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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544955/associations-of-anxiety-sensitivity-and-emotional-symptoms-with-the-subjective-effects-of-alcohol-cigarettes-and-cannabis-in-adolescents
#1
Raina D Pang, Casey R Guillot, Michael J Zvolensky, Marcel O Bonn-Miller, Adam M Leventhal
Maladaptive emotional traits (anxiety sensitivity [AS], fear of anxiety-related sensations and consequences) and symptoms (major depressive disorder [MDD] and generalized anxiety disorder [GAD] symptoms) could play a role in altering sensitivity to the subjective effects of drugs of abuse in adolescents. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of high school students in Los Angeles, CA, USA who completed surveys and reported past six-month use of alcohol (n=1054), cigarettes (n=297), or cannabis (n=706). At each of the four semi-annual waves during mid-adolescence (14-16years old), students reported positive and negative subjective drug effects experienced in the prior six-months...
May 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544892/facial-expression-movement-enhances-the-measurement-of-temporal-dynamics-of-attentional-bias-in-the-dot-probe-task
#2
Corrado Caudek, Francesco Ceccarini, Claudio Sica
The facial dot-probe task is one of the most common experimental paradigms used to assess attentional bias toward emotional information. In recent years, however, the psychometric properties of this paradigm have been questioned. In the present study, attentional bias to emotional face stimuli was measured with dynamic and static images of realistic human faces in 97 college students (63 women) who underwent either a positive or a negative mood-induction prior to the experiment. We controlled the bottom-up salience of the stimuli in order to dissociate the top-down orienting of attention from the effects of the bottom-up physical properties of the stimuli...
May 10, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544868/a-mathematical-model-captures-the-structure-of-subjective-affect
#3
Alison M Mattek, George L Wolford, Paul J Whalen
Although it is possible to observe when another person is having an emotional moment, we also derive information about the affective states of others from what they tell us they are feeling. In an effort to distill the complexity of affective experience, psychologists routinely focus on a simplified subset of subjective rating scales (i.e., dimensions) that capture considerable variability in reported affect: reported valence (i.e., how good or bad?) and reported arousal (e.g., how strong is the emotion you are feeling?)...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544456/the-experience-of-beauty-derived-from-sorrow
#4
Tomohiro Ishizu, Semir Zeki
We studied the neural mechanisms that are engaged during the experience of beauty derived from sorrow and from joy, two experiences that share a common denominator (beauty) but are linked to opposite emotional valences. Twenty subjects viewed and rerated, in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner, 120 images which each had classified into the following four categories: beautiful and sad; beautiful and joyful; neutral; ugly. The medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC) was active during the experience of both types of beauty...
May 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544451/protection-and-restriction-a-mixed-methods-study-of-self-reported-well-being-among-youth-with-intellectual-disabilities
#5
Petra Boström, Malin Broberg
BACKGROUND: As most mental health studies of school-aged children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are based on proxy ratings, the subjective views of these young persons are rarely explored. The present study explores experiences of well-being, mental ill-health, family, school, and peer relations in students in special education. METHODS: Ten students in special education, aged 13-16 years, answered the Wellbeing in Special Education Questionnaire (WellSEQ) and participated in semi-structured interviews...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543793/positive-emotions-in-caring-for-a-spouse-a-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Tiina Autio, Sari Rissanen
This article aimed at identifying the positive emotions connected to spouse caregiving and the advantages for spouse carers. Theoretically, the article is based on the concept of emotion and the assumptions of positive psychology. Data search is conducted via electronic literature databases and the analysis method is partly theory-driven and partly inductive content classification. Our analyses discover and clarify the concepts associated with positive emotions in caring, such as the gains of caregiving, benefit-finding, finding meaning, personal growth, post-traumatic growth and resilience...
May 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543280/positive-autobiographical-memory-deficits-in-youth-with-depression-histories-and-their-never-depressed-siblings
#7
Ena Begovic, Vanessa Panaite, Lauren M Bylsma, Charles George, Maria Kovacs, Ilya Yaroslavsky, Ildikó Baji, István Benák, Roberta Dochnal, Enikő Kiss, Ágnes Vetró, Krisztina Kapornai, Jonathan Rottenberg
OBJECTIVES: Impaired positive autobiographical memory (AM) is closely linked to emotional disorders. AM impairments are often found in depressed adults and may be related to the difficulties such persons have in regulating their dysphoric mood. By contrast, less is known about AM disturbances among adolescents, or about the functional relationship of AM disturbances to early-onset depression. DESIGN: A high-risk family design served to compare four groups of youth who differed in depression histories and familial depression risk...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542794/positive-affectivity-and-fear-trajectories-in-infancy-contributions-of-mother-child-interaction-factors
#8
Maria A Gartstein, Gregory R Hancock, Sydney L Iverson
Fear and positive emotionality were considered in a growth modeling context. Mothers, primarily Caucasian (91.9%) and of middle socioeconomic status, participated in play interactions with infants at 4 months (N = 148). Infant fear and positive affectivity were evaluated at 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age. A linear trajectory was superior in explaining growth for parent report and observation-based indicators of positive affectivity and parent report of fearfulness; a piecewise model explained the nonlinear growth of observation-based fear...
May 24, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542739/afternoon-cortisol-provides-a-link-between-self-regulated-anger-and-peer-reported-aggression-in-typically-developing-children-in-the-school-context
#9
Eva Oberle, Kaitlyn McLachlan, Nicole L A Catherine, Ursula Brain, Kimberly A Schonert-Reichl, Joanne Weinberg, Tim F Oberlander
Aggression jeopardizes positive development in children and predicts social and academic maladjustment in school. The present study determined the relationships among anger dysregulation (a marker of emotion regulation), cortisol activity (a biomarker of stress), and peer-nominated aggression in typically developing children in their everyday classroom setting (N = 151, Mean age = 10.86, SD =.74). Salivary cortisol was collected at 09:15, 11:45, and 14:45 hr across 4 consecutive days. Children provided self-reports of anger regulation; peers reported proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542555/parenting-styles-feeding-styles-and-food-related-parenting-practices-in-relation-to-toddlers-eating-styles-a-cluster-analytic-approach
#10
Klazine van der Horst, Ester F C Sleddens
INTRODUCTION: Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. METHODS: An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians) with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542285/educating-early-childhood-care-and-education-providers-to-improve-knowledge-and-attitudes-about-reporting-child-maltreatment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Ben Mathews, Chengwu Yang, Erik B Lehman, Claudia Mincemoyer, Nicole Verdiglione, Benjamin H Levi
Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs) work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541505/the-impact-of-personal-relevance-on-emotion-processing-evidence-from-event-related-potentials-and-pupillary-responses
#12
Mareike Bayer, Katja Ruthmann, Annekathrin Schacht
Emotional stimuli attract attention and lead to increased activity in the visual cortex. The present study investigated the impact of personal relevance on emotion processing by presenting emotional words within sentences that referred to participants' significant others or to unknown agents. In event-related potentials, personal relevance increased visual cortex activity within 100 ms after stimulus onset and the amplitudes of the Late Positive Complex (LPC). Moreover, personally relevant contexts gave rise to augmented pupillary responses and higher arousal ratings, suggesting a general boost of attention and arousal...
May 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541085/distinct-trajectories-of-positive-and-negative-affect-after-colorectal-cancer-diagnosis
#13
Yvette Ciere, Moniek Janse, Josué Almansa, Annemieke Visser, Robbert Sanderman, Mirjam A G Sprangers, Adelita V Ranchor, Joke Fleer
OBJECTIVE: Insight into trajectories of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) across the cancer continuum may improve understanding of the nature of adjustment problems. The primary aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories of PA and NA following diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Secondary to this aim, the co-occurrence between trajectories and their association with goal-related processes was explored. METHOD: CRC patients (n = 186) completed questionnaires within 1 month, 7 months, and 18 months after diagnosis...
June 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541079/child-gender-influences-paternal-behavior-language-and-brain-function
#14
Jennifer S Mascaro, Kelly E Rentscher, Patrick D Hackett, Matthias R Mehl, James K Rilling
Multiple lines of research indicate that fathers often treat boys and girls differently in ways that impact child outcomes. The complex picture that has emerged, however, is obscured by methodological challenges inherent to the study of parental caregiving, and no studies to date have examined the possibility that gender differences in observed real-world paternal behavior are related to differential paternal brain responses to male and female children. Here we compare fathers of daughters and fathers of sons in terms of naturalistically observed everyday caregiving behavior and neural responses to child picture stimuli...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541065/frontal-alpha-asymmetry-in-ocd-patients-and-unaffected-first-degree-relatives
#15
Rosa Grützmann, Anja Riesel, Julia Klawohn, Stephan Heinzel, Christian Kaufmann, Katharina Bey, Leonard Lennertz, Michael Wagner, Norbert Kathmann
Frontal electroencephalographic alpha asymmetry as an indicator of trait approach and trait inhibition systems has previously been studied in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with mixed results. We explored frontal alpha asymmetry as a possible risk factor in OCD by investigating a large sample of OCD patients (n = 113), healthy control participants (n = 113), and unaffected 1st-degree relatives of OCD patients (n = 37). Additionally, the relationship between OCD symptom dimensions and frontal alpha asymmetry was explored...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540996/factors-associated-with-emotional-distress-in-children-and-adolescents-during-early-treatment-for-cancer
#16
In Jung Sohn, Jung Woo Han, Seung Min Hahn, Dong Ho Song, Chuhl Joo Lyu, Keun Ah Cheon
PURPOSE: Children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer experience emotional distress, such as sadness, worrying, and irritability. However, there is little information about the psychological well-being of parents at the time of their child's diagnosis. We sought to identify factors that were associated with emotional distress in cancer patients as a basis for developing innovative psychological interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients newly diagnosed with cancer at a single center in Korea from 2014 to 2016...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540522/the-role-of-ego-resiliency-as-mediator-of-the-longitudinal-relationship-between-family-socio-economic-status-and-school-grades
#17
Guido Alessandri, Antonio Zuffianò, Nancy Eisenberg, Concetta Pastorelli
Family socio-economic status (SES) represents one of the major determinants of youth's scholastic achievement, and thus it is important to unravel the psychological factors underlining this relation. In this article, we examined youth's ability to flexibly adapt and, thus, cope with harsh environmental conditions-assessed by the construct of ego-resiliency-as a mediating mechanism in the across-time association between family SES and academic achievement. The longitudinal sample was composed of 265 (56% females) Italian students who were about 13 years old at Time 1 (T1) and about 18 years old at Time 2 (T2)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540028/social-eavesdropping-can-you-hear-the-emotionality-in-a-hello-that-is-not-meant-for-you
#18
Sethu Karthikeyan, Vijayachandra Ramachandra
The study examined third-party listeners' ability to detect the Hellos spoken to prevalidated happy, neutral, and sad facial expressions. The average detection accuracies from the happy and sad (HS), happy and neutral (HN), and sad and neutral (SN) listening tests followed the average vocal pitch differences between the two sets of Hellos in each of the tests; HS and HN detection accuracies were above chance reflecting the significant pitch differences between the respective Hellos. The SN detection accuracy was at chance reflecting the lack of pitch difference between sad and neutral Hellos...
March 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539910/the-role-of-emotional-landmarks-on-topographical-memory
#19
Massimiliano Palmiero, Laura Piccardi
The investigation of the role of emotional landmarks on human navigation has been almost totally neglected in psychological research. Therefore, the extent to which positive and negative emotional landmarks affect topographical memory as compared to neutral emotional landmark was explored. Positive, negative and neutral affect-laden images were selected as landmarks from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) Inventory. The Walking Corsi test (WalCT) was used in order to test the landmark-based topographical memory...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539906/guilt-as-a-motivator-for-moral-judgment-an-autobiographical-memory-study
#20
Igor Knez, Ola Nordhall
The aim was to investigate the phenomenology of self-defining moral memory and its relations to self-conscious feelings of guilt and willingness to do wrong (moral intention) in social and economic moral situations. We found that people use guilt as a moral motivator for their moral intention. The reparative function of guilt varied, however, with type of situation; that is, participants felt guiltier and were less willing to do wrong in economic compared to social moral situations. The self-defining moral memory was shown to be relatively more easy to access (accessibility), logically structured (coherence), vivid, seen from the first-person perspective (visual perspective), real (sensory detail); but was relatively less positive (valence), emotionally intense, chronologically clear (time perspective), in agreement with the present self (distancing), and shared...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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