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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691941/functional-connections-between-activated-and-deactivated-brain-regions-mediate-emotional-interference-during-externally-directed-cognition
#1
Simone Di Plinio, Francesca Ferri, Laura Marzetti, Gian Luca Romani, Georg Northoff, Vittorio Pizzella
Recent evidence shows that task-deactivations are functionally relevant for cognitive performance. Indeed, higher cognitive engagement has been associated with higher suppression of activity in task-deactivated brain regions - usually ascribed to the Default Mode Network (DMN). Moreover, a negative correlation between these regions and areas actively engaged by the task is associated with better performance. DMN regions show positive modulation during autobiographical, social, and emotional tasks. However, it is not clear how processing of emotional stimuli affects the interplay between the DMN and executive brain regions...
April 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691887/correlate-of-burden-and-coping-ability-of-caregivers-of-older-adults-with-chronic-illness-in-nigeria
#2
Joel Olayiwola Faronbi
AIM: Caring for older adults with chronic illness is associated with enormous physical and psychological stress on the informal caregivers. This study assessed burden experienced by caregivers of older adults with chronic illness, explored coping strategies of caregivers in relation to identified chronic conditions and determined the influence of caregiver's burden, caregiver's characteristics and older adult's characteristics on their coping ability. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional, correlational study, and data were collected among 325 caregivers of older adults living with chronic illness in Osun State, Nigeria, using a checklist, Katz IADL, Zarit Burden Interview and Brief Cope Scale...
April 25, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691865/does-natural-mentoring-matter-a-multilevel-meta-analysis-on-the-association-between-natural-mentoring-and-youth-outcomes
#3
REVIEW
L Van Dam, D Smit, B Wildschut, S J T Branje, J E Rhodes, M Assink, G J J M Stams
In this meta-analytic review, we examined the relation between natural mentoring and youth outcomes in four domains: academic and vocational functioning, social-emotional development, physical health, and psychosocial problems. Natural mentoring relationships are thought to foster positive youth development and buffer against the risks associated with the tumultuous years of adolescence. Two separate meta-analyses were conducted on the presence of a natural mentor and the quality of the natural mentoring relationship, including thirty studies from 1992 to present...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690819/the-influence-of-rightward-and-leftward-spatial-deviations-of-spatial-attention-on-emotional-picture-recognition
#4
Aleksandra Mańkowska, Michał Harciarek, John B Williamson, Kenneth M Heilman
OBJECTIVES: Several studies have reported that positive emotions are primarily mediated by the left hemisphere and negative emotions by the right hemisphere. Since each hemisphere primarily allocates attention toward the contralateral hemispace, we wanted to learn how inducing a spatial attentional orienting bias to right and left egocentric hemispace might influence the recognition and perception of visually presented emotional scenes. METHOD: Participants were 42 healthy, right-handed young adults...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689183/manual-feeding-device-experiences-of-people-with-a-neurodisability
#5
Anne Mandy, Tara Sims, Graham Stew, Dominic Onions
OBJECTIVE: Neurological bilateral upper limb weakness can result in self-feeding difficulties and reliance on care providers. Mealtimes become time consuming and frustrating. In this exploratory inquiry, we examined the experiences of users of a feeding device. METHOD: Semistructured interviews were either conducted by telephone or administered via email to explore quality of life, changes to independence, benefits and limitations, and psychological impact of the equipment...
May 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689045/two-year-impact-of-community-based-health-screening-and-parenting-groups-on-child-development-in-zambia-follow-up-to-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Peter C Rockers, Arianna Zanolini, Bowen Banda, Mwaba Moono Chipili, Robert C Hughes, Davidson H Hamer, Günther Fink
BACKGROUND: Early childhood interventions have potential to offset the negative impact of early adversity. We evaluated the impact of a community-based parenting group intervention on child development in Zambia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a non-masked cluster-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia. Thirty clusters of villages were matched based on population density and distance from the nearest health center, and randomly assigned to intervention (15 clusters, 268 caregiver-child dyads) or control (15 clusters, 258 caregiver-child dyads)...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688854/development-and-validation-of-the-openness-to-the-future-scale-a-prospective-protective-factor
#7
C Botella, G Molinari, J Fernández-Álvarez, V Guillén, A García-Palacios, R M Baños, J M Tomás
BACKGROUND: Most of the research on psychopathology has provided an incomplete picture of mental health by focusing on vulnerability factors and omitting the transversal processes that may explain human adapted functioning. Moreover, research has not sufficiently addressed prospective protective factors for mental health. New theoretical and empirical endeavors aim to incorporate this perspective, particularly in the realm of emotional disorders. A positive view of the future is an indispensable process in attaining desired goals and wellbeing...
April 23, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688424/me-time-or-we-time-age-differences-in-motivation-for-exercise
#8
Crystal N Steltenpohl, Michael Shuster, Eric Peist, Amber Pham, Joseph A Mikels
Background and Objectives: Increasing exercise continues to be an important health issue for both older and younger adults. Researchers have suggested several methods for increasing exercise motivation. Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) posits that people's motivation shift from future-oriented instrumental goals to present-oriented emotionally meaningful goals as we age, which provides insight into how people's motivations for exercise may differ for older versus younger adults...
April 23, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688118/a-test-retest-assessment-of-the-effects-of-mental-load-on-ratings-of-affect-arousal-and-perceived-exertion-during-submaximal-cycling
#9
Jesús Vera, José C Perales, Raimundo Jiménez, David Cárdenas
This study aimed to test the effects of mental (i.e. executive) load during a dual physical-mental task on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), affective valence, and arousal. The protocol included two dual tasks with matched physical demands but different executive demands (2-back and oddball), carried out on different days. The procedure was run twice to assess the sensitivity and stability of RPE, valence and arousal across the two trials. Linear mixed-effects analyses showed less positive valence (-0.44 points on average in a 1-9 scale; Rβ 2  = 0...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687754/barriers-to-empathy-based-care-oncology-nurses-perceptions
#10
Fariba Taleghani, Elaheh Ashouri, Mehrdad Memarzadeh, Mortaza Saburi
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore oncology nurses' barriers to empathy-based care perceptions. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a descriptive qualitative method. In total, 18 oncology nurses were selected via purposive sampling. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and qualitative content analysis using an inductive approach. Findings Three main categories emerged from the data analysis: barriers related to nursing including: lacking compassion; disinterest in oncology nursing and self-criticism; psychological distress; barriers related to healthcare: job strain; task-centeredness; no formal training; poor manager support; nurse-patient gender imbalance; and barriers related to cancer care including: difficulty maintaining empathy with cancer patients; and inappropriate cancer patient Practical implications Oncology nurses provided insights into barriers to empathy-based care and the challenges they encountered while caring for cancer patients...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687734/temporal-pattern-of-emotions-and-cognitive-load-during-simulation-training-and-debriefing
#11
Kristin Fraser, Kevin McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: In the simulated clinical environment, there is a perceived benefit to the emotional activation experienced by learners; however, potential harm of excessive and/or negative emotions has also been hypothesized. An improved understanding of the emotional experiences of learners during each phase of the simulation session will inform instructional design. METHODS: In this observational study, we asked 174 first-year medical students about their emotional state upon arrival to the simulation lab (t1)...
April 24, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687430/positive-and-negative-emotionality-at-age-3-predicts-change-in-frontal-eeg-asymmetry-across-early-childhood
#12
Brandon L Goldstein, Stewart A Shankman, Autumn Kujawa, Dana C Torpey-Newman, Margaret W Dyson, Thomas M Olino, Daniel N Klein
Depression is characterized by low positive emotionality (PE) and high negative emotionality (NE), as well as asymmetries in resting electroencephalography (EEG) alpha power. Moreover, frontal asymmetry has itself been linked to PE, NE, and related constructs. However, little is known about associations of temperamental PE and NE with resting EEG asymmetries in young children and whether this association changes as a function of development. In a longitudinal study of 254 three-year old children, we assessed PE and NE at age 3 using a standard laboratory observation procedure...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687075/emotion-dysregulation-and-negative-affect-laboratory-and-ema-investigations-in-smokers
#13
Jessica M MacIntyre, Aimee C Ruscio, Emily Brede, Andrew J Waters
Introduction: Difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with addictive behaviors, including smoking. Difficulties in emotion regulation may underlie large, rapid changes in negative affect that can increase likelihood of relapse. We investigated the association between emotion regulation ability and negative affect in smokers assessed both in the laboratory and in the field using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Methods: Adult community smokers ( N  = 44) carried a personal digital assistant (PDA) for two weeks and were instructed to complete assessments of negative affect multiple times per day...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686739/screening-for-emotional-expression-in-frontotemporal-dementia-a-pilot-study
#14
Andrew R Carr, Mark M Ashla, Elvira E Jimenez, Mario F Mendez
Objective: Although emotional blunting is a core feature of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), there are no practical clinical measures of emotional expression for the early diagnosis of bvFTD. Method: Three age-matched groups (bvFTD, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy controls (HC)) of eight participants each were presented with real-life vignettes varying in emotional intensity (high versus low) with either negative or positive outcomes. This study evaluated verbal (self-reports of distress) and visual (presence or absence of facial affect) measures of emotional expression during the vignettes...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685393/notification-and-counselling-of-hepatitis-positive-blood-donors-their-immediate-emotional-response-contact-testing-and-their-follow-up-study-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#15
Aseem K Tiwari, Gunjan Bhardwaj, Ravi C Dara, Dinesh Arora, Geet Aggarwal, Richa Bhargava, Kaushal Madan
INTRODUCTION: Post-donation counselling informs donors of unusual test results. Timely notification and counselling regarding their Transfusion Transmitted Infection (TTI) status is necessary for early clinical intervention in the donor and reducing risk of transmission. We share our experience with respect to Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) positive donors who were counselled and followed-up for clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was prospective 2-year study in TTI positive blood donors...
April 13, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685325/emotion-perception-and-overconfidence-in-errors-under-stress-in-psychosis
#16
Ulf Köther, Tania M Lincoln, Steffen Moritz
Vulnerability stress models are well-accepted in psychosis research, but the mechanisms that link stress to psychotic symptoms remain vague. Little is known about how social cognition and overconfidence in errors, two putative mechanisms for the pathogenesis of delusions, relate to stress. Using a repeated measures design, we tested four groups (N=120) with different liability to psychosis (schizophrenia patients [n=35], first-degree relatives [n=24], participants with attenuated positive symptoms [n=19] and healthy controls [n=28]) and depression patients (n=14) as a clinical control group under three randomized experimental conditions (no stress, noise and social stress)...
March 21, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684769/implicit-negative-affect-predicts-attention-to-sad-faces-beyond-self-reported-depressive-symptoms-in-healthy-individuals-an-eye-tracking-study
#17
Charlott Maria Bodenschatz, Marija Skopinceva, Anette Kersting, Markus Quirin, Thomas Suslow
Cognitive theories of depression assume biased attention towards mood-congruent information as a central vulnerability and maintaining factor. Among other symptoms, depression is characterized by excessive negative affect (NA). Yet, little is known about the impact of naturally occurring NA on the allocation of attention to emotional information. The study investigates how implicit and explicit NA as well as self-reported depressive symptoms predict attentional biases in a sample of healthy individuals (N = 104)...
April 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684768/aberrant-parasympathetic-reactivity-to-acute-psychosocial-stress-in-male-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#18
Elizabeth H Andersen, Gregory F Lewis, Aysenil Belger
Autonomic dysfunction represents a core domain of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SCZ), with aberrant physiologic arousal underlying maladaptive social and cognitive behaviors. Antagonistic parasympathetic and sympathetic systems support autonomic flexibility to appropriately regulate arousal and respond to environmental challenges, which can be modeled using physiologic measures. SCZ patients consistently show heightened basal stress, however, their parasympathetic reactivity to an acute psychosocial stressor is poorly understood...
April 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684190/can-online-social-support-be-detrimental-in-stigmatized-chronic-diseases-a-quadratic-model-of-the-effects-of-informational-and-emotional-support-on-self-care-behavior-of-hiv-patients
#19
Xunyi Wang, Srikanth Parameswaran, Darshan Mahendra Bagul, Rajiv Kishore
Objective: We studied the impact of online social support on patient self-care behavior in an online health community for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. We conceptualized emotional and informational support provided by community members into nuanced sub-dimensions. We explored how the direct and interaction effects of these sub-dimensions impact the self-care behavior of a support seeker. Methods: We used data from 330 255 posts in 30 050 threads from POZ, an online health community for HIV patients...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683689/validating-parent-and-child-forms-of-the-parent-perception-inventory
#20
David A Cole, Sherryl H Goodman, Judy Garber, Katherine A Cullum, Sun-Joo Cho, Jason D Rights, Julia W Felton, Farrah M Jacquez, Katherine E Korelitz, Hannah F M Simon
Understanding parenting from both parent and child perspectives is critical to child clinical and developmental research. Similarities and differences between parents' and children's reports can be highly informative, but only if they derive from psychometrically sound measures that assess the same parenting constructs. We examined the psychometric properties of the child and parent forms of the Parenting Perception Inventory (Bruce et al., 2006), which measures perceptions of two higher-order dimensions: positive, warm, supportive parenting; and negative, harsh, critical parenting...
April 23, 2018: Psychological Assessment
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