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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818457/relationship-between-sleep-duration-and-childhood-obesity-systematic-review-including-the-potential-underlying-mechanisms
#1
R Felső, S Lohner, K Hollódy, É Erhardt, D Molnár
AIM: The prevalence of obesity is continually increasing worldwide. Determining risk factors for obesity may facilitate effective preventive programs. The present review focuses on sleep duration as a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. The aim is to summarize the evidence on the association of sleep duration and obesity and to discuss the underlying potential physiological and/or pathophysiological mechanisms. DATA SYNTHESIS: The Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched for papers using text words with appropriate truncation and relevant indexing terms...
July 25, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814950/morinda-citrifolia-l-leaf-extract-prevent-weight-gain-in-sprague-dawley-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#2
Najla Gooda Sahib Jambocus, Amin Ismail, Alfi Khatib, Fawzi Mahomoodally, Nazamid Saari, Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz, Azizah Abdul Hamid
Background: Morinda citrifolia L. is widely used as a folk medicinal food plant to manage a panoply of diseases, though no concrete reports on its potential anti-obesity activity. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of M. citrifolia leaf extracts (MLE60) in the prevention of weight gain in vivo and establish its phytochemical profile. Design: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups based on a normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD), with or without MLE60 supplementation (150 and 350 mg/kg body weight) and assessed for any reduction in weight gain...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814486/serum-ghrelin-is-associated-with-risk-of-colorectal-adenocarcinomas-in-the-atbc-study
#3
Gwen Murphy, Amanda J Cross, Sanford M Dawsey, Frank Z Stanczyk, Farin Kamangar, Stephanie J Weinstein, Philip R Taylor, Satu Männistö, Demetrius Albanes, Christian C Abnet, Neal D Freedman
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancers are the third most common cancers in women and men in the USA. While dietary and lifestyle factors such as Western diet, physical inactivity and obesity have been linked to an increased risk of this malignancy, the mechanisms for these associations are unclear. GI hormones, including ghrelin, are involved in energy balance by mediating appetite and metabolism; however, the association between ghrelin and colorectal cancer has not been studied. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the all-male Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study of Finnish smokers (aged 50-69 years) to examine serum ghrelin concentration and colorectal cancer risk...
August 16, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811704/gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-peptides-amines-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
REVIEW
Magdy El-Salhy, Tefera Solomon, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic recurrent condition whose etiology is unknown, and it includes ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and microscopic colitis. These three diseases differ in clinical manifestations, courses, and prognoses. IBD reduces the patients' quality of life and is an economic burden to both the patients and society. Interactions between the gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine peptides/amines (NEPA) and the immune system are believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of IBD...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807720/comparison-of-the-therapeutic-effects-of-sildenafil-citrate-heparin-and-neuropeptides-in-a-rat-model-of-acetic-acid-induced-gastric-ulcer
#5
Mehmet Kalayci, Mehmet Ali Kocdor, Tuncay Kuloglu, İbrahim Sahin, Mehmet Sarac, Aziz Aksoy, Meltem Yardim, Semih Dalkilic, Onur Gursu, Suna Aydin, Ramazan Fazil Akkoc, Meltem Cokugras, Gokhan Artas, İbrahim Hanifi Ozercan, Kader Ugur, Suleyman Aydin
AIMS: The purpose of our investigative work has been to determine whether there can be therapeutic roles in the administration of sildenafil citrate, heparin and several neuropeptides on an animal model where gastric ulcers were induced with acetic acid, and to compare their efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The animals were divided into 13 groups, with 4 animals in each. Gastric ulcers was induced in the animals of 12 groups with one untreated group being left as the control (Group I - control; given normal saline (NS))...
August 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805670/appetite-and-gut-hormones-response-to-a-putative-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitor-salacia-chinensis-in-overweight-obese-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Lihong Hao, Yvette Schlussel, Krista Fieselmann, Stephen H Schneider, Sue A Shapses
Animal studies indicate Salacia reduces body weight, possibly due to its α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI) properties, but this has not been examined previously. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over design was used to evaluate whether Salacia Chinensis (SC) reduces appetite in healthy overweight/obese individuals (body mass index 28.8 ±3.6 kg/m²; 32 ± 12 years). Forty-eight participants were fasted overnight and consumed a dose of SC (300 or 500 mg) or placebo with a fixed breakfast meal at each visit...
August 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802901/effect-of-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-alcohol-consumption-and-preferences-in-dietary-obese-rats-and-mice-a-plausible-role-for-altered-ghrelin-signaling
#7
Elise R Orellana, Catherine Jamis, Nelli Horvath, Andras Hajnal
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are the most common surgical options for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorder. Whereas RYGB may result in greater and more durable weight loss, recent clinical and pre-clinical studies in rats have raised concerns that RYGB surgery may increase risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). In contrast, recent clinical reports suggest a lesser risk for AUD following VSG, although no preclinical studies have been done to confirm that. Therefore, the present study sought to determine the effects of VSG on ethanol intake and preferences in rodent models using protocols similar to those previously used in animal studies for RYGB...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801520/evidence-that-central-pathways-that-mediate-defecation-utilize-ghrelin-receptors-but-do-not-require-endogenous-ghrelin
#8
Ruslan V Pustovit, Brid Callaghan, Mitchell T Ringuet, Nicole F Kerr, Billie Hunne, Ian M Smyth, Claudio Pietra, John B Furness
In laboratory animals and in human, centrally penetrant ghrelin receptor agonists, given systemically or orally, cause defecation. Animal studies show that the effect is due to activation of ghrelin receptors in the spinal lumbosacral defecation centers. However, it is not known whether there is a physiological role of ghrelin or the ghrelin receptor in the control of defecation. Using immunohistochemistry and immunoassay, we detected and measured ghrelin in the stomach, but were unable to detect ghrelin by either method in the lumbosacral spinal cord, or other regions of the CNS In rats in which the thoracic spinal cord was transected 5 weeks before, the effects of a ghrelin agonist on colorectal propulsion were significantly enhanced, but defecation caused by water avoidance stress (WAS) was reduced...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796827/impact-of-ghrelin-on-body-composition-and-muscle-function-in-a-long-term-rodent-model-of-critical-illness
#9
Neil E Hill, Kevin G Murphy, Saima Saeed, Rahul Phadke, Darren Chambers, Duncan R Wilson, Stephen J Brett, Mervyn Singer
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple injuries or sepsis requiring intensive care treatment invariably develop a catabolic state with resultant loss of lean body mass, for which there are currently no effective treatments. Recovery can take months and mortality is high. We hypothesise that treatment with the orexigenic and anti-inflammatory gastric hormone, ghrelin may attenuate the loss of body mass following critical illness and improve recovery. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal injection of the fungal cell wall derivative zymosan to induce a prolonged peritonitis and consequent critical illness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795473/gastrointestinal-peptides-during-chronic-gastric-electrical-stimulation-in-patients-with-intractable-vomiting
#10
Mathieu Meleine, Chloé Melchior, Philip Prinz, Alfred Penfornis, Benoît Coffin, Andreas Stengel, Philippe Ducrotté, Guillaume Gourcerol
OBJECTIVES: Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is an alternative therapy to treat patients with intractable vomiting. A preclinical study has demonstrated the modulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) peptide ghrelin by GES but such mechanism has never been investigated in patients. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of GES on GI peptide levels in patients with intractable vomiting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients were randomized to receive either ON or OFF GES, 14 completed the study (10 ON, 4 OFF stimulation)...
August 10, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792489/l-phenylalanine-modulates-gut-hormone-release-and-glucose-tolerance-and-suppresses-food-intake-through-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-rodents
#11
A Alamshah, E Spreckley, M Norton, J S Kinsey-Jones, A Amin, A Ramgulam, Y Cao, R Johnson, K Saleh, E Akalestou, Z Malik, N Gonzalez-Abuin, A Jomard, R Amarsi, A Moolla, P R Sargent, G W Gray, S R Bloom, K G Murphy
OBJECTIVE: High-protein diets (HPDs) are associated with greater satiety and weight loss than diets rich in other macronutrients. The exact mechanisms by which HPDs exert their effects are unclear. However, evidence suggests that the sensing of amino acids produced as a result of protein digestion may have a role in appetite regulation and satiety. We investigated the effects of l-phenylalanine (L-Phe) on food intake and glucose homeostasis in rodents. METHODS: We investigated the effects of the aromatic amino-acid and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) agonist l-phenylalanine (L-Phe) on food intake and the release of the gastrointestinal (GI) hormones peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin in rodents, and the role of the CaSR in mediating these effects in vitro and in vivo...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783935/the-relationship-between-ghrelin-and-copeptin-levels-and-anxiety-and-depression-levels-in-suicide-attempts
#12
Metin Atescelik, Mustafa Yilmaz, Sevda Korkmaz, Mehmet Cagri Goktekin, Mehtap Gurger, Nevin Ilhan
Objective: It was aimed to detect acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UG) and copeptin levels in patients with suicide attempts and to determine if these biomarkers are risk factors for suicide attempts. Methods: Serum copeptin, AG and GU levels were screened in 128 patients who were admitted to emergency department with suicide attempts and 59 healthy controls. Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were applied simultaneously, and the data were compared statistically...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782840/nutrient-re-routing-and-altered-gut-islet-cell-crosstalk-may-explain-early-relief-of-severe-postprandial-hypoglycaemia-after-reversal-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#13
M S Svane, M B Toft-Nielsen, V B Kristiansen, B Hartmann, J J Holst, S Madsbad, K N Bojsen-Møller
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is associated with an increased risk of postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia, but the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We therefore examined the effect of re-routing of nutrient delivery on gut-islet cell crosstalk in a person with severe postprandial hypoglycaemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. CASE REPORT: A person with severe postprandial hypoglycaemia, who underwent surgical reversal of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, was studied before reversal and at 2 weeks and 3 months after reversal surgery using liquid mixed meal tests and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps...
August 7, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782532/ghrelin-protects-the-heart-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-inhibition-of-tlr4-nlrp3-inflammasome-pathway
#14
Qin Wang, Ping Lin, Peng Li, Li Fen, Qian Ren, Xiaofeng Xie, Jing Xu
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of ghrelin against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the underlying mechanism. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into Sham, I/R and I/R+ghrelin groups. After 30 minutes ischemia, ghrelin (8nmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally at the time of reperfusion in the I/R+ghrelin group. Then hemodynamic parameters were observed at 24h after reperfusion. KEY FINDINGS: Ghrelin exhibited dramatic improvement in cardiac functions, as manifested by increased LVSP and ±dP/dtmax and decreased LVDP...
August 4, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776826/intragastric-infusion-of-the-bitter-tastant-quinine-suppresses-hormone-release-and-antral-motility-during-the-fasting-state-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#15
E Deloose, M Corsetti, L Van Oudenhove, I Depoortere, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Intragastric administration of the bitter tastant denatonium benzoate inhibits the increase of motilin plasma levels and antral contractility. While these findings suggest that gastrointestinal bitter taste receptors could be new targets to modulate gastrointestinal motility and hormone release, they need confirmation with other bitter receptor agonists. The primary aim was to evaluate the effect of intragastric administration of the bitter tastant quinine-hydrochloride (QHCl) on motilin and ghrelin plasma levels...
August 4, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776825/influence-of-food-on-the-gastric-motor-effect-of-the-kampo-medicine-rikkunshito-in-rat
#16
M Nahata, Y Mizuhara, C Sadakane, J Watanabe, N Fujitsuka, T Hattori
BACKGROUND: Rikkunshito, one of the Kampo medicines, is widely prescribed as a remedy for various upper gastrointestinal syndromes. The effect of rikkunshito is related to endogenous ghrelin and its active ingredient atractylodin enhances ghrelin receptor signaling. Kampo medicines are traditionally administered before or between meals; however, no definitive benefit of the timing of administration has been proven yet. To clarify the influence of food on the pharmacological action of rikkunshito, we investigated the gastric motor activity and pharmacokinetic profiles of atractylodin after the administration of rikkunshito in fasted and fed rats...
August 4, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771924/less-is-more-caloric-regulation-of-neurogenesis-and-adult-brain-function
#17
REVIEW
Alwena H Morgan, Zane B Andrews, Jeffrey S Davies
Calorie intake is essential for regulating normal physiological processes and is fundamental to maintaining life. Indeed, both extremes of calorie intake result in increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, we discuss the effect of calorie intake on adult brain function, with emphasis on the beneficial effects of mild calorie restriction. Recent findings relating to the regenerative and protective effect of the gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin, suggest that it may underlie the beneficial effects of calorie restriction...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771181/ghrelin-therapy-decreases-incidents-of-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-mice-after-whole-body-ionizing-irradiation-combined-with-burn-trauma
#18
Nikolai V Gorbunov, Juliann G Kiang
Nuclear industrial accidents and the detonation of nuclear devices cause a variety of damaging factors which, when their impacts are combined, produce complicated injuries challenging for medical treatment. Thus, trauma following acute ionizing irradiation (IR) can deteriorate the IR-induced secondary reactive metabolic and inflammatory impacts to dose-limiting tissues, such as bone marrow/lymphatic, gastrointestinal tissues, and vascular endothelial tissues, exacerbating the severity of the primary injury and decreasing survival from the exposure...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771048/effects-of-nanosized-zinc-oxide-and-%C3%AE-polyglutamic-acid-on-eggshell-quality-and-serum-parameters-of-aged-laying-hens
#19
Syuan-Yian Mao, Tu-Fa Lien
In order to increase zinc (Zn) absorption and improve eggshell quality, diets for aged laying hens were supplemented with different Zn sources and the effects on egg production, eggshell quality and serum parameters were recorded. Seventy-five 64-week old brown layers were individually caged and randomly allotted to five treatment groups: an un-supplemented Control and four groups, where the following Zn sources were added to the diets, ZnO (group ZnO), Zn-methionine (group Zn-Met), nanosized ZnO (group nanoZnO) and γ-PGA-nano ZnO (group γ-PGA-nanoZnO)...
August 3, 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770669/case-study-unfavorable-but-transient-physiological-changes-during-contest-preparation-in-a-drug-free-male-bodybuilder
#20
Andrew Pardue, Eric T Trexler, Lisa K Sprod
Extreme body composition demands of competitive bodybuilding have been associated with unfavorable physiological changes, including alterations in metabolic rate and endocrine profile. The current case study evaluated the effects of contest preparation (8 months), followed by recovery (5 months), on a competitive drug-free male bodybuilder over 13 months (M1-M13). Serum testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin were measured throughout the study. Body composition (BodPod, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), anaerobic power (Wingate test), and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were assessed monthly...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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