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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150898/a-model-to-characterize-psychopathological-features-in-adults-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#1
Denise Thuilleaux, Virginie Laurier, Pierre Copet, Julie Tricot, Geneviève Demeer, Fabien Mourre, Maithé Tauber, Joseba Jauregi
High prevalence of behavioral and psychiatric disorders in adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) has been reported in last few years. However, data are confusing and often contradictory. In this article, we propose a model to achieve a better understanding of the psychopathological features in adults with PWS. The study is based on clinical observations of 150 adult inpatients, males and females. Non-parametric statistics were performed to analyse the association of psychopathological profiles with genotype, gender and age...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150666/dogs-reaction-to-inequity-is-affected-by-inhibitory-control
#2
Désirée Brucks, Friederike Range, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
Inequity aversion is thought to act as a mechanism to ensure cooperation and has been studied in many different species, consistently revealing inter-individual variation. Inhibitory control has been proposed to act as one factor responsible for this variation since individuals need to inhibit performing the required action and/or refuse rewards in order to exhibit inequity aversion. Here, we investigated if dogs' sensitivity to inequity is affected by their capacity for inhibitory control, assessed in a test battery and questionnaire...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149756/residual-anxiety-may-be-associated-with-depressive-relapse-during-continuation-therapy-of-bipolar-ii-depression
#3
Lorenzo Lorenzo-Luaces, Jay D Amsterdam, Robert J DeRubeis
BACKGROUND: Anxiety symptoms are common in bipolar disorder. We explored the effect of anxiety on the outcome of acute and continuation pharmacotherapy of bipolar II depression. METHODS: Data were derived from a randomized double-blind 12-week acute (N = 129) and 6-month continuation (N = 55) comparison of venlafaxine versus lithium monotherapy in bipolar II depression in adults. We distinguished between the items of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) that capture depression vs...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148122/altered-frontal-interhemispheric-and-fronto-limbic-structural-connectivity-in-unmedicated-adults-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
Xiaofu He, Emily Steinberg, Mihaela Stefan, Martine Fontaine, H Blair Simpson, Rachel Marsh
BACKGROUND: Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have primarily used voxel- or tract-based methods to assess white matter microstructure in medicated patients. This is the first probabilistic tractography study to assess the structural connectivity of all major white matter tracts in unmedicated adults with OCD without comorbid psychopathology. We hypothesized that OCD compared to healthy participants would show reduced integrity in frontal interhemispheric and fronto-limbic tracts...
November 16, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145184/addictive-non-drug-and-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-after-focal-brain-lesions
#5
René M Müri, Dario Cazzoli
This chapter presents an overview of different addictive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and their constellations due to focal brain lesions. In general, such symptoms are not systematically reported in the literature, and the knowledge about the networks involved is sometimes sparse. Finally, we present an original case with an unusual combination of kleptomania and hyper-religiosity.
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142296/the-dopamine-motive-system-implications-for-drug-and-food-addiction
#6
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Roy A Wise, Ruben Baler
Behaviours such as eating, copulating, defending oneself or taking addictive drugs begin with a motivation to initiate the behaviour. Both this motivational drive and the behaviours that follow are influenced by past and present experience with the reinforcing stimuli (such as drugs or energy-rich foods) that increase the likelihood and/or strength of the behavioural response (such as drug taking or overeating). At a cellular and circuit level, motivational drive is dependent on the concentration of extrasynaptic dopamine present in specific brain areas such as the striatum...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141254/role-of-glutamatergic-system-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-with-possible-therapeutic-implications
#7
Přemysl Vlček, Jakub Polák, Martin Brunovský, Jiří Horáček
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141084/association-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-with-objective-indicators-of-educational-attainment-a-nationwide-register-based-sibling-control-study
#8
Ana Pérez-Vigil, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Gustaf Brander, Kayoko Isomura, Andreas Jangmo, Inna Feldman, Eva Hesselmark, Eva Serlachius, Luisa Lázaro, Christian Rück, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Brian M D'Onofrio, Henrik Larsson, David Mataix-Cols
Importance: To our knowledge, the association of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and academic performance has not been objectively quantified. Objective: To investigate the association of OCD with objectively measured educational outcomes in a nationwide cohort, adjusting for covariates and unmeasured factors shared between siblings. Design, Setting, And Participants: This population-based birth cohort study included 2 115 554 individuals who were born in Sweden between January 1, 1976, and December 31, 1998, and followed up through December 31, 2013...
November 15, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140759/adult-profiles-of-child-sexual-abuse-survivors-attachment-insecurity-sexual-compulsivity-and-sexual-avoidance
#9
Chloe Labadie, Natacha Godbout, Marie-Pier Vaillancourt-Morel, Stéphane Sabourin
The present study examined the possibility of different groups of CSA survivors based on their different patterns of attachment and sexual problems. A sample of 324 CSA survivors and 484 participants who did not report any child maltreatment experiences completed online questionnaires. A cluster analysis on attachment and sexual outcomes revealed that CSA survivors formed two distinct profiles. The first profile included CSA survivors with elevated attachment anxiety and low to moderate scores on attachment avoidance, sexual compulsion, and sexual avoidance...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139213/heterogeneous-neuronal-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula-after-short-and-long-term-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#10
Ping Gao, Henk J Groenewegen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Pieter Voorn
Cocaine addiction is thought to be the result of drug-induced functional changes in a neural network implicated in emotions, learning, and cognitive control. Recent studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in drug-directed behavior, especially its aversive aspects. Limited cocaine exposure has been shown to alter neuronal activity in the LHb, but the impact of long-term drug exposure on habenula function has not been determined. Therefore, using c-fos as a marker, we here examined neuronal activity in LHb in rats that self-administered cocaine for either 10 or 60 days...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139125/validation-of-the-distress-tolerance-scale-short-form-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Lauryn E Garner, Nathaniel Van Kirk, Eric D Tifft, Jason W Krompinger, Brittany M Mathes, Maria Fraire, Martha J Falkenstein, Brian P Brennan, Jesse M Crosby, Jason A Elias
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and validate the Distress Tolerance Scale-Short Form (DTS-SF), a modification of the original Distress Tolerance Scale, in a severe/complex sample of individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Currently, there are multiple self-report measurements of distress tolerance (DT), highlighting the need for a more refined measure. METHOD: Participants included 222 individuals with a primary diagnosis of OCD (57% male, average age = 31) seeking intensive/residential treatment...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134496/an-analysis-of-treatment-seeking-behavior-in-individuals-with-gambling-disorder
#12
Michael D Harries, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
Gambling disorder affects approximately 1.1-3.5% of the population, with the rates being higher in young adults. Despite this high prevalence, little is known regarding which pathological gamblers decide to seek treatment. This study sought to examine the differences in three groups of pathological gamblers: those who did not seek treatment (n = 94), those who sought therapy (n = 106) and those who sought medication therapy (n = 680). All subjects were assessed on a variety of measures including demographics, family history, gambling history, comorbid psychiatric disorders and an assortment of clinical variables such as the Quality of Life Inventory, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales, Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Pathologic Gambling (PG-YBOCS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire and select cognitive tasks...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133949/a-total-population-multigenerational-family-clustering-study-of-autoimmune-diseases-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-tourette-s-chronic-tic-disorders
#13
D Mataix-Cols, E Frans, A Pérez-Vigil, R Kuja-Halkola, C Gromark, K Isomura, L Fernández de la Cruz, E Serlachius, J F Leckman, J J Crowley, C Rück, C Almqvist, P Lichtenstein, H Larsson
The association between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's/chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD) with autoimmune diseases (ADs) is uncertain. In this nationwide study, we sought to clarify the patterns of comorbidity and familial clustering of a broad range of ADs in individuals with OCD, individuals with TD/CTD and their biological relatives. From a birth cohort of 7 465 455 individuals born in Sweden between 1940 and 2007, we identified 30 082 OCD and 7279 TD/CTD cases in the National Patient Register and followed them up to 31 December 2013...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131058/nonfunctional-redundant-acts-characterize-ocd-even-in-ocd-unrelated-tasks-a-demonstration-in-questionnaire-completion
#14
Maya Amitai, Nitzan Arnon, Noa Shaham, Shay Gur, Alan Apter, Abraham Weizman, Haggai Hermesh
BACKGROUND: Ethological methods used to analyze human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rituals demonstrated excess of unnecessary repetitions as well as irrelevant, idiosyncratic acts (additions) compared to normal activity. A question that still remains is whether these well-known repetitions and additions are manifested in behaviors unrelated to the OCD rituals. Our objectives were to: (1) assess whether OCD-related repetitions and additions as found in previous studies also affect the patients' activity of filling out questionnaires and (2) evaluate the specificity of these behaviors to OCD as opposed to other anxiety disorders and healthy controls...
November 3, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129722/an-extended-history-of-drug-self-administration-results-in-multiple-sources-of-control-over-drug-seeking-behavior
#15
REVIEW
Kelly J Clemens, Nathan M Holmes
It is widely recognized that across the development of drug addiction, cues associated with drug use come to exert increasing control over drug seeking and taking behaviors. However, there remain gaps in our knowledge regarding how the different types of drug related cues affect drug seeking and taking behaviors, and how the emergence of cue control over these behaviors relates to the onset of drug seeking compulsions. This paper reviews the literature on drug self-administration in animals to address these gaps...
November 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128549/personality-traits-and-appearance-ideal-internalization-differential-associations-with-body-dissatisfaction-and-compulsive-exercise
#16
Shelby J Martin, Sarah E Racine
Thin-ideal internalization is a robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Conversely, athletic-ideal internalization is often unrelated to body dissatisfaction, but predicts compulsive exercise (i.e., rigid, rule-driven exercise that is continued despite adverse consequences). Distinct personality traits could relate to internalization of different appearance ideals, which may be associated with divergent eating disorder outcomes. Past research has shown that neuroticism is related to body dissatisfaction, whereas extraversion and conscientiousness have been associated with regular and problematic exercise...
November 6, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126783/two-case-reports-using-simulated-reattachment-to-treat-persistent-complex-bereavement-disorder-and-ptsd
#17
Mark Rider
These case reports focus on a rapid treatment for persistent complex bereavement disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which appears to activate the mirror neuron network. Simulated reattachment is a technique which has been found to repair phantom limb pain in just a few sessions. The same neuroplasticity that accomplishes phantom pain relief has been found to occur in the treatment of complicated grief and PTSD using similar methods. The simulated reattachment for the client in Case one was found to significantly reduce the symptoms of both complicated grief and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) within one session...
October 6, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126394/prospective-study-of-autism-phenomenology-and-the-behavioural-phenotype-of-phelan-mcdermid-syndrome-comparison-to-fragile-x-syndrome-down-syndrome-and-idiopathic-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Caroline Richards, Laurie Powis, Jo Moss, Christopher Stinton, Lisa Nelson, Christopher Oliver
BACKGROUND: The limited behavioural phenotype literature on Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) indicates atypically high levels of activity, impulsivity and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviours. Divergent profiles of ASD in PMS are also reported, with some studies demonstrating similarities to idiopathic ASD and others indicating an uneven profile of social and communication impairments and repetitive behaviours. An evaluation of the behavioural phenotype of PMS and the prevalence and phenomenology of ASD is warranted, particularly given the causal involvement of the SHANK3 gene in the aetiology of PMS...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126298/what-proportion-of-people-who-try-one-cigarette-become-daily-smokers-a-meta-analysis-of-representative-surveys
#19
Max Birge, Stephen Duffy, Joanna Astrid Miler, Peter Hajek
Introduction: The 'conversion rate' from initial experimentation to daily smoking is a potentially important metric of smoking behavior, but estimates of it based on current representative data are lacking. Methods: The Global Health Data Exchange was searched for representative surveys conducted in English speaking, developed countries after year 2000 that included questions about ever trying a cigarette and ever smoking daily. The initial search identified 2776 surveys that were further screened for language, location, year, sample size, survey structure and representativeness...
November 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125957/a-network-perspective-on-comorbid-depression-in-adolescents-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Payton J Jones, Patrick Mair, Bradley C Riemann, Beth L Mugno, Richard J McNally
People with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD] frequently suffer from depression, a comorbidity associated with greater symptom severity and suicide risk. We examined the associations between OCD and depression symptoms in 87 adolescents with primary OCD. We computed an association network, a graphical LASSO, and a directed acyclic graph (DAG) to model symptom interactions. Models showed OCD and depression as separate syndromes linked by bridge symptoms. Bridges between the two disorders emerged between obsessional problems in the OCD syndrome, and guilt, concentration problems, and sadness in the depression syndrome...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
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