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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654682/low-intensity-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-interventions-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-compared-to-waiting-list-for-therapist-led-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-3-arm-randomised-controlled-trial-of-clinical-effectiveness
#1
Karina Lovell, Peter Bower, Judith Gellatly, Sarah Byford, Penny Bee, Dean McMillan, Catherine Arundel, Simon Gilbody, Lina Gega, Gillian Hardy, Shirley Reynolds, Michael Barkham, Patricia Mottram, Nicola Lidbetter, Rebecca Pedley, Jo Molle, Emily Peckham, Jasmin Knopp-Hoffer, Owen Price, Janice Connell, Margaret Heslin, Christopher Foley, Faye Plummer, Christopher Roberts
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is prevalent and without adequate treatment usually follows a chronic course. "High-intensity" cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) from a specialist therapist is current "best practice." However, access is difficult because of limited numbers of therapists and because of the disabling effects of OCD symptoms. There is a potential role for "low-intensity" interventions as part of a stepped care model. Low-intensity interventions (written or web-based materials with limited therapist support) can be provided remotely, which has the potential to increase access...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653664/compulsive-seekers-our-take-two-clinicians-perspective-on-a-new-animal-model-of-addiction
#2
David H Epstein, William J Kowalczyk
Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 27 June 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.132.
June 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653044/neuroclinical-framework-for-the-role-of-stress-in-addiction
#3
Laura E Kwako, George F Koob
Addiction has been conceptualized as a three-stage cycle-binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation-that worsens over time and involves allostatic changes in hedonic function via changes in the brain reward and stress systems. Using the withdrawal/negative affect stage and negative reinforcement as an important source of motivation for compulsive drug seeking, we outline the neurobiology of the stress component of the withdrawal/negative affect stage and relate it to a derivative of the Research Domain Criteria research construct for the study of psychiatric disease, known as the Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment...
February 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651666/genetic-and-phenotypic-overlap-of-specific-obsessive-compulsive-and-attention-deficit-hyperactive-subtypes-with-tourette-syndrome
#4
M E Hirschtritt, S M Darrow, C Illmann, L Osiecki, M Grados, P Sandor, Y Dion, R A King, D Pauls, C L Budman, D C Cath, E Greenberg, G J Lyon, D Yu, L M McGrath, W M McMahon, P C Lee, K L Delucchi, J M Scharf, C A Mathews
BACKGROUND: The unique phenotypic and genetic aspects of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) are not well characterized. Here, we examine symptom patterns and heritability of OCD and ADHD in TS families. METHOD: OCD and ADHD symptom patterns were examined in TS patients and their family members (N = 3494) using exploratory factor analyses (EFA) for OCD and ADHD symptoms separately, followed by latent class analyses (LCA) of the resulting OCD and ADHD factor sum scores jointly; heritability and clinical relevance of the resulting factors and classes were assessed...
June 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651226/insight-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder-bdd-relative-to-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd-and-psychotic-disorders-revisiting-this-issue-in-light-of-dsm-5
#5
Wei Lin Toh, David J Castle, Rachel L Mountjoy, Ben Buchanan, John Farhall, Susan L Rossell
INTRODUCTION: In DSM-5, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) was reclassified under the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs), but little is known about the nature of BDD beliefs. This study aimed to compare level of insight in BDD and consider related implications for DSM-5 classification. METHOD: Participants were 27 BDD, 19 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 20 psychosis (SZ) participants as well as 42 non-clinical controls (NC), who completed the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS) and Peters Delusions Inventory (PDI)...
June 8, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649993/kappa-opioid-receptor-activation-in-dopamine-neurons-disrupts-behavioral-inhibition
#6
Antony D Abraham, Harrison M Fontaine, Allisa J Song, Mackenzie M Andrews, Madison A Baird, Brigitte L Kieffer, Benjamin B Land, Charles Chavkin
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system has been previously implicated in the regulation of cognition, but the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms underlying KOR-mediated cognitive disruption are unknown. Here, we used an operational test of cognition involving timing and behavioral inhibition and found that systemic KOR activation impairs performance of male and female C57BL/6 mice in the differential reinforcement of low response rates (DRL) task. Systemic KOR antagonism also blocked stress-induced disruptions of DRL performance...
June 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649864/the-french-addictovigilance-network-clinical-assessment-z-drugs-true-false-twins
#7
Morgane Rousselet, Fanny Feuillet, Marie Gerardin, Pascale Jolliet, Jean-Benoit Hardouin, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau
INTRODUCTION: In France, an addictovigilance network is responsible for evaluating drug dependence, by drawing on pharmacoepidemiological studies, clinical studies and by assessing healthcare professionals' reports on problematic consumption. METHODS: The aim of this study was to determine whether zolpidem and zopiclone have different dependence profiles, based on healthcare professionals' reports, and to identify various consumer dependence profiles among zolpidem users and among zopiclone users...
June 26, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647677/buprenorphine-augmentation-improved-symptoms-of-ocd-compared-to-placebo-results-from-a-randomized-double-blind-and-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#8
Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Amin Reihani, Ali Ghaleiha, Alireza Soltanian, Mohammad Haghighi, Leila Jahangard, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: In the search for new psychopharmacologic options in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), some findings suggested that augmentation with buprenorphine, a partial-opioid agonist used to treat opioid addiction, moderate acute pain and moderate chronic pain, is worthy of consideration. Accordingly, to explore this possibility further, a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed. METHOD: A total of 43 patients (mean age: 34...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647538/why-we-need-to-understand-service-variation-in-compulsion
#9
Jorun Rugkåsa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647537/variation-in-compulsory-psychiatric-inpatient-admission-in-england-a-cross-classified-multilevel-analysis
#10
Scott Weich, Orla McBride, Liz Twigg, Craig Duncan, Patrick Keown, David Crepaz-Keay, Eva Cyhlarova, Helen Parsons, Jan Scott, Kamaldeep Bhui
BACKGROUND: The increasing rate of compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient beds in England is worrying. Studying variation between places and services could be key to identifying targets for interventions to reverse this trend. We modelled spatial variation in compulsory admissions in England using national patient-level data and quantified the extent to which patient, local-area, and service-setting characteristics accounted for this variation. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional, multilevel analysis of the 2010-11 Mental Health Minimum Data Set (MHMDS)...
June 21, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647013/autism-spectrum-symptoms-in-a-tourette-s-disorder-sample
#11
Sabrina M Darrow, Marco Grados, Paul Sandor, Matthew E Hirschtritt, Cornelia Illmann, Lisa Osiecki, Yves Dion, Robert King, David Pauls, Cathy L Budman, Danielle C Cath, Erica Greenberg, Gholson J Lyon, William M McMahon, Paul C Lee, Kevin L Delucchi, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews
OBJECTIVE: Tourette's disorder (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share clinical features and possibly an overlapping etiology. The aims of this study were to examine ASD symptom rates in participants with TD, and to characterize the relationships between ASD symptom patterns and TD, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Participants with TD (n = 535) and their family members (n =234) recruited for genetic studies reported TD, OCD, and ADHD symptoms and completed the Social Responsiveness Scale Second Edition (SRS), which was used to characterize ASD symptoms...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645268/how-can-technology-enhance-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-the-case-of-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Lidewij H Wolters, Vivian Op de Beek, Bernhard Weidle, Norbert Skokauskas
Many children with mental health disorders do not receive adequate treatment due to the uneven dissemination of resources, and other barriers to treatment. In the case of pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder treatment progress is also hindered by partial or non-response to treatment in addition to poor compliance. This debate paper focuses on new technologies as a potential vehicle to address the challenges faced by traditional treatment, with special reference to cognitive behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder...
June 23, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645075/a-prospective-follow-up-study-of-younger-and-older-subjects-with-pathological-gambling
#13
Donald W Black, William Coryell, Brett McCormick, Martha Shaw, Jeff Allen
Pathological gambling (PG) is a common and costly public health problem associated with impaired quality of life and high suicide rates. Despite its frequency in the general population, PG course is poorly understood in older adults who are especially vulnerable to its devastating consequences. We enrolled 175 subjects in a longitudinal study of gambling behavior: our case group of 53 older adults with PG (≥ 60 years), and two comparison groups including 72 younger adults with PG (< 40 years) and 50 older adults without PG (≥ 60 years)...
June 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642831/treatment-of-hypochondriasis-in-two-schizophrenia-patients-using-clozapine
#14
Antonio Tundo, Luca Proietti, Rocco de Filippis
Hypochondriasis (HYPO), an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder, is frequent in patients with schizophrenia (SCH) (20%), especially among those treated with clozapine (36.7%). Treatment options for OCS/OCD in patients under clozapine (CLZ) include combining clozapine with amisulpride/aripiprazole or a mood stabilizer, augmenting clozapine with a serotoninergic reuptake inhibitor, adding cognitive behavioural therapy, and gradually reducing dosage. No treatments have been proposed for HYPO in patients using clozapine so we examine these options in 2 cases and report the results...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642692/beyond-neuronal-activity-markers-select-immediate-early-genes-in-striatal-neuron-subtypes-functionally-mediate-psychostimulant-addiction
#15
REVIEW
Ramesh Chandra, Mary Kay Lobo
Immediate early genes (IEGs) were traditionally used as markers of neuronal activity in striatum in response to stimuli including drugs of abuse such as psychostimulants. Early studies using these neuronal activity markers led to important insights in striatal neuron subtype responsiveness to psychostimulants. Such studies have helped identify striatum as a critical brain center for motivational, reinforcement and habitual behaviors in psychostimulant addiction. While the use of IEGs as neuronal activity markers in response to psychostimulants and other stimuli persists today, the functional role and implications of these IEGs has often been neglected...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641965/animal-models-of-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction-present-problems-and-future-needs-for-translational-approaches
#16
REVIEW
Christian P Müller
Drug addiction is a psychiatric disorder based on a dysfunction of the brain. It frequently develops from a controlled drug consumption and drug instrumentalization (DI). Thereby, DI is the use of a drug to improve specific non-drug related behaviors, beyond the drug's direct positive or negative reinforcing effects. Currently available pharmacotherapies for drug addiction show low effect size and rather limited long-term efficacy, which suggests that current theories on addiction are still insufficient in how they capture the phenomenon and how they allow predictions for highly efficient treatments...
June 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641744/polygenic-risk-score-and-heritability-estimates-reveals-a-genetic-relationship-between-asd-and-ocd
#17
W Guo, J F Samuels, Y Wang, H Cao, M Ritter, P S Nestadt, J Krasnow, B D Greenberg, A J Fyer, J T McCracken, D A Geller, D L Murphy, J A Knowles, M A Grados, M A Riddle, S A Rasmussen, N C McLaughlin, E L Nurmi, K D Askland, B A Cullen, J Piacentini, D L Pauls, O J Bienvenu, S E Stewart, F S Goes, B Maher, A E Pulver, D Valle, M Mattheisen, J Qian, G Nestadt, Y Y Shugart
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that conceivably share genetic risk factors. However, the underlying genetic determinants remain largely unknown. In this work, the authors describe a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ASD and OCD. The OCD dataset includes 2998 individuals in nuclear families. The ASD dataset includes 6898 individuals in case-parents trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for potential enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions...
July 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638200/brain-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-concentration-of-the-prefrontal-lobe-in-unmedicated-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-research-of-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#18
Zongfeng Zhang, Qing Fan, Yanle Bai, Zhen Wang, Haiyin Zhang, Zeping Xiao
BACKGROUND: In recent years, a large number of neuroimaging studies found that the Cortico-Striato- Thalamo-Cortical circuit (CSTC), including the prefrontal lobe, a significant part of CSTC, has disturbance metabolically in patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). AIM: Explore the correlation between the neuro-metabolic features and clinical characteristics of OCD patients using magnetic resonance spectroscopy technology. METHODS: 88 patients with OCD who were not received medication and outpatient treatment for 8 weeks and 76 health controls were enrolled, there was no significant difference in gender, age or education level between the two groups...
October 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636929/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-alteration-of-dorsal-and-rostral-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-resting-fmri-study
#19
Zongfeng Zhang, Qing Fan, Yajing Zhu, Ling Tan, Yongjun Chen, Rui Gao, Haiyin Zhang, Yao Li, Zeping Xiao
Cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit has been implicated in OCD pathophysiology by converging neuroimaging findings. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as an important part within CSTC circuit, plays a critical role in OCD etiology. The ACC can be divided into dorsal and rostral parts anatomically, which are involved in cognitive process and emotional function, respectively. However, the diverse function of intrinsic signals from dorsal and rostral ACC regions remains unclear in OCD study. In this work, we applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) technology to investigate and differentiate the functional connectivity (FC) characteristics between dACC and rACC in unmedicated OCD patients...
June 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636705/inflammation-in-the-neurocircuitry-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Sophia Attwells, Elaine Setiawan, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Margaret Anne Richter, Alan Kahn, Stephen J Kish, Sylvain Houle, Lakshmi Ravindran, Jeffrey H Meyer
Importance: For a small percentage of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cases exhibiting additional neuropsychiatric symptoms, it was proposed that neuroinflammation occurs in the basal ganglia as an autoimmune response to infections. However, it is possible that elevated neuroinflammation, inducible by a diverse range of mechanisms, is important throughout the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit of OCD. Identifying brain inflammation is possible with the recent advance in positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands that bind to the translocator protein (TSPO)...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
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