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Spindle schizophrenia

Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Vinutha Ravishankar, Jagadisha Thirthalli
Persistent negative and cognitive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia pose a significant challenge to clinicians. Being a heterogeneous cluster of symptoms with potentially distinct underlying pathogenesis, it is important to examine novel therapies based on emerging neurobiological evidence. Eszopiclone is known to enhance the deficient sleep spindles that are related to impairments in learning and memory in schizophrenia. In this report we highlight the potential utility of eszopiclone in treating persistent negative symptoms in a patient with chronic schizophrenia...
June 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Naoko Morimura, Hiroki Yasuda, Kazuhiko Yamaguchi, Kei-Ichi Katayama, Minoru Hatayama, Naoko H Tomioka, Maya Odagawa, Akiko Kamiya, Yoshimi Iwayama, Motoko Maekawa, Kazuhiko Nakamura, Hideo Matsuzaki, Masatsugu Tsujii, Kazuyuki Yamada, Takeo Yoshikawa, Jun Aruga
Lrfn2/SALM1 is a PSD-95-interacting synapse adhesion molecule, and human LRFN2 is associated with learning disabilities. However its role in higher brain function and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that Lrfn2 knockout mice exhibit autism-like behavioural abnormalities, including social withdrawal, decreased vocal communications, increased stereotyped activities and prepulse inhibition deficits, together with enhanced learning and memory. In the hippocampus, the levels of synaptic PSD-95 and GluA1 are decreased...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Charmaine Demanuele, Ullrich Bartsch, Bengi Baran, Sheraz Khan, Mark G Vangel, Roy Cox, Matti Hämäläinen, Matthew W Jones, Robert Stickgold, Dara S Manoach
Study Objectives: Schizophrenia patients have correlated deficits in sleep spindle density and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In addition to spindle density, memory consolidation is thought to rely on the precise temporal coordination of spindles with slow waves (SWs). We investigated whether this coordination is intact in schizophrenia and its relation to motor procedural memory consolidation. Methods: Twenty-one chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 17 demographically matched healthy controls underwent two nights of polysomnography, with training on the finger tapping motor sequence task (MST) on the second night and testing the following morning...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
Fabio Ferrarelli, Giulio Tononi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Charmaine Demanuele, Ullrich Bartsch, Bengi Baran, Sheraz Khan, Mark G Vangel, Roy Cox, Matti Hämäläinen, Matthew W Jones, Robert Stickgold, Dara S Manoach
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia patients have correlated deficits in sleep spindle density and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In addition to spindle density, memory consolidation is thought to rely on the precise temporal coordination of spindles with slow waves (SWs). We investigated whether this coordination is intact in schizophrenia and its relation to motor procedural memory consolidation. METHODS: Twenty-one chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 17 demographically-matched healthy controls underwent two nights of polysomnography with training on the finger tapping motor sequence task (MST) on the second night and testing the following morning...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
Claudia Schilling, Manuel Schlipf, Simone Spietzack, Franziska Rausch, Sarah Eisenacher, Susanne Englisch, Iris Reinhard, Leila Haller, Oliver Grimm, Michael Deuschle, Heike Tost, Mathias Zink, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Michael Schredl
Several studies in patients with schizophrenia reported a marked reduction in sleep spindle activity. To investigate whether the reduction may be linked to genetic risk of the illness, we analysed sleep spindle activity in healthy volunteers, patients with schizophrenia and first-degree relatives, who share an enriched set of schizophrenia susceptibility genes. We further investigated the correlation of spindle activity with cognitive function in first-degree relatives and whether spindle abnormalities affect both fast (12-15 Hz) and slow (9-12 Hz) sleep spindles...
April 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Caroline Lustenberger, Michael R Boyle, Sankaraleengam Alagapan, Juliann M Mellin, Bradley V Vaughn, Flavio Fröhlich
Transient episodes of brain oscillations are a common feature of both the waking and the sleeping brain. Sleep spindles represent a prominent example of a poorly understood transient brain oscillation that is impaired in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. However, the causal role of these bouts of thalamo-cortical oscillations remains unknown. Demonstrating a functional role of sleep spindles in cognitive processes has, so far, been hindered by the lack of a tool to target transient brain oscillations in real time...
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Anna Castelnovo, Armando D'Agostino, Cecilia Casetta, Simone Sarasso, Fabio Ferrarelli
Sleep spindles are wax and waning brain oscillations at a frequency range of 11-16 Hz, lasting 0.5-2 s, that define non-rapid eye movement sleep stage 2. Over the past few years, several independent studies pointed to a decrease of sleep spindles in schizophrenia. The aim of this review is to contextualize these findings within the growing literature on these oscillations across other neuro-psychiatric disorders. Indeed, spindles reflect the coordinated activity of thalamocortical networks, and their abnormality can be observed in a variety of conditions that disrupt local or global thalamocortical connectivity...
August 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Fabio Ferrarelli, Giulio Tononi
Sleep disturbances have been reliably reported in patients with schizophrenia, thus suggesting that abnormal sleep may represent a core feature of this disorder. Traditional electroencephalographic studies investigating sleep architecture have found reduced deep non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, or slow wave sleep (SWS), and increased REM density. However, these findings have been inconsistently observed, and have not survived meta-analysis. By contrast, several recent EEG studies exploring brain activity during sleep have established marked deficits in sleep spindles in schizophrenia, including first-episode and early-onset patients, compared to both healthy and psychiatric comparison subjects...
February 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Brittany C Clawson, Jaclyn Durkin, Sara J Aton
Since the advent of EEG recordings, sleep spindles have been identified as hallmarks of non-REM sleep. Despite a broad general understanding of mechanisms of spindle generation gleaned from animal studies, the mechanisms underlying certain features of spindles in the human brain, such as "global" versus "local" spindles, are largely unknown. Neither the topography nor the morphology of sleep spindles remains constant throughout the lifespan. It is likely that changes in spindle phenomenology during development and aging are the result of dramatic changes in brain structure and function...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Giovanni Piantoni, Eric Halgren, Sydney S Cash
Sleep spindles arise from the interaction of thalamic and cortical neurons. Neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) inhibit thalamocortical neurons, which in turn excite the TRN and cortical neurons. A fundamental principle of anatomical organization of the thalamocortical projections is the presence of two pathways: the diffuse matrix pathway and the spatially selective core pathway. Cortical layers are differentially targeted by these two pathways with matrix projections synapsing in superficial layers and core projections impinging on middle layers...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Man-Sum Chan, Ka-Fai Chung, Kam-Ping Yung, Wing-Fai Yeung
Polysomnographic studies have been performed to examine the sleep abnormalities in schizophrenia, but the results are inconsistent. An updated systematic review, meta-analysis, and moderator analysis was conducted. Major databases were searched without language restriction from 1968 to January 2014. Data were analyzed using the random-effects model and summarized using the Hedges's g. Thirty-one studies with 574 patients and 515 healthy controls were evaluated. Limited by the number of studies and a lack of patient-level data, moderator analysis was restricted to medication status, duration of medication withdrawal, and illness duration...
April 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Gabriel Davies, Gillian Haddock, Alison R Yung, Lee D Mulligan, Simon D Kyle
Sleep disturbances are common in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and have been associated with increased symptom severity, neurocognitive deficits and reduced quality of life. Despite a significant body of literature in this field, there has been limited investigation of sleep disturbance in the early course of the illness. This systematic review aims to synthesise and evaluate the available data exploring sleep in early psychosis, with two key research questions: 1) What is the nature of sleep disturbance in early psychosis? and 2) What are the correlates of sleep disturbance in early psychosis? From an initial search, 16,675 papers were identified, of which 21 met inclusion/exclusion criteria...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Dara S Manoach, Jen Q Pan, Shaun M Purcell, Robert Stickgold
Although schizophrenia (SZ) is defined by waking phenomena, abnormal sleep is a common feature. In particular, there is accumulating evidence of a sleep spindle deficit. Sleep spindles, a defining thalamocortical oscillation of non-rapid eye movement stage 2 sleep, correlate with IQ and are thought to promote long-term potentiation and enhance memory consolidation. We review evidence that reduced spindle activity in SZ is an endophenotype that impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation, contributes to symptoms, and is a novel treatment biomarker...
October 15, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Robert Göder, Anna Graf, Felix Ballhausen, Sara Weinhold, Paul Christian Baier, Klaus Junghanns, Alexander Prehn-Kristensen
OBJECTIVES: Deficits in declarative memory performance are among the most severe neuropsychological impairments in schizophrenia and contribute to poor clinical outcomes. The importance of sleep for brain plasticity and memory consolidation is widely accepted, and sleep spindles seem to play an important role in these processes. The aim of this study was to test the associations of sleep spindles and picture memory consolidation in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHODS: We studied 16 patients with schizophrenia on stable antipsychotic medication (mean age ± standard deviation, 29...
May 2015: Sleep Medicine
Kate E Sprecher, Fabio Ferrarelli, Ruth M Benca
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness with a worldwide prevalence of approximately 1%. Although the clinical features of the disorder were described over one hundred years ago, its neurobiology is still largely elusive despite several decades of research. Schizophrenia is associated with marked sleep disturbances and memory impairment. Above and beyond altered sleep architecture, sleep rhythms including slow waves and spindles are disrupted in schizophrenia. In the healthy brain, these rhythms reflect and participate in plastic processes during sleep...
2015: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Dara S Manoach, Charmaine Demanuele, Erin J Wamsley, Mark Vangel, Debra M Montrose, Jean Miewald, David Kupfer, Daniel Buysse, Robert Stickgold, Matcheri S Keshavan
INTRODUCTION: Chronic medicated patients with schizophrenia have marked reductions in sleep spindle activity and a correlated deficit in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Using archival data, we investigated whether antipsychotic-naïve early course patients with schizophrenia and young non-psychotic first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia also show reduced sleep spindle activity and whether spindle activity correlates with cognitive function and symptoms. METHOD: Sleep spindles during Stage 2 sleep were compared in antipsychotic-naïve adults newly diagnosed with psychosis, young non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and two samples of healthy controls matched to the patients and relatives...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Andreas Buchmann, Daniela Dentico, Michael J Peterson, Brady A Riedner, Simone Sarasso, Marcello Massimini, Giulio Tononi, Fabio Ferrarelli
BACKGROUND: We recently found marked deficits in sleep spindles, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep oscillations that are generated within the thalamus and then amplified and sustained in the cortex, in patients with schizophrenia compared to both healthy and psychiatric controls. Here, we investigated the thalamic and cortical contributions to these sleep spindle deficits. METHODS: Anatomical volume of interest analysis (i.e., thalamic volumes) and electroencephalogram (EEG) source modeling (i...
November 15, 2014: NeuroImage
Caroline Lustenberger, Ruth L O'Gorman, Fiona Pugin, Laura Tüshaus, Flavia Wehrle, Peter Achermann, Reto Huber
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Yet, schizophrenia-like experiences (schizotypy) are very common in the healthy population, indicating a continuum between normal mental functioning and the psychosis found in schizophrenic patients. A continuum between schizotypy and schizophrenia would be supported if they share the same neurobiological origin. Two such neurobiological markers of schizophrenia are: (1) a reduction of sleep spindles (12-15 Hz oscillations during nonrapid eye movement sleep), likely reflecting deficits in thalamo-cortical circuits and (2) increased glutamine and glutamate (Glx) levels in the thalamus...
March 2015: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Fabian Guénolé, Elyse Chevrier, Emmanuel Stip, Roger Godbout
This study aimed at characterizing the functional stability of sleep in schizophrenia by quantifying dissociated stages of sleep (DSS), and to explore their correlation with psychopathology. The sleep of 10 first-break, drug-naive young adults with schizophrenia and 10 controls was recorded. Four basic DSS patterns were scored: 1) the transitional EEG-mixed intermediate stage (EMIS); 2) Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep without rapid eye movement (RSWR); 3) REM sleep without atonia (RSWA); and 4) non-REM sleep with rapid eye movements...
May 2014: Schizophrenia Research
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