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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343263/knowledge-use-and-disuse-of-unconventional-food-plants
#1
Mayana Lacerda Leal, Rubana Palhares Alves, Natalia Hanazaki
BACKGROUND: People's diets are usually restricted to a small number of plant species, even in regions with great diversity. We investigated the knowledge of residents in Ribeirão da Ilha, a district of Florianópolis (Santa Catarina, Brazil), about unconventional food plants (UFP). We report the UFP of the region, the parts used, the methods of processing, and the reasons for reduced use or even lack of use. METHODS: From June 2014 to January 2015, we interviewed 26 long-established residents and made free listings of plant resources in the region...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334508/practical-valvular-issues-in-patients-requiring-ventricular-assist-devices
#2
Mitesh Badiwala, Terrence Yau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As ventricular assist device (VAD) therapy in patients with advanced heart failure continues to grow, experience with concomitant valvular diseases present either before or after VAD implantation continues to accrue. In this review, we discuss recent data and current practice as it pertains to the subject of concomitant valvular disease in patients requiring VADs. RECENT FINDINGS: Persistent aortic valve closure has been identified as a potential contributor to aortic valve 'disuse atrophy' resulting in valve degeneration...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332162/roles-of-irisin-in-the-linkage-from-muscle-to-bone-during-mechanical-unloading-in-mice
#3
Naoyuki Kawao, Akihiro Moritake, Kohei Tatsumi, Hiroshi Kaji
Mechanical unloading induces disuse muscle atrophy and bone loss, but the details in mechanism involved in those pathophysiological conditions are not fully understood. Interaction between muscle and bone has been recently noted. Here, we investigated the roles of humoral factors linking muscle to bone during mechanical unloading using mice with hindlimb unloading (HU) and sciatic neurectomy (SNX). HU and SNX reduced muscle volume surrounding the tibia, tissue weights of soleus and gastrocnemius muscle, and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in the tibia of mice...
January 13, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316600/impact-of-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-nmes-on-90-day-episode-costs-and-post-acute-care-utilization-in-total-knee-replacement-patients-with-disuse-atrophy
#4
Sarmistha Pal, Morad Chughtai, Assem A Sultan, Anton Khlopas, Nipun Sodhi, Nicole E George, Jennifer I Etcheson, Chukwuweike U Gwam, Jared M Newman, Linsen T Samuel, Anil Bhave, Joan E DaVanzo, Michael A Mont
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated differences in: 1) total episode payments, 2) probability of hospital readmission, 3) probability of inpatient rehab facility (IRF) and utilization, and 4) probability of skilled nursing care facility (SNF) utilization in patients who had disuse atrophy and underwent a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and either did, or did not, receive preoperative home-based neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the Medicare limited dataset for a 5% sample of beneficiaries from 2014 and 2015 to construct episodes-of-care for TKA (DRG-470) patients with disuse atrophy who underwent a TKA during the 30 days prior to hospital admission and 90 days post-discharge...
December 22, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311489/retained-myogenic-potency-of-human-satellite-cells-from-torn-rotator-cuff-muscles-despite-fatty-infiltration
#5
Masashi Koide, Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Masahiro Tsuchiya, Makoto Kanzaki, Hiroyasu Hatakeyama, Yukinori Tanaka, Takashi Minowa, Taro Takemura, Akira Ando, Takuya Sekiguchi, Yutaka Yabe, Eiji Itoi
Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are a common shoulder problem in the elderly that can lead to both muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration due to less physical load. Satellite cells, quiescent cells under the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fibers, play a major role in muscle regeneration. However, the myogenic potency of human satellite cells in muscles with fatty infiltration is unclear due to the difficulty in isolating from small samples, and the mechanism of the progression of fatty infiltration has not been elucidated...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307271/prenylation-enhances-the-biological-activity-of-dietary-flavonoids-by-altering-their-bioavailability
#6
Rie Mukai
Flavonoids are distributed across the plant kingdom and have attracted substantial attention owing to their potential benefits for human health. Several studies have demonstrated that flavonoids prenylation enhances various biological activities, suggesting an attractive tool for developing functional foods. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on how prenylation influences the biological activity and bioavailability of flavonoids. The enhancement effect of prenylation on the biological activities of dietary flavonoids in mammals was demonstrated by comparing the effect of 8-prenyl naringenin (8PN) with that of parent naringenin in the prevention of disuse muscle atrophy in mice...
January 8, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278025/the-influence-of-aging-on-the-effectiveness-of-heat-stress-in-preventing-disuse-muscle-atrophy
#7
H Kataoka, J Nakano, Y Kondo, Y Honda, J Sakamoto, T Origuchi, M Okita
This study examined the aging effect on disuse muscle atrophy prevention using heat stress. Wistar rats aged 7 and 60 weeks were divided into three groups as follows: control, immobilized (Im), and immobilized and heat stressed (ImH). Heat stress was given by immersing the hindlimbs in hot water (42 °C) for 60 min, once in every 3 days and the gastrocnemius (GAS) and soleus (SOL) muscles were extracted after 14 days. Muscle-fiber types were classified using ATPase staining. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was assessed through Western blotting...
December 1, 2017: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277396/botulism-in-the-icu-nursing-care-plan
#8
G Zariquiey-Esteva, D Galeote-Cózar, P Santa-Candela, A Castanera-Duro
INTRODUCTION AND CASE EVALUATION: Botulism is a rare disease in Europe, caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, notifiable, non-transmissible person-to-person and potentially fatal (between 5 and 10%) if not treated quickly. The favourable opinion of the Clinical Research Ethics Committee was obtained. We present the nursing care plan of a 49-year-old man with a diagnosis of bacterial intoxication caused by Clostridium botulinum, secondary to ingestion of beans in poor condition, who was admitted to the ICU for a total of 35 days...
December 22, 2017: Enfermería Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277394/nitric-oxide-treatment-attenuates-muscle-atrophy-during-hind-limb-suspension-in-mice
#9
Judy E Anderson, Antonia Zhu, Tooru M Mizuno
Debilitating muscle-disuse atrophy in aging or obesity i has huge socioeconomic impact. Since nitric oxide (NO) mediates muscle satellite cell activation and induces hypertrophy with exercise in old mice, we tested whether treatment with the NO donor, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), during hind limb suspension would reduce atrophy. Mice were suspended 18 days, with or without daily ISDN (66mg/kg). Muscles were examined for atrophy (weight, fiber diameter); regulatory changes in atrogin-1 (a negative regulator of muscle mass), myostatin (inhibit myogenesis), and satellite cell proliferation; and metabolic responses in myosin heavy chains (MyHCs), liver lipid, and hypothalamic gene expression...
December 19, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248005/short-term-disuse-promotes-fatty-acid-infiltration-into-skeletal-muscle
#10
Allan F Pagano, Thomas Brioche, Coralie Arc-Chagnaud, Rémi Demangel, Angèle Chopard, Guillaume Py
BACKGROUND: Many physiological and/or pathological conditions lead to muscle deconditioning, a well-described phenomenon characterized by a loss of strength and muscle power mainly due to the loss of muscle mass. Fatty infiltrations, or intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), are currently well-recognized components of muscle deconditioning. Despite the fact that IMAT is present in healthy human skeletal muscle, its increase and accumulation are linked to muscle dysfunction. Although IMAT development has been largely attributable to inactivity, the precise mechanisms of its establishment are still poorly understood...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228533/denosumab-treatment-of-severe-disuse-osteoporosis-in-a-boy-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#11
Stepan Kutilek
Denosumab is a fully human recombinant monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. Denosumab is used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and cancer-related bone disorders. There are only very scarce data on denosumab treatment in children. 14-year-old boy with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and severe disuse osteoporosis (spinal bone mineral density L1-L4 BMD-6.2SD Z-score) and two prevalent fragility fractures was treated with denosumab. He received 60 mg  subcutaneous injection at the baseline and seven months later...
October 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228060/model-of-hindlimb-unloading-in-adult-female-rats-characterizing-bone-physicochemical-microstructural-and-biomechanical-properties
#12
Melise Jacon Peres-Ueno, Camila Tami Stringhetta-Garcia, Robson Chacon Castoldi, Guilherme Akio Tamura Ozaki, Antônio Hernandes Chaves-Neto, Rita Cássia Menegati Dornelles, Mário Jefferson Quirino Louzada
Prolonged bedrest and microgravity induce alterations to bone, leading to bone fragility and compromising the quality of life. In this study, we characterized the physicochemical changes, microstructure, and biomechanics of the femurs of female adult rats in response to hindlimb unloading for 21 days. Twenty 6-month-old Wistar female rats were distributed into control (CON) and hindlimb unloading (HLU) groups. Analysis the in vivo bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) from the femurs was performed at the beginning and end of the experiment; plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity, assessed by spectrophotometry, and estradiol, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was performed after the experiment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226660/bone-and-joint-diseases-in-present-and-future
#13
Yasuharu Nakashima, Ken Okazak, Koichiet Nakayama, Seiji Okada, Hideki Mizu-uchi
With the increase of elderly population, orthopaedic surgeons need to deal with the diseases related to aging, such as joint disorders and fragility fractures. The number of total joint replacements, for example, is two times more than it was 10 years ago. With these backgrounds, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) has proposed the concept of locomotive syndrome; conditions under which the elderly have been receiving care services due to problems of the locomotive organs. To prevent geriatric or disuse syndrome, JOA is currently providing the care‒prevention programs such as the loco-check and loco-training...
January 2017: Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi, Hukuoka Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198315/mimicking-the-effects-of-spaceflight-on-bone-combined-effects-of-disuse-and-chronic-low-dose-rate-radiation-exposure-on-bone-mass-in-mice
#14
Kanglun Yu, Alison H Doherty, Paula C Genik, Sara E Gookin, Danielle M Roteliuk, Samantha J Wojda, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Michael M Weil, Seth W Donahue
During spaceflight, crewmembers are subjected to biomechanical and biological challenges including microgravity and radiation. In the skeleton, spaceflight leads to bone loss, increasing the risk of fracture. Studies utilizing hindlimb suspension (HLS) as a ground-based model of spaceflight often neglect the concomitant effects of radiation exposure, and even when radiation is accounted for, it is often delivered at a high-dose rate over a very short period of time, which does not faithfully mimic spaceflight conditions...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198019/muscle-proteolytic-system-modulation-through-the-effect-of-taurine-on-mice-bearing-muscular-atrophy
#15
Rania M Khalil, Walied S Abdo, Ahmed Saad, Eman G Khedr
Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs in different catabolic conditions and mostly accompanied with upregulation of Muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) gene which is one of the master regulatory genes in muscle atrophy. Taurine amino acid is widely distributed in different tissues and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study aimed to investigate the potential influence of taurine on muscle atrophy induced by reduced mechanical loading. Twenty-eight Albino mice were used, and divided equally into four groups: group I (control); group II (immobilization); group III (immobilization + taurine); and group IV (taurine)...
December 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187647/news-from-the-iaea-management-of-disused-sources
#16
A D Wrixon
This letter to the editor describes the developments over the last 20 or more years on the safety and security of radioactive sources leading to the latest political agreement established by the International Atomic Energy Agency . This development is concerned with the safe and secure management of disused sources.
November 30, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184288/a-new-model-of-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-induced-by-immobilization-using-a-hook-and-loop-fastener-in-mice
#17
Masahiro Aihara, Noboru Hirose, Wakana Katsuta, Fumiaki Saito, Hitoshi Maruyama, Hiroki Hagiwara
[Purpose] To study muscle atrophy, the muscle atrophy model mice have been used frequently. In particular, cast immobilization is the most common method to induce muscle atrophy. However, it is time consuming and often causes adverse events including skin injury, edema, and necrosis. The present study, we developed a hook-and-loop fastener (Velcro) immobilization method as a new, simple, and less invasive approach to induce muscle atrophy. [Subjects and Methods] Mice were bandaged in the knee joint extension and ankle plantar extension position...
October 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179166/-immobilization-and-bone-remodeling-disorder
#18
Manabu Tsukamoto, Akinori Sakai
Mechanical stress is essential for us to maintain bone volume and structure. Immobilization and unloading, such as motor paralysis, long-term bedrest and casting of fractured area, cause rapidly remarkable bone loss. The bone remodeling disorder following immobilization demonstrates the acceleration of bone resorption and the suppression of bone formation, and molecular mechanism of the bone remodeling disorder has been gradually revealed recently. It is very difficult for us to improve the bone loss due to disuse completely...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179049/histological-estimation-of-age-at-death-in-amputated-lower-limbs-issues-of-disuse-advanced-age-and-disease-in-the-analysis-of-pathological-bone
#19
Amy R Michael
Histological studies of healed bone tissue following amputation are relatively rare in the literature. This study describes the histomorphological features of femoral thin sections from six uni- and bi-lateral amputees of documented age and sex. Thin sections were cut from the midshaft of both the right and left femora from each amputee and analyzed following standard forensic methods for histological estimation of age at death from the human femur. The histological age at death estimations for the thin sections from amputated bone were consistently lower than the actual chronological age of each individual, suggesting that the effects of amputation prohibit the effective use of age at death estimation methods...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170108/a-mathematical-multiscale-model-of-bone-remodeling-accounting-for-pore-space-specific-mechanosensation
#20
Maria-Ioana Pastrama, Stefan Scheiner, Peter Pivonka, Christian Hellmich
While bone tissue is a hierarchically organized material, mathematical formulations of bone remodeling are often defined on the level of a millimeter-sized representative volume element (RVE), "smeared" over all types of bone microstructures seen at lower observation scales. Thus, there is no explicit consideration of the fact that the biological cells and biochemical factors driving bone remodeling are actually located in differently sized pore spaces: active osteoblasts and osteoclasts can be found in the vascular pores, whereas the lacunar pores host osteocytes - bone cells originating from former osteoblasts which were then "buried" in newly deposited extracellular bone matrix...
November 20, 2017: Bone
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