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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222734/tert-promoter-hotspot-mutations-in-breast-cancer
#1
Tatsunori Shimoi, Masayuki Yoshida, Yuka Kitamura, Tomomi Yoshino, Asuka Kawachi, Akihiko Shimomura, Emi Noguchi, Mayu Yunokawa, Kan Yonemori, Chikako Shimizu, Takayuki Kinoshita, Koichi Ichimura, Takahiro Fukuda, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Kenji Tamura
BACKGROUND: Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations have been discovered in solid and hematological malignancies, where they reflect TERT activation and cell-cycle progression. In melanoma, glioma, and thyroid cancers, TERT promoter mutations are associated with a poor prognosis. However, no studies have evaluated the prevalence and prognostic significance of TERT promoter mutations in breast cancer. METHODS: We analyzed TERT promoter hotspot mutations (C228T and C250T) using direct sequencing of DNA from 319 tumor tissues...
December 8, 2017: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222693/neuroblastoma-pathogenesis-deregulation-of-embryonic-neural-crest-development
#2
REVIEW
Julie A Tomolonis, Saurabh Agarwal, Jason M Shohet
Neuroblastoma (NB) is an aggressive pediatric cancer that originates from neural crest tissues of the sympathetic nervous system. NB is highly heterogeneous both from a clinical and a molecular perspective. Clinically, this cancer represents a wide range of phenotypes ranging from spontaneous regression of 4S disease to unremitting treatment-refractory progression and death of high-risk metastatic disease. At a cellular level, the heterogeneous behavior of NB likely arises from an arrest and deregulation of normal neural crest development...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222685/prediction-of-outcome-using-pretreatment-18f-fdg-pet-ct-and-mri-radiomics-in-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer-treated-with-chemoradiotherapy
#3
François Lucia, Dimitris Visvikis, Marie-Charlotte Desseroit, Omar Miranda, Jean-Pierre Malhaire, Philippe Robin, Olivier Pradier, Mathieu Hatt, Ulrike Schick
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to determine if radiomics features from 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images could contribute to prognoses in cervical cancer. METHODS: One hundred and two patients (69 for training and 33 for testing) with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) receiving chemoradiotherapy (CRT) from 08/2010 to 12/2016 were enrolled in this study. 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI examination [T1, T2, T1C, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)] were performed for each patient before CRT...
December 9, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222670/venetoclax-for-treating-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-a-nice-single-technology-appraisal
#4
REVIEW
Hema Mistry, Chidozie Nduka, Martin Connock, Jill Colquitt, Theodoros Mantopoulos, Emma Loveman, Renata Walewska, James Mason
Venetoclax is licensed to treat relapsed or refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). As part of the Single Technology Appraisal (STA) ID944, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited AbbVie, the manufacturer, to submit evidence on the use of venetoclax, within its licensed indication. The Evidence Review Group (ERG), Warwick Evidence, was asked to provide an independent and critical review of the submitted evidence. Evidence came from three single-arm trials in CLL patients with or without 17p deletion [del(17p])/TP53 chromosomal abnormalities...
December 8, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222624/dapsone-for-recalcitrant-eosinophilic-annular-erythema-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Luke Wallis, Robert C Gilson, Robert T Gilson
Eosinophilic annular erythema (EAE) is a rare entity of unknown etiology that is possibly related to a hypersensitivity reaction and presents as annular erythematous plaques with tissue eosinophilia. It is classified as a figurate erythema with a controversial relationship to Wells syndrome (WS) in the literature, where it is generally considered a separate entity or subset based on clinical and histopathologic differences. EAE typically presents with recurrent, erythematous, arcuate, and annular plaques on the trunk and proximal extremities...
December 8, 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222325/cells-to-prevent-treat-relapse-following-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
REVIEW
Andrew C Dietz, Alan S Wayne
Relapse of cancer remains one of the primary causes of treatment failure and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A multitude of approaches have been used in the management of posttransplant relapse. This review focuses on recent data with cellular therapies designed to treat or prevent posttransplant relapse of hematologic malignancies, although many of these therapeutic approaches also have applications to solid tumors and in the nontransplant setting. Currently available cell therapies include second transplant, natural killer cells, monocyte-derived dendritic cell vaccines, and lymphocytes via donor lymphocyte infusion, antigen-primed cytotoxic T lymphocytes, cytokine-induced killer cells, marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes, and chimeric antigen receptor T cells...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222324/pharmacologic-agents-to-prevent-and-treat-relapse-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#7
REVIEW
Robert J Soiffer, Yi-Bin Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222323/graft-versus-tumor-effects-and-why-people-relapse
#8
REVIEW
J H Frederik Falkenburg, Inge Jedema
Graft-versus-tumor (GVT) reactivity mediated by donor T cells in the context of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is one of the most potent forms of cellular immunotherapy. The antitumor effect against hematologic malignancies is mediated by a polyclonal T-cell response targeting polymorphic antigens expressed on hematopoietic tissues of the recipient, leaving donor hematopoiesis in the patient after transplantation unharmed. Fortunately, hematopoietic tissues (including malignant hematopoietic cell populations) are relatively susceptible to T-cell recognition...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222307/secondary-cns-relapse-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-defining-high-risk-patients-and-optimization-of-prophylaxis-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Kerry J Savage
Despite improvement in survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with the introduction of rituximab, central nervous system (CNS) relapse continues to represent a clinical challenge. A number of studies have evaluated clinical risk factors in an attempt to identify high-risk patients to direct CNS staging investigations and consider prophylaxis strategies. The CNS International Prognostic Index is a robust and reproducible risk model that can identity patients at high risk of CNS relapse, but its specificity remains limited...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222306/therapy-of-primary-cns-lymphoma-role-of-intensity-radiation-and-novel-agents
#10
REVIEW
Andrés José María Ferreri
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas represent a subgroup of malignancies with specific characteristics, an aggressive course, and unsatisfactory outcome in contrast with other lymphomas comparable for tumor burden and histological type. Despite the high sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, remissions are frequently short lasting. Treatment efficacy is limited by several factors, including the biology and microenvironment of this malignancy and the "protective" effect of the blood-brain barrier, which limits the access of most drugs to the CNS...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222299/management-of-multiple-myeloma-in-the-relapsed-refractory-patient
#11
REVIEW
Pieter Sonneveld
The approach to the patient with relapsed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma requires a careful evaluation of the results of previous treatments, the toxicities associated with it, and an assessment of prognostic factors. The majority of patients will have received prior therapy with drug combinations, including a proteasome inhibitor and an immune-modulatory agent. It is the physician's task to choose the right moment for the start of therapy and decide with the patient which goals need to be achieved...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222294/incorporating-novel-approaches-in-the-management-of-mds-beyond-conventional-hypomethylating-agents
#12
REVIEW
Olatoyosi Odenike
In the last decade, the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has revolved around the azanucleosides, azacitidine and decitabine, which at lower doses are postulated to work predominantly via their effects on inhibition of DNA methyltransferases and consequent DNA hypomethylation. For patients who relapse after, or do not respond to, hypomethylating agent therapy, the outcome is dismal, and new agents and approaches that have the potential to alter the natural history of these diseases are desperately needed...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222293/current-treatment-algorithm-for-the-management-of-lower-risk-mds
#13
REVIEW
Aristoteles Giagounidis
Lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), defined as MDS with a Revised International Prognostic Scoring System score ≤3.5 points, will remain a challenging entity in 2018. Supportive care continues to be the linchpin of treatment, although the options to reduce transfusion needs are broadening. To achieve red blood cell transfusion independence in non-del(5q) patients, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents remain a mainstay of therapy as long as endogenous erythropoietin levels are <500 U/L (and preferably <200 U/L)...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222284/management-of-newly-diagnosed-immune-thrombocytopenia-can-we-change-outcomes
#14
REVIEW
Cindy E Neunert
Immune thrombocytopenia resulting from antibody-mediated platelet destruction combined with impaired platelet production is a common cause of thrombocytopenia. The decision to treat newly diagnosed patients is based on several factors including ceasing hemorrhagic manifestations, increasing the platelet count, prevention of bleeding, and inducing remission. Current standard first-line therapy is a course of corticosteroids. Although this treatment paradigm increases the platelet count in the majority of patients, a high percentage relapse after discontinuation of corticosteroid therapy...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222280/toward-personalized-treatment-in-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-macroglobulinemia
#15
REVIEW
Jorge J Castillo, Steven P Treon
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare lymphoma with 1000 to 1500 new patients diagnosed per year in the United States. Patients with WM can experience prolonged survival times, which seem to have increased in the last decade, but relapse is inevitable. The identification of recurrent mutations in the MYD88 and CXCR4 genes has opened avenues of research to better understand and treat patients with WM. These developments are giving way to personalized treatment approaches for these patients, focusing on increasing depth and duration of response alongside lower toxicity rates...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222278/safety-profiles-of-novel-agent-therapies-in-cll
#16
REVIEW
Inhye E Ahn, Matthew S Davids
A 70-year-old man with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia has multiple comorbidities including atrial fibrillation (on warfarin for anticoagulation), irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic renal insufficiency. Two years ago, he received bendamustine and rituximab as first-line therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and achieved partial response, but now has relapsed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization cytogenetics reveals deletion 17p. Which novel agent would you recommend for this patient?
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222276/optimizing-frontline-therapy-of-cll-based-on-clinical-and-biological-factors
#17
REVIEW
Kirsten Fischer, Michael Hallek
The heterogeneity of the clinical course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) ranges from an indolent course, where patients do not require therapy for many years, to a very aggressive disease, where treatment is required soon after diagnosis and relapses may occur early. The improved tools for prognostication allow predicting the outcome of patients with increasing reliability. Some markers also allow selecting more specific therapies with improved activity in the presence of certain genetic or clinical features of CLL...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222274/nodular-lymphocyte-predominant-hodgkin-lymphoma-a-unique-disease-deserving-unique-management
#18
REVIEW
Dennis A Eichenauer, Andreas Engert
Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare lymphoma entity with an incidence of 0.1 to 0.2/100 000/y. Compared with the more common subtypes of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, NLPHL is characterized by distinct pathological and clinical features. Histologically, the disease-defining lymphocyte predominant cells consistently express CD20 but lack CD30. Clinically, NLPHL mostly has a rather indolent course, and patients usually are diagnosed in early stages. The prognosis of early-stage NLPHL is excellent, with progression-free survival and overall survival rates exceeding 90% after involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) alone (stage IA) or combined modality treatment consisting of a brief chemotherapy with 2 cycles of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy followed by IF-RT (early stages other than stage IA)...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222273/emerging-role-of-novel-therapies-in-hodgkin-lymphoma-proceed-with-caution
#19
REVIEW
Nancy L Bartlett
Based on very high response rates in the relapsed and refractory setting, brentuximab vedotin and the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors, nivolumab and pembrolizumab, have quickly been incorporated into clinical trials for first- and second-line therapy of Hodgkin lymphoma. Preliminary data show that brentuximab vedotin alone is not adequate therapy for newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma in older patients, but modestly decreases the risk of relapse when combined with adriamycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine in patients with previously untreated advanced-stage disease...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222264/incorporation-of-nonchemotherapeutic-agents-in-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#20
REVIEW
Lewis B Silverman
With current available therapies, the prognosis for most children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is favorable. However, the multiagent chemotherapy regimens used to treat newly diagnosed patients are associated with many acute and long-term complications, and therapy for relapsed disease is intensive and suboptimally effective. Over the last decade, several nonchemotherapeutic approaches have been evaluated, with the goal of identifying more effective, less toxic therapies that can be used in conjunction with, or even replace, current regimens...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
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