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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724781/muscle-disuse-caused-by-botulinum-toxin-injection-leads-to-increased-central-gain-of-the-stretch-reflex-in-the-rat
#1
Jessica Pingel, Hans Hultborn, Lui Naslund-Koch, Dennis Bo Jensen, Jacob Wienecke, Jens Bo Nielsen
Botulinum toxin (Btx) is used in children with cerebral palsy and other neurological patients to diminish spasticity and reduce the risk of development of contractures. Here, we investigated changes in the central gain of the stretch reflex circuitry in response to botulinum toxin injection in the triceps surae muscle in rats. Experiments were performed in 21 rats. 8 rats were in a control group and 13 rats were injected with 6 IU of Btx in the left triceps surae muscle. Two weeks after Btx injection larger monosynaptic reflexes (MSR) were recorded from the left (injected) than the right (non-injected) L4 + L5 ventral roots following stimulation of the corresponding dorsal roots...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720001/differential-effects-of-heat-stress-on-fibre-capillarisation-in-tenotomised-soleus-and-plantaris-muscles
#2
Muthita Hirunsai, Ratchakrit Srikuea
PURPOSE: Capillary regression is commonly observed in response to disuse muscle atrophy. Heat stress is known to alleviate muscle atrophy, while effect of heat exposure on capillary adaptation following disuse atrophy is not defined. Here, we examined the effect of heat treatment on capillarisation and the associated signalling in slow-oxidative soleus and fast-glycolytic plantaris muscles following Achilles tendon ablation (tenotomy). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were assigned into control (CON), control with heat stress (CON + HEAT), tenotomy (TEN) and tenotomy with heat stress (TEN + HEAT) groups...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715424/atrophy-of-gluteus-maximus-among-women-with-a-history-of-chronic-low-back-pain
#3
Amy H Amabile, John H Bolte, Saskia D Richter
BACKGROUND: Although the relationship between low back pain (LBP) and the size of certain trunk muscles has been extensively studied, the relationship between gluteus maximus (GM) size and LBP has been only minimally examined. Determining whether such a relationship exists would help improve our understanding of the etiology of LBP, and possibly provide a rationale for the use of therapeutic exercise interventions targeting GM with LBP patients. The objective of this study was to compare gluteus maximus cross-sectional area in individuals with chronic LBP, and in a group of individuals without LBP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707116/rotator-cuff-degeneration-of-the-healthy-shoulder-in-patients-with-unilateral-arm-amputation-is-not-worsened-by-overuse
#4
S Gumina, V Candela, L Mariani, T Venditto, C Catalano, S Castellano, V Santilli, G Giannicola, A Castagna
PURPOSE: In order to evaluate whether overuse has a significant role in rotator cuff tear (RCT) aetiology, we evaluated both shoulders of patients with old unilateral arm amputation expecting a higher rate of RC degeneration in the healthy side. METHODS: Nineteen males and six females (mean age: 57.3 ± 10.1) with an old (>20 years) unilateral arm amputation were submitted to an MRI of both shoulders. Tendon status and muscle tropism were evaluated according to Sugaya and Fuchs classifications, respectively; the acromion humeral distance was measured...
July 13, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705993/effects-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-hmb-on-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-content-and-dynamics-and-lipids-after-10-days-of-bed-rest-in-older-adults
#5
Robert A Standley, Giovanna Distefano, Suzette L Pereira, Min Tian, Owen J Kelly, Paul M Coen, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Robert R Wolfe, Bret H Goodpaster
Loss of muscle mass during periods of disuse likely has negative health consequences for older adults. We have previously shown that β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during 10 days of strict bed rest (BR) attenuates the loss of lean mass in older adults. To elucidate potential molecular mechanisms of HMB effects on muscle during bed rest and resistance training rehabilitation (RT), we examined mediators of skeletal muscle mitochondrial dynamics, autophagy and atrophy, and intramyocellular lipids...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671635/osteoprotective-effect-of-radix-scutellariae-in-female-hindlimb-suspended-sprague-dawley-rats-and-the-osteogenic-differentiation-effect-of-its-major-constituent
#6
Guangwei Zhang, Chenrui Li, Yinbo Niu, Qi Yu, Yulong Chen, Enqi Liu
A number of medicinal herbs have demonstrated therapeutic effects for the prevention and treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis. As a common ingredient in proprietary traditional Chinese medicines, the anti-osteoporosis effects of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE, 50 mg/kg/day) were evaluated in a hindlimb suspended rat model. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the micro-architecture observed by MicroCT assay with bone biomechanical properties evaluated by a three-point bending test...
July 3, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659838/the-robust-running-ape-unraveling-the-deep-underpinnings-of-coordinated-human-running-proficiency
#7
REVIEW
John Kiely
In comparison to other mammals, humans are not especially strong, swift or supple. Nevertheless, despite these apparent physical limitations, we are among Natures most superbly well-adapted endurance runners. Paradoxically, however, notwithstanding this evolutionary-bestowed proficiency, running-related injuries, and Overuse syndromes in particular, are widely pervasive. The term 'coordination' is similarly ubiquitous within contemporary coaching, conditioning, and rehabilitation cultures. Various theoretical models of coordination exist within the academic literature...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649283/clinically-evident-tophi-are-associated-with-reduced-muscle-force-in-the-foot-and-ankle-in-people-with-gout-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Sarah Stewart, Nicola Dalbeth, Simon Otter, Peter Gow, Sunil Kumar, Keith Rome
BACKGROUND: The foot and ankle represent a common site for tophi in people with gout, yet it is unclear whether the presence of tophi is related to impaired muscle function. This study aimed to determine the association between foot and ankle tophi and muscle force in people with gout. METHODS: Participants with gout were stratified into two groups based on the presence of clinically-evident tophi affecting the foot or ankle on physical examination. Isometric muscle force for plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, inversion and eversion was measured using static dynamometry...
2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640230/total-flavonoids-of-drynariae-rhizoma-prevent-bone-loss-induced-by-hindlimb-unloading-in-rats
#9
Shuanghong Song, Ziyang Gao, Xujun Lei, Yinbo Niu, Yuan Zhang, Cuiqin Li, Yi Lu, Zhezhi Wang, Peng Shang
Drynariae Rhizoma is a kidney-tonifying herb that has a long history in clinical practice for the treatment of bone fractures and joint diseases in China. Flavonoids are considered to be its major active ingredients and are reported to ease bone loss in ovariectomized rats. However, the beneficial effects of the total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma on osteoporosis caused by microgravity or mechanical inactivity remain unknown. This study assessed the effects of total Drynariae Rhizoma flavonoids (DRTF, Qihuang, Beijing, China, national medicine permit No...
June 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614028/spontaneous-pulmonary-embolism-following-a-recently-thrombosed-disused-haemodialysis-fistula
#10
Poppy Elmhirst, Bryan Renton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612339/osteocyte-mechanobiology
#11
REVIEW
Yuhei Uda, Ehab Azab, Ningyuan Sun, Chao Shi, Paola Divieti Pajevic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past decades, osteocytes have emerged as mechano-sensors of bone and master regulators of bone homeostasis. This article summarizes latest research and progress made in understanding osteocyte mechanobiology and critically reviews tools currently available to study these cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Whereas increased mechanical forces promote bone formation, decrease loading is always associated with bone loss and skeletal fragility. Recent studies identified cilia, integrins, calcium channels, and G-protein coupled receptors as important sensors of mechanical forces and Ca(2+) and cAMP signaling as key effectors...
June 13, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588307/irisin-prevents-and-restores-bone-loss-and-muscle-atrophy-in-hind-limb-suspended-mice
#12
Graziana Colaianni, Teresa Mongelli, Concetta Cuscito, Paolo Pignataro, Luciana Lippo, Giovanna Spiro, Angela Notarnicola, Ilenia Severi, Giovanni Passeri, Giorgio Mori, Giacomina Brunetti, Biagio Moretti, Umberto Tarantino, Silvia C Colucci, Janne E Reseland, Roberto Vettor, Saverio Cinti, Maria Grano
We previously showed that Irisin, a myokine released from skeletal muscle after physical exercise, plays a central role in the control of bone mass. Here we report that treatment with recombinant Irisin prevented bone loss in hind-limb suspended mice when administered during suspension (preventive protocol) and induced recovery of bone mass when mice were injected after bone loss due to a suspension period of 4 weeks (curative protocol). MicroCT analysis of femurs showed that r-Irisin preserved both cortical and trabecular bone mineral density, and prevented a dramatic decrease of the trabecular bone volume fraction...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574601/explosive-and-maximal-strength-before-and-6-months-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#13
Bernd Friesenbichler, Nicola C Casartelli, Vanessa Wellauer, Julia F Item-Glatthorn, Stephen J Ferguson, Michael Leunig, Nicola A Maffiuletti
Patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis experience impairments in lower limb muscle function due to pain and disuse of the affected limb. The influence of hip osteoarthritis and subsequent total hip arthroplasty (THA) has mostly been evaluated by maximal strength tests, yet the functionally important explosive strength capabilities of hip and knee muscles are largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate hip and knee explosive and maximal strength in hip osteoarthritis patients before and after THA. Twenty-one patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis were evaluated before and 6 months after THA...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567422/risk-factors-for-the-mortality-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-non-hiv-patients-who-required-mechanical-ventilation-a-retrospective-case-series-study
#14
Toru Kotani, Shinshu Katayama, Yuya Miyazaki, Satoshi Fukuda, Yoko Sato, Koichi Ohsugi
BACKGROUND: The risk factors for the mortality rate of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) who required mechanical ventilation (MV) remained unknown. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all PCP patients admitted to our intensive care unit and treated for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure to assess the risk factors for the high mortality. RESULTS: Twenty patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection required mechanical ventilation; 19 received noninvasive ventilation; and 11 were intubated...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560822/relationship-of-changes-in-strain-rate-indices-estimated-from-velocity-encoded-mr-imaging-to-loss-of-muscle-force-following-disuse-atrophy
#15
Vadim Malis, Usha Sinha, Robert Csapo, Marco Narici, Shantanu Sinha
PURPOSE: This study explores changes in strain rate (SR) (rate of regional deformation) parameters extracted from velocity-encoded MRI and their relationship to muscle force loss following 4-week unilateral lower limb suspension in healthy humans. METHODS: Two-dimensional SR maps were derived from three directional velocity-encoded MR phase-contrast images of the medial gastrocnemius in seven subjects. Atrophy-related and regional differences in the SR eigenvalues, angle between the SR and muscle fiber (SR-fiber angle), and strain rates in the fiber basis were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and linear regression...
May 30, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559143/rectus-femoris-muscle-atrophy-and-recovery-caused-by-preoperative-pretibial-traction-in-femoral-shaft-fractures-comparison-between-traction-period
#16
D-G Shim, T-Y Kwon, K-B Lee
BACKGROUND: Skeletal traction is performed to temporarily stabilize fracture sites before surgery in patients with femoral fracture. To date, however, there is no study evaluating the difference in the degree of the recovery, of the muscle strength, as well as muscle atrophy following skeletal traction. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of recovery of rectus femoris muscle strength after surgery in association with muscle atrophy by analyzing the duration of preoperative tibial traction, age and sex in patients with femoral fracture...
May 27, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558340/dynamic-changes-of-flavonoids-in-abelmoschus-manihot-different-organs-at-different-growth-periods-by-uplc-ms-ms
#17
Xinxin Pan, Leyue Du, Jinhua Tao, Shu Jiang, Dawei Qian, Jinao Duan
Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus has been clinically used to treat chronic kidney disease, oral ulcers, burns, and dysmenorrhea in China for many centuries. The major pharmacologically-active components of A. manihot are flavonoids. In this study, a rapid and highly sensitive UPLC-MS/MS analysis method was established and successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of five major flavonoids (rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, and myricetin) in different parts of A. manihot harvested at ten growth periods...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556540/sustained-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibition-improves-insulin-sensitivity-but-is-detrimental-to-muscle-health
#18
Ning Zhang, Joseph M Valentine, You Zhou, Mengyao E Li, Yiqiang Zhang, Arunabh Bhattacharya, Michael E Walsh, Katherine E Fischer, Steven N Austad, Pawel Osmulski, Maria Gaczynska, Steven E Shoelson, Holly Van Remmen, Hung I Chen, Yidong Chen, Hanyu Liang, Nicolas Musi
Older adults universally suffer from sarcopenia and approximately 60-70% are diabetic or prediabetic. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying these aging-related metabolic disorders are unknown. NFκB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several aging-related pathologies including sarcopenia and type 2 diabetes and has been proposed as a target against them. NFκB also is thought to mediate muscle wasting seen with disuse, denervation, and some systemic diseases (e.g., cancer, sepsis). We tested the hypothesis that lifelong inhibition of the classical NFκB pathway would protect against aging-related sarcopenia and insulin resistance...
August 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549358/-complication-analysis-in-lisfranc-fracture-dislocation
#19
R J García-Renedo, A Carranza-Bencano, R Leal-Gómez, F Cámara-Arrigunaga
OBJECTIVE: To value the complications and sequels for patients with Lisfrancs fracture-luxation (FLL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A transverse ambispective study of cohorts was realized of 83 patients by diagnosis of Lisfrancs fracture-luxation. There was in use a protocol of withdrawal of information with variables related to the injury, clinical, therapeutic parameters, complications and scales of clinical valuation. RESULTS: 66 patients (79...
November 2016: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529490/microgravity-induced-transcriptome-adaptation-in-mouse-paraspinal-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-highlights-insulin-resistance-linked-genes
#20
Guido Gambara, Michele Salanova, Stefano Ciciliot, Sandra Furlan, Martina Gutsmann, Gudrun Schiffl, Ute Ungethuem, Pompeo Volpe, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Dieter Blottner
Microgravity as well as chronic muscle disuse are two causes of low back pain originated at least in part from paraspinal muscle deconditioning. At present no study investigated the complexity of the molecular changes in human or mouse paraspinal muscles exposed to microgravity. The aim of this study was to evaluate longissimus dorsi adaptation to microgravity at both morphological and global gene expression level. C57BL/N6 male mice were flown aboard the BION-M1 biosatellite for 30 days (BF) or housed in a replicate flight habitat on ground (BG)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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