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Lucky Legbosi Nwidu, Raphael Ellis Teme
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Lasianthera africana (Icacinaceae) against isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF)-induced liver damage in rats. METHODS: The hepatoprotective effects of hot aqueous L. africana (HALA) leaf extract (0.1-1 g/kg) and silymarin (50 mg/kg) were assessed in a model of oxidative liver damage induced by RIF and INH (100 mg/kg each) in Wistar rats for 28 days. Biochemical markers of hepatic damage such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assessed...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Rasool Haddadi, Alireza Mohajjel Nayebi, Shahla Eyvari Brooshghalan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several lines of evidence show that apoptosis, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are associated with the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we investigated the effect of pre-treatment with silymarin (SM) on oxidative stress, apoptosis and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in substantia nigra pars copmacta (SNc) of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. METHODS: Animals were pretreated with 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg of SM daily for 5 days and at 6th day 6-OHDA (8 μg/2 μl) was infused unilaterally into the central region of the SNc...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Dong-Hoon Won, Lee-Han Kim, Boonsil Jang, In-Hyoung Yang, Hye-Jeong Kwon, Bohwan Jin, Seung Hyun Oh, Ju-Hee Kang, Seong-Doo Hong, Ji-Ae Shin, Sung-Dae Cho
Silymarin, a standardized extract from milk thistle fruits has been found to exhibit anti-cancer effects against various cancers. Here, we explored the anti-cancer activity of silymarin and its molecular target in human oral cancer in vitro and in vivo. Silymarin dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of HSC-4 oral cancer cells and promoted caspase-dependent apoptosis. A human apoptosis protein array kit showed that death receptor 5 may be involved in silymarin-induced apoptosis, which was also shown through western blotting, immunocytochemistry, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
May 2018: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Hammad Ullah, Haroon Khan
Parkinson's disease (PD) involves aggregation of α-synuclein and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Pathogenesis of PD may also be related to one's genetic background. PD is most common among geriatric population and approximately 1-2% of population suffers over age 65 years. Currently no successful therapies are in practice for the management of PD and available therapies tend to decrease the symptoms of PD only. Furthermore, these are associated with diverse range of adverse effects profile. The neuroprotective effects of polyphenols are widely studied and documented...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Chun-Ping Lu, Chien-Yu Huang, Szu-Hsuan Wang, Chih-Hsien Chiu, Lan-Hui Li, Kuo-Feng Hua, Tzu-Hua Wu
Macrophages and inflammasome pathway are involved in high-glucose toxicity and development of insulin resistance. Silymarin (SMR) was known to modulate glucose homeostasis and reduce inflammation. However, it is still unknown whether SMR possess anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetic-like knockout mice (Hnf-1αkin/- /Ins.cre mice) with insulin resistance and also unclear how SMR regulates LPS induced stress markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines under stresses of high glucose (HG) or NLRP3 inflammasome activation...
May 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Mardi M Algandaby
Liver fibrosis is a major health concern that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Up-to-date, there is no standard treatment for fibrosis because of its complex pathogenesis. Crocin is one of the main nutraceuticals isolated from the stigma of Crocus sativus with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The current study aimed at evaluating the potential antifibrotic activity of crocin against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in mice as well as the underlying mechanism using silymarin as a reference antifibrotic product...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Maryam Vahabzadeh, Nafise Amiri, Gholamreza Karimi
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome is one of the rising global health problems and medical challenges due to several clinical complications it may cause, for example increasing the risk of myocardial infarction and hypertension. On the other hand, great attention has been directed toward determining the worthiness of herbal medicines. There are emerging studies on preventive and therapeutic effects of silymarin on different components of the metabolic syndrome. Extracted from the dried seeds of milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum L...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
BACKGROUND: To compare the efficacy and safety of desferrioxamine (DFO), deferiprone (DFP), deferasirox (DFX) and silymarin in patients with either thalassemia or sickle cell disorder through network meta-analysis. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for appropriate randomized clinical trials comparing iron chelators in patients with iron overload. Random effects model was used to generate direct, indirect and mixed treatment comparison pooled estimates for the following outcomes: serum ferritin, liver iron concentration (LIC), changes in serum ferritin, mortality, urine iron excretion, adverse events, neutropenia, agranulocytosis and number of patients withdrawing the chelating therapy...
May 4, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Roghiyeh Faridnia, Hamed Kalani, Mahdi Fakhar, Javad Akhtari
Cutaneous leishmaniosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by various Leishmania species. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of silibinin and silymarin on the in vitro growth and proliferation of promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania major compared to glucantime-treated parasites. The promastigotes and amastigotes of this parasite were treated with the two drugs, silibinin and silymarin, in several concentrations (25–100 μM). The highest effect on promastigotes was for silymarin in concentration of 100 μM with 90% and 91% death rate at hours 48 and 72, respectively...
2018: Annals of Parasitology
Satish Kanhar, Atish Kumar Sahoo, Ajay Kumar Mahapatra
The purpose of this study was to evaluate ameliorative effects of Homalium nepalense Benth. (Flacourtiaceae) on CCl4 -induced hepatocellular injury in rats. Oxygen-radical absorbance-capacity (ORAC) and cell-based-antioxidant-protection-in-erythrocytes (CAP-e) were performed and found that the ethyl acetate fractions of bark (HNEB) and leaf (HNEL) showed a remarkable degree of antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner. Antioxidant potential HNEB was higher than HNEL and was comparable with trolox. HNEB and HNEL at 300 and 400 mg/kg showed significant hepatoprotective activities against CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity as evidenced by restoration of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, TB and TP level...
April 23, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Somit Dutta, Arnab Kumar Chakraborty, Priyankar Dey, Pallab Kar, Pokhraj Guha, Subhajit Sen, Anoop Kumar, Arnab Sen, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri
The progress in industrialization has blessed mankind with a technologically superior lifestyle but poor management of industrial waste has in turn poisoned nature. One such chemical is carbon tetra chloride (CCl4), which is a potent environmental toxin emitted from chemical industries and its presence in the atmosphere is increasing at an alarming rate. Presence of CCl4 in human body is reported to cause liver damage through free radical mediated inflammatory processes. Kupffer cells present in the liver are potentially more sensitive to oxidative stress than hepatocytes...
2018: PloS One
Rolf Teschke
Clinicians caring for patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) are often confronted with the question of the best pharmacotherapy to be used. Areas covered: This article covers metabolic aspects of alcohol as the basis of understanding pharmacotherapy and to facilitate choosing the drug therapeutic options for patients with severe AH. Expert opinion: Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and alcoholic hepatitis (AH) as terms are often used interchangeably in scientific literature but a stringent differentiation is recommended for proper clarity...
April 30, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Elaine Wat, Yanping Wang, Ken Chan, Hon Wai Law, Chi Man Koon, Kit Man Lau, Ping Chung Leung, Choly Yan, Clara Bik San Lau
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is the cluster of risk factors that leads to increased episodes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These risk factors include but are not limited to obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. Since the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome has multiple metabolic origins, there is no single treatment for it. Pharmacological approaches consist of separate drugs which target at individual risk factors which pose various side effects...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Jian Sun, Bo Zhou, Chao Tang, Yarun Gou, Hong Chen, Yao Wang, Changhai Jin, Jun Liu, Fuxiang Niu, Juan Kan, Chunlu Qian, Nianfeng Zhang
In this study, three kinds of polysaccharides (named PSWP, PSAP-1 and PSAP-2) were successively isolated from purple sweetpotato tubers by hot water, 0.5 M and 2 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The characterization, in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo hepatoprotective effect of these polysaccharides were investigated. Results indicated that PSWP, PSAP-1 and PSAP-2 were all β-type polysaccharides containing different contents of uronic acid, protein and polyphenol. Both PSWP and PSAP-1 were composed by arabinose, glucose and galactose, whereas PSAP-2 was consisted of arabinose, rhamnose and glucose...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Biman Bhuyan, Krishna Baishya, Prakash Rajak
Alternanthera sessilis commonly known as 'sessile joy weed' or 'dwarf copperleaf' is found throughout the hotter parts of India up to an altitude of 1200 m2 . In Assam, the plant has been traditionally used in the treatment of jaundice along with other ailments. The study focuses primarily on the evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of the plant with special references to its putative protective role in carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury on Wister albino rat. The in vivo hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight was highly effective in controlling SGPT, SGOT, ALP, serum cholesterol and serum bilirubin level as compared to silymarin...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Sara Mazhari, Mazdak Razi, Rajabali Sadrkhanlou
BACKGROUND: The present study was done to investigate the ameliorative effect of silymarin (SMN) and celecoxib (CEL) on varicocele (VCL)-induced detrimental impact in testicular tissue. METHODS: Mature Wistar rats were divided into control and test groups. Following VCL induction, the animals in test group were subdivided into non-treated VCL-induced, SMN-treated (50 mg/kg, orally), CEL-treated (10 mg/kg) and SMN + CEL-treated groups. Following 60 days, testicular total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), total thiol molecules (TTM), mRNA and protein levels of COX2 and mRNA level of iNos were analyzed...
April 5, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Syeda Tayyaba Batool Kazmi, Muhammad Majid, Sonia Maryam, Aymen Rahat, Madiha Ahmed, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Ihsan Ul Haq
Quercus dilatata Lindl. ex Royle was evaluated for in vitro polyphenol content and antioxidant potential as well as in vivo protective role against bisphenol A (BPA) induced hepatotoxicity. The distilled water-acetone (QDDAE) and methanol-ethyl acetate (QDMEtE) extracts were standardized and administered in high (300 mg/kg body weight (BW) and low (150 mg/kg BW) doses to Sprague Dawley rats, injected with BPA (25 mg/kg BW). Silymarin (50 mg/kg BW) was used as positive control. Subsequently, blood and liver homogenates were collected after four weeks of treatment, and the defensive effects of both extracts against oxidative damage and genotoxicity were assessed via hematological and biochemical investigations, determination of endogenous expression of enzymes as well as levels of free radicals and comet assay...
March 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Abdoh Taleb, Khalil Ali Ahmad, Awais Ullah Ihsan, Jia Qu, Na Lin, Kamal Hezam, Nirmala Koju, Lei Hui, Ding Qilong
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are considered as the major reason for mortality and morbidity worldwide. Substantial evidence suggests that increased oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of CVDs, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, vascular endothelial dysfunction and ischemic heart disease. Cellular oxidative stress results in the release of toxic free radicals by endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells that interact with cell components such as protein, DNA or lipid resulting in cardiovascular pathology...
March 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Mohammad K Parvez, Ahmad H Arbab, Mohammed S Al-Dosari, Adnan J Al-Rehaily, Perwez Alam, Khalid E Ibrahim, Mansour S Alsaid, Syed Rafatullah
Atriplex suberecta I. Verd is a known phytomedicinal species of Atriplex ; however, studies into its bioactivity remain inconclusive. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidative and hepatoprotective potential of A. suberecta ethanol-extract (ASEE) was assessed in the present study. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays revealed that ASEE possesses free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidative activities. These results were supported by the in vitro protection of HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells via abating 2,7-dichlorofluorescein-activated oxidative and apoptotic molecules (caspase-3/-7)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hong-Sheng Ruan, Hai-Feng Zhang, Kun Teng
Background: Silybum marianum , a member of the Aster family, is a well-known Chinese herb and the source of a popular antioxidant that is extensively used in Asia. The abundant S. marianum straws are still underutilized and wastefully discarded to pollute the environment. Objective: To solve the above problem and better utilize S. marianum straws, the objective of this study was to optimize the conditions for extraction of silymarin from S. marianum straws. Materials and Methods: A combination of microwave-assisted extraction and response surface methodology (RSM) was used for silymarin from S...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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