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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922559/quarantine-isolation-and-the-duty-of-easy-rescue-in-public
#1
Alberto Giubilini, Thomas Douglas, Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu
We address the issue of whether, why and under what conditions, quarantine and isolation are morally justified, with a particular focus on measures implemented in the developing world. We argue that the benefits of quarantine and isolation justify some level of coercion or compulsion by the state, but that the state should be able to provide the strongest justification possible for implementing such measures. While a constrained form of consequentialism might provide a justification for such public health interventions, we argue that a stronger justification is provided by a principle of State Enforced Easy Rescue: a state may permissibly compel individuals to engage in activities that entail a small cost to them but a large benefit to others, because individuals have a moral duty of easy rescue to engage in those activities...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922290/effectiveness-of-low-dose-aripiprazole-monotherapy-in-the-treatment-for-an-adolescent-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#2
Merve Sertdemir, Ömer Faruk Akça
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922069/glutamatergic-agents-in-the-treatment-of-compulsivity-and-impulsivity-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#3
Konstantin Mechler, Alexander Häge, Nina Schweinfurth, Jeffrey C Glennon, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Declan Murphy, Sarah Durston, Steven Williams, Jan K Buitelaar, Tobias Banaschewski, Ralf W Dittmann, The Tactics Consortium
OBJECTIVE: Research has implicated glutamatergic projections between the various frontal subregions in the pathogenesis of compulsivity and impulsivity. Reducing striatal glutamate release, or antagonising the action of glutamate at its receptors, may therefore represent viable treatment strategies. Several glutamatergic agents with regulatory approval for other indications are available and may be of potential benefit in the treatment of compulsivity/impulsivity in psychiatric disorders in paediatric patients...
September 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919875/psychological-support-for-young-adults-with-down-syndrome-dohsa-hou-program-for-maladaptive-behaviors-and-internalizing-problems
#4
Haruo Fujino
Psychological and psychiatric dysfunction is a major problem in a substantial proportion of young adults with Down syndrome. Some patients develop psychiatric issues, such as depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or psychotic-like disorders, in their late adolescence or young adulthood. Furthermore, these individuals may experience moderate to severe emotional and psychological distress. Development of a psychosocial treatment to address these issues is needed in addition to psychotropic medication. The current study reports two cases of young adults with Down syndrome, who presented psychiatric symptoms and marked disruption in their daily lives...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919236/biomarkers-for-diagnosis-of-pediatric-acute-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-pans-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-cunningham-panel
#5
Eva Hesselmark, Susanne Bejerot
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are conditions marked by sudden onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), tics, or avoidant/restrictive food intake in combination with multiple psychiatric symptoms. A diagnosis of PANS or PANDAS may be supported by the Cunningham Panel, a commercially available set of immunologic assays currently in clinical use. However, the relationship between Cunningham Panel results and patient symptoms remains unclear...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918693/cognitive-control-networks-in-ocd-a-resting-state-connectivity-study-in-unmedicated-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-their-unaffected-relatives
#6
Froukje E de Vries, Stella J de Wit, Odile A van den Heuvel, Dick J Veltman, Danielle C Cath, Anton J L M van Balkom, Ysbrand D van der Werf
OBJECTIVES: Executive network deficits are putative neurocognitive endophenotypes for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Yet, unlike alterations in fronto-striatal and limbic connectivity, connectivity in the fronto-parietal (FPN) and cingulo-opercular (CON) networks involved in cognitive control has received little attention. METHODS: The coherence of FPN, CON and fronto-limbic networks was investigated in 39 unmedicated OCD patients, 16 of their unaffected siblings and 36 healthy controls using resting-state functional-connectivity MRI and a seed-based analysis approach...
September 18, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918645/increasing-availability-of-exposure-therapy-through-intensive-group-treatment-for-childhood-anxiety-and-ocd
#7
Stephen P H Whiteside, Julie E Dammann, Michael S Tiede, Bridget K Biggs, Andrea Hillson Jensen
Archival data were used to examine the feasibility of a 5-day, clinic-based, intensive exposure-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy for childhood anxiety disorders (CADs) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Participants were 143 children (82 girls) aged 6 to 19 years ( M = 13.93 years, SD = 2.9 years) with CADs or OCD (or both) in 28 consecutive groups. Repeated-measures ANOVA in the subsample ( n = 57) with complete treatment data indicated positive change on all variables from pretreatment to posttreatment with few differences between CADs and OCD patients...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918416/-the-methodology-and-sample-description-of-the-national-survey-on-addiction-problems-in-hungary-2015-nsaph-2015
#8
Borbala Paksi, Zsolt Demetrovics, Anna Magi, Katalin Felvinczi
This paper introduces the methods and methodological findings of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary (NSAPH 2015). Use patterns of smoking, alcohol use and other psychoactive substances were measured as well as that of certain behavioural addictions (problematic gambling - PGSI, DSM-V, eating disorders - SCOFF, problematic internet use - PIUQ, problematic on-line gaming - POGO, problematic social media use - FAS, exercise addictions - EAI-HU, work addiction - BWAS, compulsive buying - CBS)...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918268/a-structural-mri-study-of-excoriation-skin-picking-disorder-and-its-relationship-to-clinical-severity
#9
Michael D Harries, Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Brian L Odlaug, Austin W Blum, Jon E Grant
Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) shares symptomology with other obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Few studies, however, have examined the neurological profile of patients with SPD. This study examined differences in cortical thickness and basal ganglia structural volumes between 20 individuals with SPD and 16 healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no significant differences in demographic variables (age, gender, education and race) between groups. All subjects completed a structural MRI scan and completed a battery of clinical assessments focusing on SPD symptom severity, depression and anxiety symptoms, and quality of life...
September 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918267/compulsivity-in-opioid-dependence
#10
Serenella Tolomeo, Keith Matthews, J Douglas Steele, Alex Baldacchino
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between compulsivity versus impulsivity and structural MRI abnormalities in opioid dependence. METHOD: We recruited 146 participants: i) patients with a history of opioid dependence due to chronic heroin use (n=24), ii) heroin users stabilised on methadone maintenance treatment (n=48), iii) abstinent participants with a history of opioid dependence due to heroin use (n=24) and iv) healthy controls (n=50)...
September 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916503/altered-serotonergic-and-gabaergic-neurotransmission-in-a-mice-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Christine Winter, Dana M Greene, Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou, Helge Schaper, Reinhard Sohr, Abel Bult-Ito, Georg Juckel
There is ample evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is based on reduced serotonergic function. Replicated bidirectional selection for thermoregulatory nest-building behavior in the laboratory house mouse (Mus musculus) resulted in compulsive-like, non-compulsive-like and randomly bred control mice that represent a non-induced animal model of OCD. The present study aimed at investigating the neurochemical patterns in specific brain regions of compulsive-like (HA) versus non-compulsive-like (LA) and normal (CA) mice...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915380/oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-exert-a-modulating-effect-on-the-onset-age-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Jee In Kang, Hae Won Kim, Chul Hoon Kim, Eun Hee Hwang, Se Joo Kim
The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) is a potential candidate in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study investigated the association between common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) of the OXTR gene and the affected status of OCD or distinct clinical subtypes of OCD including the age at onset and symptom dimensions. Ten SNPs of OXTR were examined in 615 patients with OCD and 581 healthy controls. Single-marker and haplotype-based association analyses were conducted. While OXTR variants were not associated with the affected status of OCD or its clinical symptom dimensions, rs2268493 (p=0...
September 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911050/motor-abnormalities-from-neurodevelopmental-to-neurodegenerative-through-functional-neuro-psychiatric-disorders
#13
Victor Peralta, Manuel J Cuesta
Background: Motor abnormalities (MAs) of severe mental disorders have been traditionally neglected both in clinical practice and research, although they are an increasing focus of attention because of their clinical and neurobiological relevance. For historical reasons, most of the literature on MAs has been focused to a great extent on schizophrenia, and as a consequence their prevalence and featural properties in other psychiatric or neuropsychiatric disorders are poorly known. In this article, we evaluated the extent to which catatonic, extrapyramidal and neurological soft signs, and their associated clinical features, are present transdiagnostically...
September 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910177/development-and-validation-of-a-brief-measure-of-eating-compulsivity-mec
#14
Ria Schroder, John Douglas Sellman, Simon Adamson
Food addiction is increasingly being recognised as a contributory factor in overweight and obesity. Management of eating compulsivity, a key component of food addiction, may assist greatly in the successful treatment of obesity. Measurement of food addiction and its core characteristic of eating compulsivity is fundamental to increasing understandings of the concept of food addiction, its prevalence among people with and without obesity and its utility within a treatment context. The current study describes the development and initial validation of a brief measure of eating compulsivity that can be used within clinical and research settings to establish a person's level of eating compulsivity...
September 14, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910139/quality-of-life-in-children-and-youth-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
Eric A Storch, Brent J Small, Joseph F McGuire, Tanya K Murphy, Sabine Wilhelm, Daniel A Geller
OBJECTIVE: The study examined clinical correlates of quality of life (QoL), impact of treatment on QoL, and predictors of QoL change among children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: One hundred forty-two children with primary OCD who were enrolled as part of a larger clinical trial participated. Children were administered a structured diagnostic interview, as well as clinician-administered measures of OCD and depression symptom severity. Children and parents completed reports of QoL, as well as measures of impairment and internalizing and externalizing symptoms...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904893/surgical-patient-selection-and-counseling
#16
REVIEW
Matt Ziegelmann, Tobias S Köhler, George C Bailey, Tanner Miest, Manaf Alom, Landon Trost
The objectives of patient selection and counseling are ultimately to enhance successful outcomes. However, the definition for success is often narrowly defined in published literature (ability to complete surgery, complications, satisfaction) and fails to account for patient desires and expectations, temporal changes, natural history of underlying diseases, or independent validation. Factors associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction are often surgery-specific, although correlation with pre-operative expectations, revisions, and complications are common with most procedures...
August 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904515/psychogenic-polydipsia-management-challenges
#17
M S Bhatia, Aparna Goyal, Rashmita Saha, Nimisha Doval
Compulsive water drinking or psychogenic polydipsia is now increasingly seen in psychiatric populations. Effects of increased water intake can lead to hyponatremia causing symptoms of nausea, vomiting, seizures, delirium and can even be life threatening if not recognized and managed early. Here we present a 35-year old adult who was diagnosed with psychogenic polydipsia and was successfully managed with a combination of pharmacotherapy, fluid restriction and psychosocial management.
June 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904509/peripheral-slc6a4-gene-expression-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-the-han-chinese-population
#18
Xuemei Wang, Qing Zhao, Wen Chen, Shunying Yu, Zhen Wang, Zeping Xiao
BACKGROUND: Serotonergic system dysfunction has been implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study examined peripheral SLC6A4 gene expression in OCD patients and healthy controls to explore the relationship between SLC6A4 and OCD. METHODS: Participants included 50 first episode OCD patients and 60 age and gender-matched healthy controls. Relative SLC6A4 gene expression were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in peripheral leukocytes of all the subjects...
June 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903922/risk-of-relapse-after-antidepressant-discontinuation-in-anxiety-disorders-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-relapse-prevention-trials
#19
Neeltje M Batelaan, Renske C Bosman, Anna Muntingh, Willemijn D Scholten, Klaas M Huijbregts, Anton J L M van Balkom
Objectives To examine the risk of relapse and time to relapse after discontinuation of antidepressants in patients with anxiety disorder who responded to antidepressants, and to explore whether relapse risk is related to type of anxiety disorder, type of antidepressant, mode of discontinuation, duration of treatment and follow-up, comorbidity, and allowance of psychotherapy.Design Systematic review and meta-analyses of relapse prevention trials.Data sources PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and clinical trial registers (from inception to July 2016)...
September 13, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898308/-the-treatment-of-cannabis-dependence-clinical-work-psychotherapy-and-evidence
#20
José Capece, Federico Pavlovsky
Identifying compulsive consumption of marijuana in association with another mental disorder (attentional defcit disorder, bipolar disorder, depression or psychosis) presents the challenge of clarifying validated therapeutic strategies, especially within the teen population, in which it shows the highest prevalence. The ever-increasing prevalence and the need for regional treatments, demand that we approach this health matter as a public health issue. The ideological con?icts related to the necessary decriminalization of consumption and the current debate on the medical use of marijuana often confuse the urgent need to establish effective therapeutic strategies for the population affected by this mental disorder...
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
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