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Ghrelin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914942/is-there-a-role-for-ghrelin-in-central-dopaminergic-systems-focus-on-nigrostriatal-and-mesocorticolimbic-pathways
#1
REVIEW
Alicia Stievenard, Mathieu Méquinion, Zane B Andrews, Alain Destée, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Odile Viltart, Christel C Vanbesien-Mailliot
The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913606/acute-administration-of-acyl-but-not-desacyl-ghrelin-decreases-blood-pressure-in-healthy-humans
#2
Cecilia J Zhang, Martin Bidlingmaier, Mekibib Altaye, Laura C Page, David D'Alessio, Matthias H Tschöp, Jenny Tong
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of acyl ghrelin (AG) and desacyl ghrelin (DAG) on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and other autonomic parameters in healthy humans and to elucidate the hormonal mechanisms through which AG could exert its cardiovascular effects. DESIGN: Seventeen healthy participants underwent frequent monitoring of systolic (sBP) and diastolic blood pressure (dBP), HR, respiratory rate (RR) and body surface temperature (Temp) during continuous infusion of AG, DAG, combined AG + DAG or saline control before and during an IV glucose tolerance test on 4 separate days...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909992/roles-for-orexin-hypocretin-in-the-control-of-energy-balance-and-metabolism
#3
Paulette B Goforth, Martin G Myers
The neuropeptide hypocretin is also commonly referred to as orexin, since its orexigenic action was recognized early. Orexin/hypocretin (OX) neurons project widely throughout the brain and the physiologic and behavioral functions of OX are much more complex than initially conceived based upon the stimulation of feeding. OX most notably controls functions relevant to attention, alertness, and motivation. OX also plays multiple crucial roles in the control of food intake, metabolism, and overall energy balance in mammals...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900560/serum-leptin-obestatin-and-ghrelin-levels-and-gastric-emptying-rates-of-liquid-and-solid-meals-in-non-obese-rats-with-roux-en-y-bypass-surgery-or-prosthesis-placement-implications-for-the-role-of-vagal-afferents
#4
Yunus Yavuz, Zarife Nigar Özdemir Kumral, Gülsün Memi, Özge Dağdeviren Çevik, Cumhur Yeğen, Berrak Ç Yeğen
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and prosthesis placement on gastric emptying rate in conjunction with serum ghrelin-obestatin-leptin responses in non-obese rats with intact or denervated afferent innervation. METHODS: Under anesthesia, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham operation, RYGB, prosthesis, and/or Gregory cannula placement. Three weeks later, liquid or solid gastric emptying tests were performed and serum ghrelin, leptin and obestatin levels were measured...
November 29, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899023/ghrelin-function-in-human-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-a-concise-review
#5
REVIEW
R Churm, J S Davies, J W Stephens, S L Prior
The 28 amino acid hormone, ghrelin, has been found to have various effects on metabolism. This review will focus on the pathways integrated into ghrelin's effect within the hypothalamus, pancreas and adipocytes. The identification of molecules and pathways that regulate ghrelin-mediated lipid retention could establish new mechanisms underlying cellular energy homeostasis. The impact of acyl-ghrelin on glucose metabolism and lipid homeostasis may allow for novel preventative or early intervention therapeutic strategies to treat obesity related type 2 diabetes and associated metabolic dysfunction...
November 29, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898845/effect-of-sterilization-and-of-dietary-fat-and-carbohydrate-content-on-food-intake-activity-level-and-blood-satiety-related-hormones-in-female-dogs
#6
S Schauf, A Salas-Mani, C Torre, G Bosch, H Swarts, C Castrillo
Animal sterilization is suggested to promote food overconsumption, although it is unknown whether this effect is mediated by variations in satiety-related hormones, which are released in response to food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization and of the main energy-delivery nutrients, fat and nonstructural carbohydrates, on food intake, blood concentration of satiety-related hormones, and activity level in dogs. In a 2-phase experiment (phase I [Ph.I], 74 d, and Ph.II, 84 d), 12 female Beagle dogs were assigned to a control group (intact in both phases) and a sterilization group (spayed 20 d before Ph...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898588/the-gut-peptide-neuropeptide-y-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Ann M Rasmusson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with which PTSD is highly comorbid. NPY is low in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of male combat veterans with PTSD and correlates negatively with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperreactivity, PTSD symptoms and time to recovery. NPY regulation has not yet been evaluated in women with PTSD...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897393/cancer-anorexia-hypothalamic-activity-and-its-association-with-inflammation-and-appetite-regulating-peptides-in-lung-cancer
#8
Alessio Molfino, Alessandro Iannace, Maria Chiara Colaiacomo, Alessio Farcomeni, Alessandra Emiliani, Gianfranco Gualdi, Alessandro Laviano, Filippo Rossi Fanelli
BACKGROUND: Energy homeostasis is mediated by the hypothalamus, whose inflammation-induced functional derangements contribute to the onset of anorexia in cancer. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we determined the patterns of hypothalamic activation after oral intake in anorexic (A), non-anorexic (NA) cancer patients, and in controls (C). METHODS: Lung cancer patients were considered. Hypothalamic activation was recorded in A and NA patients and in C by fMRI, before (T0), immediately after (T1) the administration of an oral nutritional supplement, and after 15 min (T2)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894854/decreased-level-of-endogenous-ghrelin-is-involved-in-the-progression-of-lung-injury-induced-by-oleic-acid
#9
Zhijun Liu, Ting Yu, Haitao Yang, Xiuli Tian, Linlin Feng
AIMS: Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with excessive mortality and lacks appropriate therapy. Ghrelin is a novel peptide that protects the lung against ALI. This study aimed to investigate the role of endogenous ghrelin in the pathogenesis of ALI. MAIN METHODS: We used a rat oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI model. Pulmonary impairment was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, lung mechanics, wet/dry weight ratio, and arterial blood gas analysis. Plasma and lung content of ghrelin was examined by ELISA, and mRNA expression of ghrelin was measured by quantitative real-time PCR...
November 25, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892685/gut-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes
#10
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Giancarlo Balercia, Luigi Barrea, Angelo Cignarelli, Francesco Giorgino, Jens J Holst, Daniela Laudisio, Francesco Orio, Giacomo Tirabassi, Annamaria Colao
The gut regulates glucose and energy homeostasis; thus, the presence of ingested nutrients into the gut activates sensing mechanisms that affect both glucose homeostasis and regulate food intake. Increasing evidence suggest that gut may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes which may be related to both the intestinal microbiological profile and patterns of gut hormones secretion. Intestinal microbiota includes trillions of microorganisms but its composition and function may be adversely affected in type 2 diabetes...
November 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886622/linoleic-acid-causes-greater-weight-gain-than-saturated-fat-without-hypothalamic-inflammation-in-the-male-mouse
#11
Kyle J Mamounis, Ali Yasrebi, Troy A Roepke
A significant change in the Western diet, concurrent with the obesity epidemic, was a substitution of saturated fatty acids with polyunsaturated, specifically linoleic acid (LA). Despite increasing investigation on type as well as amount of fat, it is unclear which fatty acids are most obesogenic. The objective of this study was to determine the obesogenic potency of LA vs. saturated fatty acids and the involvement of hypothalamic inflammation. Forty-eight mice were divided into four groups: low-fat or three high-fat diets (HFDs, 45% kcals from fat) with LA comprising 1%, 15% and 22...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886414/chronic-ghrelin-treatment-reduced-photophobia-and-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-ntg-induced-migraine-role-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide
#12
Fereshteh Farajdokht, Shirin Babri, Pouran Karimi, Mohammad Reza Alipour, Ramin Bughchechi, Gisou Mohaddes
Chronic migraine is a debilitating disorder that has a significant impact on patients and society. Nearly all migraineurs frequently reported light sensitivity during a headache attack. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays an important role in the activation of trigeminal system and migraine pain. To identify the effect of chronic ghrelin treatment on endogenous PACAP and associated symptoms of migraine, an experimental chronic migraine model was induced by intermittent intraperitoneal (i...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878778/elevated-serum-levels-of-ghrelin-and-tnf-%C3%AE-in-patients-with-cyanotic-and-acyanotic-congenital-heart-disease
#13
Sai Zhang, Gong-Liang Guo, Li-Li Yang, Li-Qun Sun
BACKGROUND: The levels of ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are considered biological markers of congenital heart diseases (CHD). The present meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the clinical significance of serum levels of ghrelin and TNF-α in children with (CHD). METHODS: Chinese and English scientific literature databases were searched to retrieve published studies relevant to ghrelin, TNF-α and CHD. Manual search was additionally employed to identify other relevant studies from cross-references...
November 23, 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877104/sweet-taste-receptor-serves-to-activate-glucose-and-leptin-responsive-neurons-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus-and-participates-in-glucose-responsiveness
#14
Daisuke Kohno, Miho Koike, Yuzo Ninomiya, Itaru Kojima, Tadahiro Kitamura, Toshihiko Yada
The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In the feeding center, whole-body energy signals including hormones and nutrients are sensed, processed, and integrated. As a result, food intake and energy expenditure are regulated. Two types of glucose-sensing neurons exist in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC): glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. While some molecules are known to be related to glucose sensing in the hypothalamus, the mechanisms underlying glucose sensing in the hypothalamus are not fully understood...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876637/fourth-ventricle-injection-of-ghrelin-decreases-angiotensin-ii-induced-fluid-intake-and-neuronal-activation-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#15
Kimberly S Plyler, Derek Daniels
Ghrelin acts in the CNS to decrease fluid intake under a variety of dipsogenic and natriorexigenic conditions. Previous studies on this topic, however, focused on the forebrain as a site of action for this effect of ghrelin. Because the hindbrain contains neural substrates that are capable of mediating the well-established orexigenic effects of ghrelin, the current study tested the hypothesis that ghrelin applied to the hindbrain also would affect fluid intake. To this end, water and saline intakes were stimulated by central injection of angiotensin II (AngII) in rats that also received injections of ghrelin (0...
November 19, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867820/alteration-of-npy-in-hypothalamus-and-its-correlation-with-leptin-and-ghrelin-during-the-development-of-t2dm-in-a-rat-model
#16
Qing-Jiu Zhang, Chang-Chun Yang, Song-Yun Zhang, Li-Hui Zhang, Jie Li
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the alteration of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus and its correlation with insulin, leptin and ghrelin during the development of a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The type 2 diabetes mellitus model was developed in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats followed by the intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 25 mg/kg). At four time points during the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats, the fasting serum insulin, leptin, and plasma ghrelin were measured and the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) content and mRNA expression were detected in the rats, which were divided into 4 groups: normal control (NC), DIO4W, DIO8W, and T2DM; the mRNA expression of OB-Rb, and GSH-R1a in the hypothalamus were also assayed...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864352/single-cell-transcriptomes-identify-human-islet-cell-signatures-and-reveal-cell-type-specific-expression-changes-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
Nathan Lawlor, Joshy George, Mohan Bolisetty, Romy Kursawe, Lili Sun, Sivakamasundari V, Ina Kycia, Paul Robson, Michael L Stitzel
Blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by the coordinated action of at least four cell types constituting pancreatic islets. Changes in the proportion and/or function of these cells are associated with genetic and molecular pathophysiology of monogenic, type 1, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cellular heterogeneity impedes precise understanding of the molecular components of each islet cell type that govern islet dysfunction, particularly the less abundant delta and gamma/pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cells. Here, we report single cell transcriptomes for 638 cells from non-diabetic (ND) and T2D human islet samples...
November 18, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862969/mediation-of-oxidative-stress-in-hypothalamic-ghrelin-associated-appetite-control-in-rats-treated-with-phenylpropanolamine
#18
Ching-Han Yu, Shu-Chen Chu, Pei-Ni Chen, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Dong-Yih Kuo
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA)-induced appetite control is associated with oxidative stress in the hypothalamus. This study explored whether hypothalamic antioxidants participated in hypothalamic ghrelin system-associated appetite control in PPA-treated rats. Rats were given PPA daily for 4 days, and changes in food intake and the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ghrelin, acyl ghrelin (AG), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared...
November 8, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860472/-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-action-of-bitter-compounds-recent-knowledge-and-perspective
#19
Milan Nagy, Pavel Mučaji
This overview paper describes in its introductory part bitter-tasting herbal drugs in the context of their traditional use in the loss of appetite and digestive disorders. Then, it mentions current knowledge on signals origin in bitter taste receptors leading to different, unexpected physiological processes. Newly observed biological effects of bitter tastants are correlated with modern trends of their complex study with an aim to develop new drugs primarily acting on bitter taste receptors.Key words: T2R bitter taste receptors GPCR bitters glucose homeostasis asthma ghrelin GLP-1 solitary chemosensory cells...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859746/a-prospective-randomized-masked-placebo-controlled-clinical-study-of-capromorelin-in-dogs-with-reduced-appetite
#20
B Zollers, J A Wofford, E Heinen, M Huebner, L Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Reduced appetite is a common clinical sign in dogs. This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of capromorelin oral solution, (ENTYCE(®) , Aratana Therapeutics, Leawood, KS) a new drug that is a ghrelin receptor agonist, for stimulation of appetite in dogs with reduced appetite. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Capromorelin will increase appetite, as measured by the owner's evaluation, over 4 days. An additional objective was to evaluate the safety of capromorelin at the labeled dose...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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