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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822993/seropositivity-and-titers-of-anti-smooth-muscle-actin-antibody-are-associated-with-relapse-of-type-1-autoimmune-hepatitis
#1
Taro Shibuki, Taiga Otsuka, Hiroshi Isoda, Norimasa Araki, Yoshihito Kubotsu, Yasunori Kawaguchi, Shunya Nakashita, Wataru Yoshioka, Seiji Kawazoe, Hiroaki Kawasoe, Yasushi Ide, Toshihiko Mizuta, Saga Study Group Of Liver Diseases Sasld
BACKGROUND It is important to avoid relapse in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) because repeated multiple relapses have been associated with a worse prognosis. However, risk factors for relapse before initiation of treatment are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to find predictive markers for relapse of type 1 AIH. MATERIAL AND METHODS We reviewed the records of 53 patients diagnosed with type 1 AIH based on the revised scoring system proposed by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG) between 2009 and 2014 at 4 hospitals belonging to the Saga Study Group of Liver Diseases (SASLD)...
August 20, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822593/decreased-expression-of-microrna-122-is-associated-with-an-unfavorable-prognosis-in-childhood-acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-function-analysis-indicates-a-therapeutic-potential
#2
Juan Yang, Yufang Yuan, Xiaochun Yang, Ze Hong, Lijuan Yang
MicroRNA (miR)-122 functions as a tumor suppressor in various human cancers. However, its involvement in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unknown. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR assay demonstrated that miR-122 expression in bone marrow specimens from AML children were significantly lower than that in non-malignant controls (P<0.001). Statistically, AML children with low miR-122 expression more frequently had large white blood cell count (P=0.022), French-American-British classification subtype M7 (P<0...
June 28, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822262/evaluating-the-influence-of-at-risk-alcohol-use-on-factors-associated-with-smoking-cessation-combining-laboratory-and-ecological-momentary-assessment
#3
Joanna R Sells, Andrew J Waters, R Ross MacLean
OBJECTIVE: Most smokers want to quit but most cessation attempts end in failure. Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking behavior and relapse. We examined the associations between severity of drinking and psychological processes during a cessation attempt in the laboratory and during a quit attempt. METHODS: Smokers (N=209) enrolled in a smoking cessation study were followed from 2 weeks pre-quit through 4 weeks post-quit. Participants scoring 0-7 and 8-15 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were classified as low-risk and high-risk drinkers, respectively...
July 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822119/five-questions-answered-a-review-of-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Harold L Atkins, Mark S Freedman
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be an autoimmune disease targeting the central nervous system leading to demyelination, and axonal and neuronal damage, resulting in progressive disability. More intensive therapies such as immunodepletion with hematopoietic stem-cell rescue are being used at a time prior to patients becoming irreversibly disabled. Over the last 15 years, there has been a shift away from using autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplants (aHSCT) to treat patients with progressive MS, towards treating those with active inflammation and relapses...
August 18, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822056/patient-reported-outcomes-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes-and-mds-mpn-overlap-syndromes-stepping-onto-the-stage-with-changing-times
#5
REVIEW
Sagar S Patel, Aaron T Gerds
Quality of life (QOL) and symptom burden are important measures captured by patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Myelodysplastic and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative (MDS/MPN) neoplasm overlap syndromes are notable for significant morbidity and mortality, including a wide spectrum of physical and psychosocial effects. Thus, the development and application of PROs can provide meaningful information to facilitate communication and assist in follow up care. Disease-specific measures can more accurately reflect the full breadth of functional restrictions and symptoms...
August 18, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821652/calpain-grip-signaling-in-nucleus-accumbens-core-mediates-the-reconsolidation-of-drug-reward-memory
#6
Jie Liang, Jia-Li Li, Ying Han, Yi-Xiao Luo, Yan-Xue Xue, Yàn Zhang, Yán Zhang, Li-Bo Zhang, Man-Li Chen, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Exposure to drug-paired cues causes drug memories to be in a destabilized state, and interfering with memory reconsolidation can inhibit relapse. Calpain, a calcium-dependent neutral cysteine protease, is involved in synaptic plasticity and the formation of long-term fear memory. However, the role of calpain in the reconsolidation of drug reward memory is still unknown. In the present study, using conditioned place preference (CPP) model, we found that exposure to drug-paired contextual stimuli induced the activation of calpain and decreased the expression of glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core but not shell of male rats...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821573/dynamic-risk-stratification-in-the-follow-up-of-thyroid-cancer
#7
Jolanta Krajewska, Ewa Chmielik, Barbara Jarzab
The adequate risk stratification in thyroid carcinoma, is crucial to avoid on one hand the overtreatment of low-risk and on the other hand the undertreatment of high-risk patients. The question how to properly assess the risk of relapse has been discussed during recent years and resulted in a substantial change in our approach to risk stratification in differentiated thyroid cancer, proposed by the newest ATA guidelines. First initial risk stratification, based on histopathological data is carried out just after primary surgery...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821557/selected-alkylating-agents-can-overcome-drug-tolerance-of-g0-like-tumor-cells-and-eradicate-brca1-deficient-mammary-tumors-in-mice
#8
Marina Pajic, Sohvi Blatter, Charlotte Guyader, Maaike Gonggrijp, Ariena Kersbergen, Aslı Küçükosmanoğlu, Wendy Sol, Rinske Drost, Jos Jonkers, Piet Borst, Sven Rottenberg
We aimed to characterize and target drug-tolerant BRCA1-deficient tumor cells that cause residual disease and subsequent tumor relapse.<br /><br />Experimental Design: We studied responses to various mono- and bifunctional alkylating agents in a genetically engineered mouse model for BRCA1/p53-mutant breast cancer. Due to the large intragenic deletion of the Brca1 gene, no restoration of BRCA1 function is possible, and therefore no BRCA1-dependent acquired resistance occurs. To characterize the cell cycle stage from which Brca1(-/-);p53(-/-) mammary tumors arise after cisplatin treatment, we introduced the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) construct into the tumor cells...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821454/low-dose-anti-thymocyte-globulin-for-graft-versus-host-disease-prophylaxis-in-matched-unrelated-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#9
A Bryant, R Mallick, L Huebsch, D Allan, H Atkins, G Anstee, M Sabloff, N Scrivens, D Maze, C Bredeson, N Kekre
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT). Prophylactic in-vivo T-Cell depletion with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has been associated with decreased GVHD rates many alloHCT settings. Despite decades of clinical study, optimal ATG dosing has not been established. Understanding that higher rates of GVHD are observed with matched unrelated (MUD) versus matched related donor (MRD) alloHCT, at our institution MUD alloHSCT recipients have historically had low dose thymoglobulin (total dose 2...
August 15, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820895/identification-of-leishmania-donovani-antigen-in-circulating-immune-complexes-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-subjects-for-diagnosis
#10
Fauzia Jamal, Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Manish Kumar Singh, Abul Hasan Sardar, Pushpanjali, Selvasankar Murugesan, Shyam Narayan, Anil Kumar Gupta, Krishna Pandey, V N R Das, Vahab Ali, Sanjiva Bimal, Pradeep Das, Shubhankar K Singh
The unreliability of most of the existing antibody-based diagnostic kits to discriminate between active and treated VL cases, relapse situation and reinfection are a major hurdle in controlling the cases of Kala-azar in an endemic area. An antigen targeted diagnostic approaches can be an attractive strategy to overcome these problems. Hence, this study was focused on identifying the Leishmania antigens, lies in circulating immune complex (CICs), can be used for diagnostic as well as prognostic purposes. The present study was conducted on peripheral blood samples of 115 human subjects, based on isolation of CICs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820727/sustained-off-treatment-response-after-discontinuation-of-long-term-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-treatment-in-hbeag-seronegative-hepatitis-b-a-case-series
#11
Marion Muche, Ulrike Meyer, Britta Siegmund, Rajan Somasundaram, Hans-Joerg Epple
International guidelines recommend lifelong nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) treatment in individuals with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection who are hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seronegative, because hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion is rarely achieved. However, after terminating therapy, sustained responses and HBsAg loss have been observed. Clinical characteristics identifying persons with favorable outcomes after discontinuing NA therapy have not yet been defined. This case series describes outcomes of 6 individuals with HBeAg-seronegative CHB infection without cirrhosis and low plasma levels of HBsAg who discontinued long-term NA treatment...
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820684/lack-of-efficacy-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-against-acute-and-chronic-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-in-mice
#12
Karl V Clemons, Raymond A Sobel, Marife Martinez, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, David A Stevens
Acute and chronic infection with Trypanosoma cruzi affects millions of people. The current therapeutic options are highly toxic and often not effective. Liposomal amphotericin B (LABORATORY) has been demonstrated previously to have some activity in murine models. In our studies, higher dosages given multiple times were tested for activity against acute or chronic disease, exploring whether intermittent and brief regimens could be effective, as might then prove useful in human, particularly outpatient, therapy...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820683/malaria-in-the-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-in-china-a-twelve-year-surveillance-data-study
#13
Kangming Lin, Haiyan Wei, Weikang Jiang, Jun Li, Weiwei Zhang, Shujiao Wei, Yichao Yang, Yaming Huang, Xiangyang Feng, Hong Tu, Jun Feng
The incidence of an indigenous malaria, defined as malaria acquired by a local mosquito transmission, declined from 2004 to 2015 in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. However, imported malaria, defined as malaria acquired from other endemic regions outside of China, has been increasing in the region, as in the rest of the country, particularly the disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A retrospective study was conducted to explore malaria-endemic characteristics in Guangxi during the 2004-2015 timeframe; a total of 2,726 confirmed malaria cases were reported, and the majority (90...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820339/emergence-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-sri-lanka-a-newly-established-health-threat
#14
H V Y D Siriwardana, P Karunanayake, L Goonerathne, N D Karunaweera
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka is a new focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a genetic variant of usually visceralizing parasite Leishmania donovani. Over 3000 cases have been reported to our institution alone, during the past two decades. Recent emergence of visceral leishmaniasis is of concern. METHODS: Patients suspected of having visceral leishmaniasis (n = 120) fulfilling at least two of six criteria (fever > 2 weeks, weight loss, tiredness affecting daily functions, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and anemia) were studied using clinic-epidemiological, immunological and haematological parameters...
August 18, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820304/predictors-of-quality-of-life-and-survival-following-gamma-knife-surgery-for-lung-cancer-brain-metastases-a-prospective-study
#15
Sidsel Bragstad, Marianne Flatebø, Gerd Karin Natvig, Geir Egil Eide, Geir Olve Skeie, Maziar Behbahani, Paal-Henning Pedersen, Per Øyvind Enger, Bente Sandvei Skeie
OBJECTIVE Lung cancer (LC) patients who develop brain metastases (BMs) have a poor prognosis. Estimations of survival and risk of treatment-related deterioration in quality of life (QOL) are important when deciding on treatment. Although we know of several prognostic factors for LC patients with BMs, the role of QOL has not been established. Authors of this study set out to evaluate changes in QOL following Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for BMs in LC patients and QOL as a prognostic factor for survival. METHODS Forty-four of 48 consecutive LC patients with BMs underwent GKS in the period from May 2010 to September 2011, and their QOL was prospectively assessed before and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after GKS by using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-BR) questionnaire...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819946/inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-pregnancy
#16
Anna Małgorzata Maliszewska, Aleksandra Warska, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Włodzimierz Sawicki
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprising Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and IBD-unclassified (IBD-U) may appear at any age. As such, IBD commonly affects young patients in their reproductive age. Rate of voluntary childlessness among women with IBD far exceed that of the general population, as patients with IBD fear not only the effect of pregnancy on the course of inflammatory bowel disease, but also the increased risk of the offspring developing the disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, the effect IBD treatment may have on the health and development of the infant or the risk of relapse during pregnancy and the influence of lactation on child development and disease course...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819882/novel-immunotherapies-for-multiple-myeloma
#17
REVIEW
Mattia D'Agostino, Mario Boccadoro, Eric L Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment landscape of multiple myeloma is rapidly changing; however, despite improvement in patients' survival, it still remains a largely incurable disease. One hallmark of myeloma is substantial immune dysfunction leading to an increased infection rate and the inability of immune surveillance to detect neoplastic cells. Here, we critically analyze clinical approaches to harness the immune system to overcome this defect with a focus on antibody based and adoptive cellular therapies...
August 18, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819821/anti-pd-1-antibodies-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-in-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma
#18
REVIEW
Michael D Jain, John Kuruvilla
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is defined by malignant Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells that recruit non-malignant immune cells into a supportive tumour microenvironment. In cHL, this is driven, in part, by genomic alterations of the 9p24.1 locus encoding the immune checkpoint ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2. Therapeutic anti-PD-1 antibodies have been developed that competitively inhibit the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands. Clinical trials of anti-PD-1 antibodies in cHL demonstrate high overall response rates but relapses still occur and new clinical challenges exist for toxicity management and response assessment...
August 17, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819740/inotuzumab-ozogamicin-first-global-approval
#19
Yvette N Lamb
Intravenous inotuzumab ozogamicin (Besponsa(®); Pfizer) is an anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody-calicheamicin conjugate that binds to CD22-expressing tumour cells. Upon binding, the complex is internalised and the cytotoxic calicheamicin derivative is released inside the cell, inducing double-strand DNA breakage and subsequent cell death. In June 2017, the EMA granted inotuzumab ozogamicin approval as monotherapy for the treatment of adults with relapsed or refractory CD22-positive B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)...
August 17, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819653/targeting-cytokines-in-gvhd-therapy
#20
Sandeep Kumar, Hemn Mohammadpour, Xuefang Cao
Transplantation of donor-derived allogeneic hematopoietic cells causes increased survival in patients suffering from various blood cancers and other hematologic and immunologic diseases. However, this health benefit is limited to certain patients. One major complication is graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) that occurs when donor-derived immune cells recognize host cells/tissues as foreign and perpetrate subsequent destruction. Cytokines are a major class of effector molecules that are involved in GVHD pathogenesis...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research and Therapy
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