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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472891/a-review-of-traumatic-axonal-injury-following-whiplash-injury-as-demonstrated-by-diffusion-tensor-tractography
#1
REVIEW
Sung Ho Jang, Young Hyeon Kwon
Whiplash is a bony or soft tissue injury resulting from an acceleration-deceleration energy transfer in the neck. Although patients with whiplash injury often complain of cerebral symptoms, and previous studies have reported evidence indicating brain injury, such an association has not been clearly elucidated. Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is tearing of axons due to indirect shearing forces during acceleration, deceleration, and rotation of the brain or to direct head trauma. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has a unique advantage to detect TAI in patients whose conventional brain CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results were negative following head trauma...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471249/post-mortem-biochemistry-of-nse-and-s100b-a-supplemental-tool-for-detecting-a-lethal-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Monique Sieber, Jan Dreßler, Heike Franke, Dirk Pohlers, Benjamin Ondruschka
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a very common entity that leads to numerous fatalities all over the world. Therefore, forensic pathologists are in desperate need of supplemental methodological tools for the diagnosis of TBI in everyday practice besides the standard autopsy. The present study determined post-mortem neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) levels as biological markers of an underlying TBI in autopsy cases. METHODS: Paired serum and CSF samples of 92 fatalities were collected throughout routine autopsies...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470527/value-of-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-laparoscopy-for-patients-with-blunt-abdominal-trauma-a-10-year-medical-center-experience
#3
Heng-Fu Lin, Ying-Da Chen, Shyr-Chyr Chen
Laparoscopy has been used for the diagnosis and treatment for hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominal trauma. This study evaluated whether diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy can be used as effectively in select patients with blunt abdominal trauma. All hemodynamically stable patients undergoing operations for blunt abdominal trauma over a 10-year period (2006-2015) at a tertiary medical center were included. Patients undergoing laparotomy were categorized as group A. Patients who underwent laparoscopy were categorized as group B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469668/review-of-de-novo-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformation-haemorrhage-risk-treatment-approaches-and-outcomes
#4
Xianli Lv, Guihuai Wang
Objective A small number of patients has been reported to develop a completely new or de novo arteriovenous malformation (AVM) after brain surgery, haemorrhage, head trauma or ischaemic stroke. The natural history of these lesions is unknown. In this review, both ruptured and unruptured de novo AVMs and their treatments were reviewed. Methods Published literature in the PubMed database citing 'de novo cerebral arteriovenous malformation' was reviewed. Additional studies were identified through reference searches in each reviewed article...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468580/measurement-of-intracranial-pressure-in-freely-moving-rats
#5
Michael R Williamson, Roseleen F John, Frederick Colbourne
Brain injury, such as from stroke and trauma, can be complicated by elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Although raised ICP can be a significant determinant of morbidity and mortality, clinical studies often report widely varying ICP measurements depending on location of measurement and technique used. For the same reasons, reported ICP measurements also vary widely in animal models. The need for anesthesia or tethered connections with some methods of ICP measurement in animals may introduce additional confounds...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466920/trajectory-of-functional-independent-measurements-during-first-5-years-following-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Juan Lu, Cecilie Roe, Solrun Sigurdardottir, Nada Andelic, Marit Vindal Forslund
A better understanding of long-term functional recovery process for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) facilitates effective rehabilitations. The objective of this study was to classify and characterize patients with moderate-to-severe TBI based on their functional trajectories up to 5-years following injury. The study included 121 patients with moderate-to-severe TBIs (ICD-10: S06.0-S06.9), aged 16-55 years and admitted at Trauma Referral Hospital within 24-hours of injury between 2005 and 2007. Demographics and injury characteristics were documented at the admission, and functional status was recorded at 3 months, 1 and 5 years post injury using Functional Independence Measure motor (FIM-M) and cognitive (FIM-C) subscales...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465211/-case-report-pneumocephalia-after-epidural-anesthesia-for-hip-replacement-surgery
#7
S A Pervukhin, A M Ageenko, M N Lebedeva, R I Golikov
Lumbar epidural anesthesia is a commonly used anaesthetic technique for trauma and orthopedic surgery of the lower extremities. One of the rare complications of epidural anesthesia is pneumocephalia. The article describes a case of pneumocephalia after epidural anesthesia performed for anesthetic management of the hip replacement surgery. Eight hours after the epidural anesthesia the patient had depression of consciousness progressing to coma. Computed tomog- raphy of the brain detected pneumocephalia. Symptomatic treatment provided a regression of neurological deficit...
September 2017: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462087/prognosis-of-diffuse-axonal-injury-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Stephen S Humble, Laura D Wilson, Li Wang, Drew A Long, Miya A Smith, Jonathan C Siktberg, Mina F Mirhoseini, Aashim Bhatia, Sumit Pruthi, Matthew A Day, Susanne Muehlschlegel, Mayur B Patel
BACKGROUND: Determine the prognostic impact of MRI-defined DAI after TBI on functional outcomes, quality of life, and 3-year mortality. METHODS: This retrospective single center cohort included adult trauma patients (age>17y) admitted from 2006-2012 with TBI. Inclusion criteria were positive head CT with brain MRI within 2 weeks of admission. Exclusion criteria included penetrating TBI or prior neurologic condition. Separate ordinal logistic models assessed DAI's prognostic value for following scores: 1)hospital-discharge Functional Independence Measure (FIM); 2)long-term Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE); and 3)long-term Quality of Life after Brain Injury-Overall Scale (QOLIBRI-OS)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461428/cervical-spine-imaging-and-injuries-in-young-children-with-non-motor-vehicle-crash-associated-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
M Katherine Henry, Benjamin French, Chris Feudtner, Mark R Zonfrillo, Daniel M Lindberg, James D Anderst, Rachel P Berger, Joanne N Wood
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) practices and cervical spine injuries among young children with non-motor vehicle crash (MVC)-associated traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of a stratified, systematic random sample of 328 children younger than 2 years with non-MVC-associated TBI at 4 urban children's hospitals from 2008 to 2012. We defined TBI etiology as accidental, indeterminate, or abuse...
February 15, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460203/time-is-cerebellum
#10
EDITORIAL
Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto, Christiane S Hampe
The cerebellum characteristically has the capacity to compensate for and restore lost functions. These compensatory/restorative properties are explained by an abundant synaptic plasticity and the convergence of multimodal central and peripheral signals. In addition, extra-cerebellar structures contribute also to the recovery after a cerebellar injury. Clinically, some patients show remarkable improvement of severe ataxic symptoms associated with trauma, stroke, metabolism, or immune-mediated cerebellar ataxia (IMCA, e...
February 19, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459342/hemoglobin-thresholds-and-red-blood-cell-transfusion-in-adult-patients-with-moderate-or-severe-traumatic-brain-injuries-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Amélie Boutin, Lynne Moore, Robert S Green, Ryan Zarychanski, Mete Erdogan, François Lauzier, Shane English, Dean A Fergusson, Michael Butler, Lauralyn McIntyre, Michaël Chassé, Paule Lessard Bonaventure, Caroline Léger, Philippe Desjardins, Donald Griesdale, Jacques Lacroix, Alexis F Turgeon
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the association between transfusion practices and clinical outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a level I trauma center between 2009 and 2013. The associations between hemoglobin (Hb) level, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and clinical outcomes were estimated using robust Poisson models and proportional hazard models with time-dependent variables, adjusted for confounders...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455904/hypoglossal-nerve-paralysis-in-a-child-after-a-dental-procedure
#12
Simona D Marino, Laura Schiavone, Flavia M C La Mendola, Tiziana Timpanaro, Maria Elena Cucuzza, Filippo Greco, Pierluigi Smilari, Agata Fiumara, Andrea Domenico Praticò
Unilateral palsy of the hypoglossal nerve is a rare complication of orthodontic procedures. The main reported causes of HNP are: orthopedic and otorhinolaryngology surgical interventions, and in particular maneuvers involving compression or overstretching of the hypoglossal nerve, dental procedures and traumas, and also infections, motoneuron disorders, tumors, vascular diseases. Diagnosis is usually performed by electrophysiology studies (EMG-VCN), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to exclude other causes...
February 6, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455628/ng%C3%A4-whak%C3%A4-whitinga-standing-at-the-crossroads-how-m%C3%A4-ori-understand-what-western-psychiatry-calls-schizophrenia
#13
Melissa Taitimu, John Read, Tracey McIntosh
This project explored how Māori understand experiences commonly labelled "schizophrenic" or "psychotic". Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 57 Māori participants who had either personal experiences labelled as "psychosis" or "schizophrenia", or who work with people with such experiences; including tangata whaiora (users of mental health services), tohunga (traditional healers), kaumatua/kuia (elders), Māori clinicians, cultural support workers and students...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452810/interleukin-6-is-both-necessary-and-sufficient-to-produce-perioperative-neurocognitive-disorder-in-mice
#14
J Hu, X Feng, M Valdearcos, D Lutrin, Y Uchida, S K Koliwad, M Maze
BACKGROUND: Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) result in long-term morbidity and mortality with no effective interventions available. Because interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is consistently up-regulated by trauma, including after surgery, we determined whether IL-6 is a putative therapeutic target for PND in a mouse model. METHODS: Following institutional approval, adult (12-14 weeks) male C57/Bl6 mice were pretreated with the IL-6 receptor (IL6R) blocking antibody tocilizumab prior to open tibia fracture with internal fixation under isoflurane anaesthesia...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452732/efficacy-of-pre-hospital-rapid-sequence-intubation-in-paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-9-year-observational-study
#15
Stefan Heschl, Ben Meadley, Emily Andrew, Warwick Butt, Stephen Bernard, Karen Smith
INTRODUCTION: Prehospital airway management of the paediatric patient with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is controversial. Endotracheal intubation of children in the field requires specific skills and has potential benefits but also carries potentially serious complications. We aimed to compare mortality and functional outcomes after six months between children with TBI who either underwent prehospital rapid sequence intubation (RSI) by trained Intensive Care paramedics (ICP) or received no intubation...
February 12, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452613/the-role-of-plasma-membrane-calcium-atpases-pmcas-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Parvana Hajieva, Marius W Baeken, Bernd Moosmann
Selective degeneration of differentiated neurons in the brain is the unifying feature of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) or Alzheimer's disease (AD). A broad spectrum of evidence indicates that initially subtle, but temporally early calcium dysregulation may be central to the selective neuronal vulnerability observed in these slowly progressing, chronic disorders. Moreover, it has long been evident that excitotoxicity and its major toxic effector mechanism, neuronal calcium overload, play a decisive role in the propagation of secondary neuronal death after acute brain injury from trauma or ischemia...
January 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451456/clival-meningocele-causing-bilateral-hearing-loss-in-a-child-due-to-superficial-siderosis-of-the-central-nervous-system-case-report
#17
Stephen J Johans, Kevin N Swong, Daniel J Burkett, Michael P Wemhoff, Sean M Lew, Chirag R Patel, Anand V Germanwala
Superficial siderosis (SS) of the CNS is a rare and often unrecognized condition. Caused by hemosiderin deposition from chronic, repetitive hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space, it results in parenchymal damage in the subpial layers of the brain and spinal cord. T2-weighted MRI shows the characteristic hypointensity of hemosiderin deposition, classically occurring around the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. Patients present with progressive gait ataxia and sensorineural hearing impairment. Although there have been several studies, case reports, and review articles over the years, the clear pathophysiology of subarachnoid space hemorrhage remains to be elucidated...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451199/brain-injury-and-neural-stem-cells
#18
REVIEW
Parker E Ludwig, Finosh G Thankam, Arun A Patil, Andrea J Chamczuk, Devendra K Agrawal
Many therapies with potential for treatment of brain injury have been investigated. Few types of cells have spurred as much interest and excitement as stem cells over the past few decades. The multipotentiality and self-renewing characteristics of stem cells confer upon them the capability to regenerate lost tissue in ischemic or degenerative conditions as well as trauma. While stem cells have not yet proven to be clinically effective in many such conditions as was once hoped, they have demonstrated some effects that could be manipulated for clinical benefit...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450484/neurological-manifestations-among-us-government-personnel-reporting-directional-audible-and-sensory-phenomena-in-havana-cuba
#19
Randel L Swanson, Stephen Hampton, Judith Green-McKenzie, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, M Sean Grady, Ragini Verma, Rosette Biester, Diana Duda, Ronald L Wolf, Douglas H Smith
Importance: From late 2016 through August 2017, US government personnel serving on diplomatic assignment in Havana, Cuba, reported neurological symptoms associated with exposure to auditory and sensory phenomena. Objective: To describe the neurological manifestations that followed exposure to an unknown energy source associated with auditory and sensory phenomena. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary results from a retrospective case series of US government personnel in Havana, Cuba...
February 15, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449536/impaired-autophagic-flux-is-associated-with-the-severity-of-trauma-and-the-role-of-a-2a-r-in-brain-cells-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Xu-Jia Zeng, Ping Li, Ya-Lei Ning, Yan Zhao, Yan Peng, Nan Yang, Zi-Ai Zhao, Jiang-Fan Chen, Yuan-Guo Zhou
Recent studies have shown that after traumatic brain injury (TBI), the number of autophagosomes is markedly increased in brain cells surrounding the wound; however, whether autophagy is enhanced or suppressed by TBI remains controversial. In our study, we used a controlled cortical impact system to establish models of mild, moderate and severe TBI. In the mild TBI model, the levels of autophagy-related protein 6 (Beclin1) and autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12)-autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5) conjugates were increased, indicating the enhanced initiation of autophagy...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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