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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157223/tube-feeding-decreases-pneumonia-rate-in-patients-with-severe-dementia-comparison-between-pre-and-post-intervention
#1
Shintaro Takenoshita, Keiko Kondo, Keiichi Okazaki, Akihiko Hirao, Keiko Takayama, Keisuke Hirayama, Hiroyuki Asaba, Kenji Nakata, Hideki Ishizu, Hiromi Takahashi, Hanae Nakashima-Yasuda, Yasue Sakurada, Kengo Fujikawa, Osamu Yokota, Norihito Yamada, Seishi Terada
BACKGROUND: It is widely supposed that there is no benefit, including extended survival and decreased rate of pneumonia, in patients with severe dementia receiving enteral tube feeding (TF). However, there have been few studies comparing the frequency of pneumonia before and after TF in severe dementia. METHODS: Nine psychiatric hospitals in Okayama Prefecture participated in this retrospective survey. All inpatients fulfilling the entry criteria were evaluated...
November 21, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154967/bone-marrow-mechanotransduction-in-porcine-explants-alters-kinase-activation-and-enhances-trabecular-bone-formation-in-the-absence-of-osteocyte-signaling
#2
Kimberly J Curtis, Thomas R Coughlin, Devon E Mason, Joel D Boerckel, Glen L Niebur
Bone is a dynamic tissue that can adapt its architecture in response to mechanical signals under the control of osteocytes, which sense mechanical deformation of the mineralized bone. However, cells in the marrow are also mechanosensitive and may contribute to load-induced bone adaptation, as marrow is subjected to mechanical stress during bone deformation. We investigated the contribution of mechanotransduction in marrow cells to trabecular bone formation by applying low magnitude mechanical stimulation (LMMS) to porcine vertebral trabecular bone explants in an in situ bioreactor...
November 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151843/acquiring-and-preprocessing-leaf-images-for-automated-plant-identification-understanding-the-tradeoff-between-effort-and-information-gain
#3
Michael Rzanny, Marco Seeland, Jana Wäldchen, Patrick Mäder
Background: Automated species identification is a long term research subject. Contrary to flowers and fruits, leaves are available throughout most of the year. Offering margin and texture to characterize a species, they are the most studied organ for automated identification. Substantially matured machine learning techniques generate the need for more training data (aka leaf images). Researchers as well as enthusiasts miss guidance on how to acquire suitable training images in an efficient way...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150943/muscle-regeneration-potential-and-satellite-cell-activation-profile-during-recovery-following-hindlimb-immobilization-in-mice
#4
Maria Guitart, Josep Lloreta, Laura Mañas-Garcia, Esther Barreiro
Reduced muscle activity leads to muscle atrophy and function loss in patients and animal models. Satellite cells (SCs) are postnatal muscle stem cells that play a pivotal role in skeletal muscle regeneration following injury. The regenerative potential, satellite cell numbers, and markers during recovery following immobilization of the hindlimb for seven days were explored. In mice exposed to seven days of hindlimb immobilization, in those exposed to recovery (seven days, splint removal), and in contralateral control muscles, muscle precursor cells were isolated from all hindlimb muscles (fluorescence-activated cell sorting, FACS), and SCs and muscle regeneration were identified using immunofluorescence (gastrocnemius and soleus) and electron microscopy (EM, gastrocnemius)...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126773/clomipramine-counteracts-lipid-raft-disturbance-due-to-short-term-muscle-disuse
#5
Irina G Bryndina, Maria N Shalagina, Alexey V Sekunov, Andrei L Zefirov, Alexey M Petrov
Disuse-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction is a serious consequence of long-term spaceflight, numerous diseases and conditions for which treatment possibilities are still strictly limited. We have previously shown that acute hindlimb suspension (HS)-mediated disuse disrupts membrane lipid rafts in the unloaded muscle. Here, we investigated whether pretreatment of rats with the inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase, clomipramine (1.25mg/g/day, intramuscularly, for 5days before HS), is able to hinder the loss in lipid raft integrity in response to 12h of HS...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122965/the-impact-of-dairy-protein-during-limb-immobilization-and-recovery-on-muscle-size-and-protein-synthesis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Cameron J Mitchell, Randall F D'Souza, Sarah M Mitchell, Vandre Casagrande Figueiredo, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton, Frederick F Peelor, Marcelli Coronet, Chantal A Pileggi, Brenan Durainayagam, Aaron C Fanning, Sally D Poppitt, David Cameron-Smith
Muscle disuse results in the loss of muscular strength and size, due to an imbalance between protein synthesis (MPS) and breakdown (MPB). Protein ingestion stimulates MPS, although it is not established if protein is able to attenuate muscle loss with immobilization (IM) or influence the recovery consisting of ambulatory movement followed by resistance training (RT). Thirty men (49.9±0.6 years) underwent 14 days of unilateral leg IM, 14 days of ambulatory recovery (AR) and a further 6 RT sessions over 14 days...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105154/effects-of-30%C3%A2-years-of-disuse-on-exceptional-memory-performance
#7
Jong-Sung Yoon, K Anders Ericsson, Dario Donatelli
In the mid-1980s, Dario Donatelli (DD) participated in a laboratory study of the effects of around 800 h of practice on digit-span and increased his digit-span from 8 to 104 digits. This study assessed changes in the structure of his memory skill after around 30 years of essentially no practice on the digit-span task. On the first day of testing, his estimated span was only 10 digits, but over the following 3 days of testing it increased to 19 digits. Further analyses of his recall performance and verbal reports identified which mechanisms of the original memory skill he could retrieve or reacquire over the 3 days of practice...
November 3, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102449/a-survey-on-consumers-attitude-towards-storing-and-end-of-life-strategies-of-small-information-and-communication-technology-devices-in-spain
#8
María D Bovea, Valeria Ibáñez-Forés, Victoria Pérez-Belis, Pablo Juan
This study analyses the current habits and practices towards the store, repair and second-hand purchase of small electrical and electronic devices belonging to the category of information and communication technology (ICT). To this end, a survey was designed and conducted with a representative sample size of 400 individuals through telephone interviews for the following categories: MP3/MP4, video camera, photo camera, mobile phone, tablet, e-book, laptop, hard disk drive, navigator-GPS, radio/radio alarm clock...
November 1, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092819/protein-arginine-methyltransferase-expression-localization-and-activity-during-disuse-induced-skeletal-muscle-plasticity
#9
Derek W Stouth, Alexander Manta, Vladimir Ljubicic
Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), PRMT4, and PRMT5 catalyze the methylation of arginine residues on target proteins. Previous work suggests that these enzymes regulate skeletal muscle plasticity. However, the function of PRMTs during disuse-induced muscle remodelling is unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine whether denervation-induced muscle disuse alters PRMT expression and activity in skeletal muscle, as well as to contextualize PRMT biology within the early disuse-evoked events that precede atrophy, which remain largely undefined...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078131/neuromuscular-electrophysiological-disorders-and-muscle-atrophy-in-mechanically-ventilated-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-new-insights-from-a-prospective-observational-study
#10
Paulo Eugênio Silva, Vinicius Maldaner, Luciana Vieira, Karina Livino de Carvalho, Hedian Gomes, Priscilla Melo, Nicolas Babault, Gerson Cipriano, Joao Luiz Quagliotti Durigan
PURPOSE: It is unclear whether the muscular changes in mechanically-ventilated traumatic brain injury patients (TBI) are only associated with disuse or additionally to neuromuscular electrophysiological disorders (NED). The correlation between muscle atrophy and NED may affect functional outcomes and rehabilitation programs significantly. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational study was performed to investigate the presence of NED and muscle atrophy in TBI patients undergoing mechanical ventilation...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074710/muscle-damage-produced-by-isometric-contractions-in-human-elbow-flexors
#11
Trevor James Allen, Tyson Jones, Anthony Tsay, David Lloyd Morgan, Uwe Proske
Isometric exercise is often prescribed during rehabilitation from injury in order to maintain muscle condition and prevent disuse atrophy. However such exercise can lead to muscle soreness and damage. Here we investigate which parameters of isometric contractions are responsible for the damage. Bouts of 30 repetitions of maximum voluntary contractions of elbow flexors in 38 subjects were carried out and peak force, soreness and tenderness were measured before the exercise, immediately afterwards, at 2h, and 24h post-exercise...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072608/precise-aperture-dependent-motion-compensation-with-frequency-domain-fast-back-projection-algorithm
#12
Man Zhang, Guanyong Wang, Lei Zhang
Precise azimuth-variant motion compensation (MOCO) is an essential and difficult task for high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In conventional post-filtering approaches, residual azimuth-variant motion errors are generally compensated through a set of spatial post-filters, where the coarse-focused image is segmented into overlapped blocks concerning the azimuth-dependent residual errors. However, image domain post-filtering approaches, such as precise topography- and aperture-dependent motion compensation algorithm (PTA), have difficulty of robustness in declining, when strong motion errors are involved in the coarse-focused image...
October 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064260/deterioration-of-limb-muscle-function-during-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#13
Raolat M Abdulai, Tina Jellesmark Jensen, Naimish R Patel, Michael I Polkey, Paul Jansson, Bartolomé R Celli, Stephen I Rennard
Important features of both stable and acute exacerbation of COPD are skeletal muscle weakness and wasting. Limb muscle dysfunction during an exacerbation has been linked to various adverse outcomes, including prolonged hospitalization, readmission, and mortality. The contributing factors leading to muscle dysfunction are similar to those seen in stable COPD: disuse, nutrition/energy balance, hypercapnia, hypoxemia, electrolyte derangements, inflammation, and drugs (i.e., glucocorticoids). These factors may be the trigger for a downstream cascade of local inflammatory changes, pathway process alterations, and structural degradation...
October 24, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053994/dietary-resveratrol-confers-apoptotic-resistance-to-oxidative-stress-in-myoblasts
#14
Satoshi Haramizu, Shinichi Asano, David C Butler, David A Stanton, Ameena Hajira, Junaith S Mohamed, Stephen E Alway
High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to muscle cell death in aging and disuse. We have previously found that resveratrol can reduce oxidative stress in response to aging and hindlimb unloading in rodents in vivo, but it was not known if resveratrol would protect muscle stem cells during repair or regeneration when oxidative stress is high. To test the protective role of resveratrol on muscle stem cells directly, we treated the C2C12 mouse myoblast cell line with moderate (100 μM) or very high (1 mM) levels of H2O2 in the presence or absence of resveratrol...
December 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052071/validation-of-the-vblast-pattern-cutting-task-a-learning-curve-study
#15
Ali M Linsk, Kimberley R Monden, Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, Woojin Ahn, Daniel B Jones, Suvranu De, Steven D Schwaitzberg, Caroline G L Cao
BACKGROUND: Mastery of laparoscopic skills is essential in surgical practice and requires considerable time and effort to achieve. The Virtual Basic Laparoscopic Skill Trainer (VBLaST-PC(©)) is a virtual simulator that was developed as a computerized version of the pattern cutting (PC) task in the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) system. To establish convergent validity for the VBLaST-PC(©), we assessed trainees' learning curves using the cumulative summation (CUSUM) method and compared them with those on the FLS...
October 19, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051115/an-herbal-formula-consisting-of-schisandra-chinensis-turcz-baill-lycium-chinense-mill-and-eucommia-ulmoides-oliv-alleviates-disuse-muscle-atrophy-in-rats
#16
Seongguk Cho, Riwon Hong, Poorm Yim, Mijung Yeom, Bombi Lee, Woong Mo Yang, Jongki Hong, Hyang Sook Lee, Dae-Hyun Hahm
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill (SC), Lycium chinense Mill (LC) and Eucommia ulmoides Oliv (EU) are representative tonic herbal medicines that help to strengthen body muscles and bones making them stronger according to the Donguibogam, a tradition medical book of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea. AIM OF STUDY: To evaluate effects of an herbal formula consisting of SC, LC and EU on muscle atrophy in C2C12 myotubes and in a rat model of immobilization-induced muscle atrophy...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033278/different-profiles-of-upper-limb-function-in-four-types-of-neuromuscular-disorders
#17
Arjen Bergsma, Mariska M H P Janssen, Alexander C H Geurts, Edith H C Cup, Imelda J M de Groot
The aim of this research was to study impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions due to upper limb involvement in people with four different types of neuromuscular disorders (NMD) - FacioScapuloHumeral Dystrophy (FSHD), Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD), Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) - and to investigate whether common or different profiles could be identified. Total of 267 respondents with NMD from the Netherlands answered a set of questionnaires covering upper limb impairments (pain and stiffness), activity limitations and participation restrictions...
September 15, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032335/identification-of-the-optimal-dose-and-calpain-system-regulation-of-tetramethylpyrazine-on-the-prevention-of-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-hindlimb-unloading-rats
#18
Jie Zhang, Yang Li, Guangyue Li, Xiufeng Ma, Huiping Wang, Nandu Goswami, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Hui Chang, Yunfang Gao
Previous studies in our lab have shown that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) could effectively attenuate disuse induced muscle atrophy. In order to screening out the optimal dose of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) for protection against disuse induced muscle atrophy in hindlimb unloading (HLU) rats, in this study, we compared effects of 4 TMP doses on muscle wet weight (MWW), the ratios of muscle wet weight/body weight (MWW/BW) and muscle wet weight/dry weight (MWW/DW), fiber type composition, as well as cross-sectional area (CSA) in soleus (SOL) muscle...
October 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029863/changes-in-local-bone-density-in-early-thumb-carpometacarpal-joint-osteoarthritis
#19
Joseph J Schreiber, Thomas J McQuillan, Eni Halilaj, Joseph J Crisco, Arnold-Peter Weiss, Tarpit Patel, Deborah Kenney, Amy L Ladd
PURPOSE: Thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) represents a major source of functional morbidity. The effects of early CMC OA on loading and use patterns potentially lead to changes in local bone density and microarchitecture. Hounsfield units (HU), a quantitative attenuation coefficient obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans, have been shown to be a reliable marker of bone density. We hypothesized that early CMC OA is associated with lower local bone density about the CMC joint as assessed by HU...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985948/metal-bioaccumulation-and-mutagenesis-in-a-tradescantia-clone-following-long-term-exposure-to-soils-from-urban-industrial-areas-and-closed-landfills
#20
Tatjana Čėsnienė, Violeta Kleizaitė, Skaistė Bondzinskaitė, Ričardas Taraškevičius, Donatas Žvingila, Raimondas Šiukšta, Vytautas Rančelis
Soil mutagens, particularly metals, may persist long after the source of pollution has been removed, representing a hazard to plants, animals, and humans in or near contaminated areas. Often, due to urban growth, previous land uses may be forgotten and hazards overlooked. We exposed Tradescantia clone #4430 plants to soil from two industrial areas (with different former uses) and two urban waste landfills in the city of Vilnius, all of which were long disused. Two modes of exposure were used: long-term exposure of growing plants in test soils for 0...
November 2017: Mutation Research
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