formisano
BACKGROUND: Youth exposed to antipsychotics may experience several metabolic consequences that often limit the effectiveness of this class of drugs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare several metabolic markers between subjects who experienced antipsychotic-induced weight gain and untreated obese patients. METHODS: Nineteen non-diabetic youth (mean age 159 months, mean body mass index z-score 1.81) experiencing antipsychotic-induced weight gain and an age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched group of non-diabetic obese patients with no record of treatment (n = 19, mean age 147 months, mean body mass index z-score 2) were compared for a wide range of metabolic factors using a Bioplex Multiplex system...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433631/ampk-signaling-to-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-is-required-for-fasting-and-cold-induced-appetite-but-not-thermogenesis
#11
Sandra Galic, Kim Loh, Lisa Murray-Segal, Gregory R Steinberg, Zane B Andrews, Bruce E Kemp
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a known regulator of whole-body energy homeostasis, but the downstream AMPK substrates mediating these effects are not entirely clear. AMPK inhibits fatty acid synthesis and promotes fatty acid oxidation by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 at Ser 79 and ACC2 at Ser 212 . Using mice with Ser 79 Ala/Ser 212 Ala knock-in mutations (ACC DKI) we find that inhibition of ACC phosphorylation leads to reduced appetite in response to fasting or cold exposure. At sub-thermoneutral temperatures, ACC DKI mice maintain normal energy expenditure and thermogenesis, but fail to increase appetite and lose weight...
February 13, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431535/differences-in-the-postprandial-release-of-appetite-related-hormones-between-active-and-inactive-men
#12
Linn Bøhler, Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Jens F Rehfeld, Linda Morgan, Catia Martins
Active, as opposed to inactive, individuals are able to adjust their energy intake after preloads of different energy content. The mechanisms responsible for this remain unknown. This study examined differences in plasma concentration of appetite-related hormones in response to breakfasts of different energy content, between active and inactive men. 16 healthy non-obese (BMI 18.5-27 kg/m 2 ) adult males (9 active, 7 inactive), participated in the study. Participants were given a high- (HE, 570 kcal) or a low-energy (LE, 205 kcal) breakfast in random order...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431471/appetite-suppression-and-altered-food-preferences-coincide-with-changes-in-appetite-mediating-hormones-during-energy-deficit-at-high-altitude-but-are-not-affected-by-protein-intake
#13
J Philip Karl, Renee E Cole, Claire E Berryman, Graham Finlayson, Patrick N Radcliffe, Matthew T Kominsky, Nancy E Murphy, John W Carbone, Jennifer C Rood, Andrew J Young, Stefan M Pasiakos
Karl, J. Philip, Renee E. Cole, Claire E. Berryman, Graham Finlayson, Patrick N. Radcliffe, Matthew T. Kominsky, Nancy E. Murphy, John W. Carbone, Jennifer C. Rood, Andrew J. Young, and Stefan M. Pasiakos. Appetite Suppression and Altered Food Preferences Coincide with Changes in Appetite-Mediating Hormones During Energy Deficit at High Altitude, But Are Not Affected by Protein Intake. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018.-Anorexia and unintentional body weight loss are common during high altitude (HA) sojourn, but underlying mechanisms are not fully characterized, and the impact of dietary macronutrient composition on appetite regulation at HA is unknown...
February 12, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429454/-association-of-leptin-adiponectin-and-ghrelin-in-breast-milk-with-the-growth-of-infants-with-exclusive-breastfeeding
#14
Li-Li Huang, Fan Yang, Fei Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin in breast milk with the weight growth velocity of infants with exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: A total of 67 full-term singleton infants who received regular child care and exclusive breastfeeding and their mothers were enrolled. The nutritional status was evaluated based on the measurements of body weight and body length (underweight, growth retardation, emaciation, overweight, and obesity)...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429367/obestatin-protects-and-reverses-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-its-associated-insulin-resistance-in-rats-via-inhibition-of-food-intake-enhancing-hepatic-adiponectin-signaling-and-blocking-ghrelin-acylation
#15
Eman F Khaleel, Ghada A Abdel-Aleem
This study investigated the ameliorative and protective effects of long-term obestatin administration (80 nmol/kg/ intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)) on the pathogenesis of high-fat diet (HFD) induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. Rats (n = 8/group) were divided as control, NAFLD, NAFLD + Simvastatin, NAFLD + obestatin, NAFLD then obestatin, and obestatin then NAFLD. Obestatin co -or post-therapy significantly reduced hepatomegaly and reversed hyperlipidemia, hepatic lipid accumulation, and insulin resistance (IR)...
February 10, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427691/subjective-satiety-and-plasma-pyy-concentration-after-wholemeal-pasta
#16
Giuseppina Costabile, Ettore Griffo, Paola Cipriano, Claudia Vetrani, Marilena Vitale, Gianfranco Mamone, Angela A Rivellese, Gabriele Riccardi, Rosalba Giacco
Dietary fiber and whole grain foods may contribute to the regulation of appetite; however, evidence has produced inconclusive findings. The objective was to evaluate the effects of an experimental wholemeal pasta on appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones involved in appetite control, and postprandial glucose/insulin responses in healthy adults. Fourteen healthy adults (7M/7F), mean age 30 ± 2 yrs (mean ± SEM), participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial...
February 7, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421580/ghrelin-attenuates-ultraviolet-b-radiation-induced-impairment-in-capacities-of-epidermal-stem-cells
#17
Yue-Hui Wang, Cheng-Kuan Sun, Xiang-Lan Li, Yan Huang, Jing Sun
Persistent exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) causes continuous damages to skin, including progressive impairment of epidermal stem cells (ESCs) capacities. Ghrelin is the only known endogenous orexigenic hormone, which has displayed its various pharmacological functions. In the current study, we found that the specific receptor of ghrelin, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is expressed in ESCs. Interestingly, GHS-R expression is significantly upregulated in response to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation...
February 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420992/food-acceptability-affects-ghrelin-and-insulin-levels-in-healthy-male-subjects-a-pilot-study
#18
Ammar Olabi, Nahla Hwalla, Hamza Daroub, Omar Obeid, Christelle Cordahi
The obesity prevalence worldwide is reaching epidemic proportions, which makes the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate appetite of paramount importance. This study assessed whether the hedonic characteristics of a food item (high acceptability [HA] vs modified low acceptability [LA]) have a significant effect on postprandial ghrelin and insulin levels and appetite scores of isoenergetic meals in normal-weight men. We hypothesize that food acceptability would significantly impact appetite scores and affect the studied postprandial hormones...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416634/loss-of-epithelium-specific-gpx2-results-in-aberrant-cell-fate-decisions-during-intestinal-differentiation
#19
Claudia Lennicke, Jette Rahn, Claudia Wickenhauser, Rudolf Lichtenfels, Andreas S Müller, Ludger A Wessjohann, Anna P Kipp, Barbara Seliger
The selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2) is expressed in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract, where it is thought to be involved in maintaining mucosal homeostasis. To gain novel insights into the role of GPx2, proteomic profiles of colonic tissues either derived from wild type (WT) or GPx2 knockout (KO) mice, maintained under selenium (Se) deficiency or adequate Se supplementation conditions were established and analyzed. Amongst the panel of differentially expressed proteins, the calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) was significantly down-regulated in GPx2 KO versus WT mice regardless of the given Se status...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412824/ghrelin-regulation-of-glucose-metabolism
#20
Anne-Laure Poher, Matthias H Tschöp, Timo D Müller
The a 28-amino acid peptide ghrelin was discovered in 1999 as a growth hormone (GH) releasing peptide. Soon after its discovery, ghrelin was found to increase body weight and adiposity by acting on the hypothalamic melanocortinergic system. Subsequently, ghrelin was found to exert a series of metabolic effects, overall testifying ghrelin a pleiotropic nature of broad pharmacological interest. Ghrelin acts through the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R), a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor with high expression in the anterior pituitary, pancreatic islets, thyroid gland, heart and various regions of the brain...
February 2018: Peptides
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