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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775900/hordenine-protects-against-hyperglycemia-associated-renal-complications-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#1
Shuhao Su, Meng Cao, Guangyuan Wu, Zi Long, Xiaodong Cheng, Junshu Fan, Zhongrui Xu, Hongfei Su, Yiming Hao, Ge Li, Jie Peng, Shuang Li, Xin Wang
The worldwide prevalence of diabetes and associated metabolic diseases has dramatically increased. Pharmacological treatment of diabetes is still limited. Hordenine (HOR), a phenethylamine alkaloid, is a natural constituent in many plants. The present study was designed to explore the possible anti-diabetic effect of HOR in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Combined treatment of HOR and insulin significantly reduced fasting and postprandial blood glucose level in diabetic mice. HOR and insulin did not show evident protective effect against structural and functional injuries of pancreas...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718649/synthetic-drug-intoxication-in-children-recognition-and-management-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#2
Rahul Shah, Carl R Baum, Kathryn H Pade
When children and adolescents present to the emergency department with agitation or mental status changes, intoxication from synthetic drug use should be in the differential diagnosis. Identifying the responsible compound(s) may be difficult, so asking the patient broad questions and utilizing appropriate diagnostic studies, when indicated, will aid in making the diagnosis and help identify more-serious complications. This issue discusses the challenges presented by the changing chemical formulations of synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones, and phenethylamines; outlines common presentations of intoxication from these substances; and summarizes best practices for evaluating and managing patients who present with intoxication after consumption of these synthetic drugs of abuse...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697923/synthetic-drug-intoxication-in-children-recognition-and-management-in-the-emergency-department
#3
Rahul Shah, Carl R Baum
When children and adolescents present to the emergency department with agitation or mental status changes, intoxication from synthetic drug use should be in the differential diagnosis. Identifying the responsible compound(s) may be difficult, so asking the patient broad questions and utilizing appropriate diagnostic studies, when indicated, will aid in making the diagnosis and help identify more-serious complications. This issue discusses the challenges presented by the changing chemical formulations of synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones, and phenethylamines; outlines common presentations of intoxication from these substances; and summarizes best practices for evaluating and managing patients who present with intoxication after consumption of these synthetic drugs of abuse...
May 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684910/forensic-applications-of-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#4
REVIEW
Volodymyr Pauk, Karel Lemr
Achievements of supercritical fluid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection made in the field of forensic science during the last decade are reviewed. The main topics include analysis of traditional drugs of abuse (e.g. cannabis, methamphetamine) as well as new psychoactive substances (synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones and phenethylamines), doping agents (anabolic steroids, stimulants, diuretics, analgesics etc.) and chemical warfare agents. Control of food authenticity, detection of adulteration and identification of toxic substances in food are also pointed out...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627557/investigating-in-sewer-transformation-products-formed-from-synthetic-cathinones-and-phenethylamines-using-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#5
Juliet Kinyua, Noelia Negreira, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Tim Boogaerts, Christoph Ort, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs
Recent studies have demonstrated the role of biofilms on the stability of drug residues in wastewater. These factors are pertinent in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) when estimating community-level drug use. However, there is scarce information on the biotransformation of drug residues in the presence of biofilms and the potential use of transformation products (TPs) as biomarkers in WBE. The purpose of this work was to investigate the formation of TPs in sewage reactors in the presence of biofilm mimicking conditions during in-sewer transport...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594422/electrochemical-determination-of-dopamine-using-a-glassy-carbon-electrode-modified-with-a-nanocomposite-consisting-of-nanoporous-platinum-yttrium-and-graphene
#6
Dandan Chen, Chunhuan Tian, Xiangyi Li, Zihan Li, Zhida Han, Chun Zhai, Ying Quan, Rongjing Cui, Genhua Zhang
A nanoporous platinum-yttrium alloy (NP-PtY) was fabricated by dealloying ribbons of a PtYAl alloy. Owing to the high porosity and the synergistic effect of Y in the Pt backbone, the NP-PtY exhibits superior structural stability, reproducibility and electrocatalytic activity. An electrochemical sensor was developed for the highly sensitive and selective detection of dopamine (DA) based on the use of a glassy carbon electrode modified with NP-PtY alloy and graphene. The sensor, best operated at 0.16 V vs. SCE, has a linear range covering the 0...
January 10, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572046/neurotoxicity-screening-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-effects-on-neuronal-activity-in-rat-cortical-cultures-using-microelectrode-arrays-mea
#7
Anne Zwartsen, Laura Hondebrink, Remco Hs Westerink
While the prevalence and the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is steadily increasing, data on pharmacological, toxicological and clinical effects is limited. Considering the large number of NPS available, there is a clear need for efficient in vitro screening techniques that capture multiple mechanisms of action. Neuronal cultures grown on multi-well microelectrode arrays (mwMEAs) have previously proven suitable for neurotoxicity screening of chemicals, pharmaceuticals and (illicit) drugs. We therefore used rat primary cortical cultures grown on mwMEA plates to investigate the effects of eight NPS (PMMA, α-PVP, methylone, MDPV, 2 C-B, 25B-NBOMe, BZP and TFMPP) and two 'classic' illicit drugs (cocaine, methamphetamine) on spontaneous neuronal activity...
March 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567226/use-of-uhplc-tripleq-with-synthetic-standards-to-profile-anti-inflammatory-hydroxycinnamic-acid-amides-in-root-barks-and-leaves-of-lycium-barbarum
#8
Siyu Wang, Joon Hyuk Suh, Wei-Lun Hung, Xi Zheng, Yu Wang, Chi-Tang Ho
Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) are the secondary metabolites ubiquitously exist in flowering plants, formed by condensation between hydroxycinnamates and mono or polyamines. HCAA species not only serve multiple functions in plant growth and development, but also exert significant positive effects on human health. In this study, we combined organic synthesis and UPHLC-TripleQ-MS/MS specifically targeting at HCAA species. The method was fully validated with respect to specificity, linearity, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, and reproducibility...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551060/toward-increasing-micropore-volume-between-hybrid-layered-perovskites-with-silsesquioxane-interlayers
#9
Sho Kataoka, Yoshihiro Kamimura, Akira Endo
Hybrid organic-inorganic layered perovskites are typically non-porous solids. However, the incorporation of silsesquioxanes with a cubic cage structure as interlayer materials creates micropores between the perovskite layers. In this study, we increase in the micropore volume in layered perovskites by replacing a portion of the silsesquioxane interlayers with organic amines. In the proposed method, approximately 20% of the silsesquioxane interlayers can be replaced without changing the layer distance owing to the size of the silsesquioxane...
March 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549032/drug-sensitive-reward-in-crayfish-exploring-the-neural-basis-of-addiction-with-automated-learning-paradigms
#10
REVIEW
Robert Huber, Adebobola Imeh-Nathaniel, Thomas I Nathaniel, Sayali Gore, Udita Datta, Rohan Bhimani, Jules B Panksepp, Jaak Panksepp, Moira J van Staaden
Results of recent work from our labs and those of others have broadened perspectives on addiction beyond a human-specific, cognitive phenomenon. Addictive plant alkaloids are defensive compounds which have arisen to counter herbivory. With insects the true targets of the coevolutionary arms race, humans may be little more than collateral damage when impacted by 'human' drugs of abuse. The present paper summarizes recent contributions, with a primary focus on our own research in crayfish, where we characterize the behavioral and neural consequences resulting from chronic and acute exposure to psychostimulant and addictive drugs...
July 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476337/toxicokinetics-of-nps-update-2017
#11
Markus R Meyer
This summarizing and descriptive review article is an update on previously published reviews. It covers English-written and PubMed-listed review articles and original studies published between May 2016 and November 2017 on the toxicokinetics of new psychoactive substances (NPS). Compounds covered include stimulants and entactogens, synthetic cannabinoids, tryptamines, phenethylamine and phencyclidine-like drugs, benzodiazepines, and opioids. First, an overview and discussion is provided on selected review articles followed by an overview and discussion on selected original studies...
February 24, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472863/%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-activation-suppresses-the-rat-phenethylamine-hallucinogen-induced-head-twitch-response-hallucinogen-induced-excitatory-post-synaptic-potentials-as-a-potential-substrate
#12
Gerard J Marek, Brian P Ramos
5-Hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A ) receptors are enriched in layers I and Va of the rat prefrontal cortex and neocortex and their activation increases the frequency of glutamatergic excitatory post-synaptic potentials/currents (EPSP/Cs) onto layer V pyramidal cells. A number of other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are also enriched in cortical layers I and Va and either induce (α1 -adrenergic and orexin2 ) or suppress (metabotropic glutamate2 [mGlu2 ], adenosine A1 , μ-opioid) both 5-HT-induced EPSCs and head twitches or head shakes induced by the phenethylamine hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461018/analysis-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-human-urine-by-ultra-high-performance-supercritical-fluid-and-liquid-chromatography-validation-and-comparison
#13
Lucie Borovcová, Volodymyr Pauk, Karel Lemr
New psychoactive substances represent serious social and health problem as tens of new compounds are detected in Europe annually. They often show structural proximity or even isomerism, which complicates their analysis. Two methods based on ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection were validated and compared. A simple dilute-filter-and-shoot protocol utilizing propan-2-ol or methanol for supercritical fluid or liquid chromatography, respectively, was proposed to detect and quantify 15 cathinones and phenethylamines in human urine...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446845/simultaneous-determination-of-10-kinds-of-biogenic-amines-in-rat-plasma-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-fluorescence-detection
#14
Xinna Wang, Yawei Liang, Yaqi Wang, Mingqin Fan, Yanni Sun, Jianli Liu, Ning Zhang
We describe a simple, rapid, selective and sensitive HPLC method coupled with fluorescence detection for simultaneous determination of 10 kinds of biogenic amines (BAs: tryptamine, 2-phenethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, tyramine, spermidine, dopamine and spermine). BAs and IS were derivated with dansyl chloride. Fluorescence detection (λex /λem = 340/510 nm) was used. A satisfactory result for method validation was obtained. The assay was shown to be linear over the ranges 0...
February 15, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413984/detection-and-quantification-of-phenethylamines-in-sports-dietary-supplements-by-nmr-approach
#15
Jianping Zhao, Mei Wang, Bharathi Avula, Ikhlas A Khan
Phenethylamines (PEAs) are popular substances found in weight-loss and sports nutrition supplements. They are generally pharmacologically active and primarily affect the sympathetic nervous system. Many PEAs are synthetic chemicals and are on the prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Agency. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied to detect and identify the presence of PEAs in sports dietary supplements without the need for chromatographic separation or pre-knowledge on formulation...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364238/preparation-of-n-2-alkoxyvinyl-sulfonamides-from-n-tosyl-1-2-3-triazoles-and-subsequent-conversion-to-substituted-phthalans-and-phenethylamines
#16
John M Bennett, Jonathan D Shapiro, Krystina N Choinski, Yingbin Mei, Sky M Aulita, Giovanny M Dominguez, Max M Majireck
Decomposition of N-tosyl-1,2,3-triazoles with rhodium(II) acetate dimer in the presence of alcohols forms synthetically versatile N-(2-alkoxyvinyl)sulfonamides, which react under a variety of conditions to afford useful N- and O-containing compounds. Acid-catalyzed addition of alcohols or thiols to N-(2-alkoxyvinyl)sulfonamide-containing phthalans provides access to ketals and thioketals, respectively. Selective reduction of the vinyl group in N-(2-alkoxyvinyl)sulfonamide-containing phthalans via hydrogenation yields the corresponding phthalan in good yield, whereas reduction with sodium bis(2-methoxyethoxy)aluminumhydride generates a ring-opened phenethylamine analogue...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303006/key-interindividual-determinants-in-mdma-pharmacodynamics
#17
REVIEW
E Papaseit, M Torrens, C Pérez-Mañá, R Muga, M Farré
MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, is a synthetic phenethylamine derivative with structural and pharmacological similarities to both amphetamines and mescaline. MDMA produces characteristic amphetamine-like actions (euphoria, well-being), increases empathy, and induces pro-social effects that seem to motivate its recreational consumption and provide a basis for its potential therapeutic use. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to present the main interindividual determinants in MDMA pharmacodynamics...
February 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284546/medical-emergencies-related-to-ethanol-and-illicit-drugs-at-an-annual-nocturnal-indoor-electronic-dance-music-event
#18
Paul Calle, Nora Sundahl, Kristof Maudens, Sarah Mr Wille, Diederik Van Sassenbroeck, Koen De Graeve, Stefan Gogaert, Peter De Paepe, Dieter Devriese, Geert Arno, Peter Blanckaert
Introduction Medical problems are frequently encountered during electronic dance music (EDM) events. Problem There are uncertainties about the frequencies and severity of intoxications with different types of recreational drugs: ethanol, "classical" illicit party drugs, and new psychoactive substances (NPS). METHODS: Statistical data on the medical problems encountered during two editions of an indoor electronic dance event with around 30,000 attendants were retrieved from the Belgian Red Cross (Mechelen, Belgium) database...
February 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247894/unusual-phenethylamine-containing-alkaloids-from-elaeocarpus-tectorius
#19
Margret Chinonso Ezeoke, Premanand Krishnan, Dawn Su-Yin Sim, Siew-Huah Lim, Yun-Yee Low, Kam-Weng Chong, Kuan-Hon Lim
From the leaves of Elaeocarpus tectorius (Lour.) Poir. four previously undescribed phenethylamine-containing alkaloids were isolated, namely, tectoricine, possessing an unprecedented isoquinuclidinone ring system incorporating a phenethylamine moiety, tectoraline, representing a rare alkamide incorporating two phenethylamine moieties, and tectoramidines A and B, representing the first naturally occurring trimeric and dimeric phenethylamine alkaloids incorporating an amidine function. The structures of these alkaloids were established by detailed spectroscopic analysis...
February 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189143/retrospective-demonstration-of-25i-nbome-acute-poisoning-using-hair-analysis
#20
Alice Ameline, Audrey Farrugia, Jean-Sebastien Raul, Pascal Kintz
BACKGROUND: The abuse of new psychoactive substances or NPS has been dramatically increasing all around the world since the last half of the year 2000 and has become a serious public health problem. NPS are a challenge for the worldwide forensic community due to the difficulties to accurately document the cases. The N-benzylmethoxy (NBOMe) group is a new class of hallucinogenic designer drugs and has gained importance in recent years. 25I-NBOMe (2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)- methyl]ethanamine) is an analog of the 2C series of psychedelic phenethylamine drugs that contain an N-methoxybenzyl substituent, which significantly affects their pharmacological activities...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
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