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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822299/avoidance-and-depression-vulnerability-an-examination-of-avoidance-in-remitted-and-currently-depressed-individuals
#1
Leanne Quigley, Alainna Wen, Keith S Dobson
Behavioral theories posit that depression is characterized by heightened levels of avoidance, and recent research has supported this notion. Whether avoidance persists after remission from depression is unknown, however. In this study, we investigated levels of cognitive and behavioral avoidance in remitted, currently, and never depressed individuals. We also examined relationships among avoidance and purported adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. Remitted depressed individuals exhibited levels of cognitive and behavioral avoidance, in social and nonsocial domains, that were greater than nonclinical control individuals but lower than currently depressed individuals...
July 27, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821880/vocal-expression-of-emotional-valence-in-przewalski-s-horses-equus-przewalskii
#2
Anne-Laure Maigrot, Edna Hillmann, Callista Anne, Elodie F Briefer
Vocal expression of emotions has been suggested to be conserved throughout evolution. However, since vocal indicators of emotions have never been compared between closely related species using similar methods, it remains unclear whether this is the case. Here, we investigated vocal indicators of emotional valence (negative versus positive) in Przewalski's horses, in order to find out if expression of valence is similar between species and notably among Equidae through a comparison with previous results obtained in domestic horse whinnies...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821755/effects-of-emotional-valence-on-sense-of-agency-require-a-predictive-model
#3
Michiko Yoshie, Patrick Haggard
Sense of agency (SoA), a feeling that one's voluntary actions produce events in the external world, is a key factor behind every goal-directed human behaviour. Recent studies have demonstrated that SoA is reduced when one's voluntary action causes negative outcomes, compared to when it causes positive outcomes. It is yet unclear whether this emotional modulation of SoA is caused by predicting the outcome valence (prediction hypothesis) or by retrospectively interpreting the outcome (postdiction hypothesis)...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819897/teachers-and-parents-perspectives-on-a-curricular-subject-of-religion-and-spirituality-for-indian-schools-a-pilot-study-toward-school-mental-health-program
#4
Parameshwaran Ramakrishnan, Andrew Baccari, Uma Ramachandran, Syed Faiz Ahmed, Harold G Koenig
Religious-spiritual (R/S) education helps medical students cope with caregiving stress and gain skills in interpersonal empathy needed for clinical care. Such R/S education has been introduced into K-12 and college curricula in some developed nations and has been found to positively impact student's mental health. Such a move has not yet been seen in the Indian education system. This paper aimed to examine perspectives of teachers and parents in India on appropriateness, benefits, and challenges of including R/S education into the school curriculum and also to gather their impressions on how a R/S curriculum might promote students' health...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819015/adrenal-cushing-s-syndrome-during-pregnancy
#5
Corina Andreescu, Rehmat Ali Alwani, Johannes Hofland, Leendert Looijenga, Wouter de Herder, Leo Hofland, Richard A Feelders
Cushing syndrome (CS) during pregnancy is a rare condition with only a few cases reported in the literature. Misdiagnosis of CS is common because of overlapping features like fatigue, weight gain, striae and emotional changes that can occur during normal pregnancy. Changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of glucocorticoid hormone levels during gestation. CS during pregnancy is most frequently due to an adrenal adenoma and to a lesser degree to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) hypersecretion by a pituitary adenoma...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818735/prospective-assessment-of-social-network-quality-among-depressed-mothers-treated-with-brief-psychotherapy-the-social-network-quality-snq-scales
#6
Luis E Flores, Jill M Cyranowski, Marlissa Amole, Holly A Swartz
OBJECTIVE: Social relationships play important roles in emotional health, and are common targets of psychotherapeutic interventions. To better evaluate social relationship structure and function in the context of psychotherapy trials, this study introduces and psychometrically evaluates the Social Network Quality (SNQ) scales, which supplement the Social Network Index (SNI). The original SNI evaluates social network structure (i.e., extent of participation in diverse social roles and number of social relationships)...
July 20, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818017/support-for-new-mothers-and-fertility-in-the-united-kingdom-not-all-support-is-equal-in-the-decision-to-have-a-second-child
#7
Susan B Schaffnit, Rebecca Sear
Low fertility across Europe highlights the need to understand reproductive decisions in high-income countries better. Availability of support may be one factor influencing reproductive decisions, though within high-income countries availability varies between environments, including socio-economic environments. We test whether receiving higher levels of support, from different sources (informal and formal) and of different types (practical and emotional), is positively correlated with second births in the United Kingdom (UK) Millennium Cohort Study, and whether these relationships differ by socio-economic position (SEP)...
August 18, 2017: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818000/exploring-the-relation-between-visual-mental-imagery-and-affect-in-the-daily-life-of-previously-depressed-and-never-depressed-individuals
#8
Christien Slofstra, Maaike H Nauta, Emily A Holmes, Elisabeth H Bos, Marieke Wichers, Nikolaos Batalas, Nicola S Klein, Claudi L H Bockting
Previously depressed individuals experience disturbances in affect. Affective disturbances may be related to visual mental imagery, given that imagery-based processing of emotional stimuli causes stronger affective responses than verbal processing in experimental laboratory studies. However, the role of imagery-based processing in everyday life is unknown. This study assessed mental imagery in the daily life of previously and never depressed individuals. Higher levels of visual mental imagery was hypothesised to be associated with more affective reactivity to both negatively and positively valenced mental representations...
August 17, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817959/a-health-behavior-prediction-model-for-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#9
Jiyoung Kim, Oksoo Kim
The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among functional status, hostility, social support, illness perceptions, and health behaviors in patients with coronary artery disease using structural equation modeling. Participants comprised 215 patients with coronary artery disease who had received percutaneous coronary artery intervention or a coronary artery bypass graft in two general hospitals in Seoul, Korea. Using structured interviews with questionnaires, data accrued from July to August, 2015...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817363/linking-positive-affect-to-blood-lipids-a-cultural-perspective
#10
Jiah Yoo, Yuri Miyamoto, Attilio Rigotti, Carol D Ryff
Higher levels of positive affect have been associated with better physical health. While positive affect is seen as highly desirable among Westerners, East Asians tend to deemphasize positive affect. Using large probability samples of Japanese and U.S. adult populations, the present study examined the relations of positive affect with serum lipid profiles, known to be strongly predictive of risk for cardiovascular disease, and tested whether their associations depend on cultural contexts. As predicted, positive affect was associated with healthier lipid profiles for Americans but not for Japanese...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816911/resilience-in-adolescents-with-cancer-association-of-coping-with-positive-and-negative-affect
#11
Lexa K Murphy, Alexandra H Bettis, Meredith A Gruhn, Cynthia A Gerhardt, Kathryn Vannatta, Bruce E Compas
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prospective association between adolescents' coping with cancer-related stress and observed positive and negative affect during a mother-adolescent interaction task involving discussion of cancer-related stressors. METHODS: Adolescents (age 10-15 years) self-reported about their coping and affect approximately 2 months after cancer diagnosis. Approximately 3 months later, adolescents and mothers were video recorded having a discussion about cancer, and adolescents were coded for expression of positive affect (positive mood) and negative affect (sadness and anxiety)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816484/implementation-and-evaluation-of-a-parenting-program-to-prevent-child-maltreatment-in-suriname
#12
Inger W van der Kooij, Shandra Bipat, Frits Boer, Ramón J L Lindauer, Tobi L G Graafsma
The prevention of child maltreatment has become a global health concern because child maltreatment is a violation of children's rights. Across the world, a variety of parenting programs have been developed to address this problem. However, no such parenting program currently exists in Suriname. This pilot study aimed to implement Lobi Mi Pikin (LMP) parenting program in Suriname and to evaluate its effects on corporal punishment (CP) and child behavioral problems. Parents-caregivers (N = 70) of children (ages 3-12 years) with externalizing behavioral problems participated in a protocoled parenting program...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816464/influence-of-father-infant-relationship-on-infant-development-a-father-involvement-intervention-in-vietnam
#13
Lynn A Rempel, John K Rempel, Toan Nang Khuc, Le Thi Vui
We examined the extent to which fathers can be taught and encouraged to develop positive relationships with their children, especially in infancy, and the effects of this fathering intervention on infant development. A multifaceted relationally focused intervention was used to assist fathers in Vietnam to engage in responsive direct and indirect involvement with their infants and work together with the mother as part of a parenting team. Fathers and mothers from 13 communes in a rural and semiurban district were recruited to the intervention group...
August 17, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815394/shared-dysregulation-of-homeostatic-brain-body-pathways-in-depression-and-type-2-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Claire J Hoogendoorn, Juan F Roy, Jeffrey S Gonzalez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of shared dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and brain-gut-microbiome (BGM) axes associated with depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Clinical implications and future research are also discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Both depression and T2D are associated with dysregulation of the HPA and BGM axes. These pathways regulate immune function, glucose metabolism, and sleep, which are altered in both illnesses...
August 16, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815269/enhanced-conscious-processing-and-blindsight-like-detection-of-fear-conditioned-stimuli-under-continuous-flash-suppression
#15
Joana B Vieira, Sophia Wen, Lindsay D Oliver, Derek G V Mitchell
Emotional information, and specifically fear-related stimuli, have been shown to be preferentially processed at a nonconscious level and gain privileged access to awareness. However, recent evidence has emerged suggesting these findings are explained by low-level visual features rather than emotional salience. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that emotional salience increases both blindsight (i.e., detection with reduced awareness) and awareness of visually suppressed stimuli. We used fear conditioning to manipulate the emotional significance of neutral expressions presented under Continuous Flash Suppression...
August 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814810/amygdala-centred-functional-connectivity-affects-daily-cortisol-concentrations-a-putative-link-with-anxiety
#16
Yuko Hakamata, Shotaro Komi, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Shuhei Izawa, Yuki Motomura, Eisuke Sato, Shinya Mizukami, Yoshiharu Kim, Takashi Hanakawa, Yusuke Inoue, Hirokuni Tagaya
The amygdala plays a critical role in emotion. Its functional coupling with the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex extending to a portion of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is implicated in anxiogenesis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system regulation. However, it remains unclear how amygdala-centred functional connectivity (FC) affects anxiety and cortisol concentrations in everyday life. Here, we investigate the relationship between daily cortisol concentrations (dCOR) and amygdala-centred FC during emotional processing in forty-one healthy humans...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813689/large-scale-machine-learning-of-media-outlets-for-understanding-public-reactions-to-nation-wide-viral-infection-outbreaks
#17
Sungwoon Choi, Jangho Lee, Min-Gyu Kang, Hyeyoung Min, Yoon-Seok Chang, Sungroh Yoon
From May to July 2015, there was a nation-wide outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in Korea. MERS is caused by MERS-CoV, an enveloped, positive-sense, single stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. Despite expert opinions that the danger of MERS might be exaggerated, there was an overreaction by the public according to the Korean mass media, which led to a noticeable reduction in social and economic activities during the outbreak. To explain this phenomenon, we presumed that machine learning-based analysis of media outlets would be helpful and collected a number of Korean mass media articles and short-text comments produced during the 10-week outbreak...
August 13, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813260/pairing-attachment-theory-and-social-learning-theory-in-video-feedback-intervention-to-promote-positive-parenting
#18
REVIEW
Femmie Juffer, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn
Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) is a social-learning and attachment-based intervention using video feedback to support sensitive parenting and at the same time setting firm limits. Empirical studies and meta-analyses have shown that sensitive parenting is the key determinant to promote secure child-parent attachment relationships and that adequate parental discipline contributes to fewer behavior problems in children. Building on this evidence, VIPP-SD has been tested in various populations of at-risk parents and vulnerable children (in the age range of zero to six years), as well as in the context of child care...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811079/neuroleptic-free-youth-at-ultrahigh-risk-for-psychosis-evidence-diminished-emotion-reactivity-that-is-predicted-by-depression-and-anxiety
#19
June Gruber, Gregory P Strauss, Laure Dombrecht, Vijay A Mittal
Although abnormalities in emotional response have long been considered a core feature of the chronic phase of schizophrenia, few investigations have examined emotional response in individuals at ultrahigh-risk (UHR) for psychosis. We investigated whether neuroleptic-free UHR (n=29) and healthy control (n=32) participants differed in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation on a laboratory-based task that required reporting levels of positive and negative affect to pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral stimuli...
August 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810973/the-influence-of-combat-experience-on-psychologically-healthy-soldiers-attentiveness-to-environmental-threats
#20
Bethany Ranes, Chris P Long, Stephanie Traynham, Amanda Hayes
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to previous research that has primarily examined how psychological disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], anxiety) are affected by and affect individuals' threat perceptions, this study examines the relationship between combat experience and threat-monitoring in psychologically healthy Soldiers. Existing research has established how prolonged or intense experiences with war-related stressors can lead individuals to undergo an unconscious fear-conditioning process that affects the circuitry of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex regions of the brain...
July 2017: Military Medicine
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