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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898654/effect-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-satellite-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-immobilization-induced-muscle-atrophy-in-rats
#1
Tie-Shan Li, Hao Shi, Lin Wang, Chuanzhu Yan
BACKGROUND Muscle atrophy due to disuse occurs along with adverse physiological and functional changes, but bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) may be able to act as muscle satellite cells to restore myofibers. Thus, we investigated whether MSCs could enhance the proliferation of satellite cells and suppress myonuclear apoptosis during immobilization. MATERIAL AND METHODS We isolated, purified, amplified, and identified MSCs. Rats (n=48) were randomized into 3 groups: WB group (n=16), IM-PBS group (n=16), and IM-MSC (n=16)...
November 29, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894277/human-limb-skeletal-muscle-wasting-and-architectural-remodeling-during-five-to-ten-days-intubation-and-ventilation-in-critical-care-an-observational-study-using-ultrasound
#2
Peter Turton, Richard Hay, Jonathon Taylor, Jamie McPhee, Ingeborg Welters
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients frequently suffer muscle weakness whilst in critical care. Ultrasound can reliably track loss of muscle size, but also quantifies the arrangement of the muscle fascicles, known as the muscle architecture. We sought to measure both pennation angle and fascicle length, as well as tracking changes in muscle thickness in a population of critically ill patients. METHODS: On days 1, 5 and 10 after admission to critical care, muscle thickness was measured in ventilated critically ill patients using bedside ultrasound...
November 29, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883164/sarcopenia-trials-in-specific-diseases-report-by-the-international-conference-on-frailty-and-sarcopenia-research-task-force
#3
B Vellas, R Fielding, S Bhasin, F Cerreta, B Goodpaster, J M Guralnik, S Kritchevsky, V Legrand, C Forkin, J Magaziner, J E Morley, L Rodriguez-Manas, R Roubenoff, S Studenski, D T Villareal, M Cesari
Muscle atrophy occurs as a consequence of a number of conditions, including cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and other chronic diseases, where it is generally a predictor of poor survival. It also occurs as a consequence of disuse and an age-related loss of muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia). The aims of the 2016, International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research (ICFSR) Task Force were to examine how these specific chronic conditions have been employed in treatment trials thus far and how future trials using these patient groups might be designed for efficient identification of effective sarcopenia interventions...
2016: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869526/pgc-1%C3%AE-over-expression-suppresses-the-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-and-myofiber-type-composition-during-hindlimb-unloading
#4
Jing Wang, Fei Wang, Peng Zhang, Hongju Liu, Jian He, Chenyu Zhang, Ming Fan, Xiaoping Chen
Disuse leads to severe muscle atrophy and a slow-to-fast myofiber-type transition. PGC-1α (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α) is documented to play an important role in muscle atrophy and slow-twitch myofiber determination. Transcription of atrophy-related Atrogin-1 by FoxO3 can be reduced by PGC-1α. While Smad3 augments FoxO3-induced Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 promoter activity. So PGC-1α, as a transcription co-activator, may regulate hindlimb unloading (HU)-induced myofiber-type transition and muscle atrophy through Smad3...
November 21, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861865/mechanical-stress-regulates-bone-metabolism-through-micrornas
#5
REVIEW
Yu Yuan, Lingli Zhang, Xiaoyang Tong, Miao Zhang, Yilong Zhao, Jianming Guo, Le Lei, Xi Chen, Jennifer Tickner, Jiake Xu, Jun Zou
There are many lines of evidence indicating that mechanical stress regulates bone metabolism and promotes bone growth. BMP, Wnt, ERK1/2, and OPG/RANKL are the main molecules thought to regulate the effects of mechanical loading on bone formation. Recently, microRNAs were found to be involved in bone cell proliferation and differentiation, regulating the balance of bone formation and bone resorption. Emerging evidence indicates that microRNAs also participate in mechanical stress-mediated bone metabolism, and is associated with disuse induced osteoporosis or osteopenia...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833457/itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-of-myofibrillar-contents-and-relevant-synthesis-and-proteolytic-proteins-in-soleus-muscle-of-hibernating-daurian-ground-squirrels-spermophilus-dauricus
#6
Hui Chang, Shan-Feng Jiang, Kai Dang, Hui-Ping Wang, Shen-Hui Xu, Yun-Fang Gao
BACKGROUND: Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) deviate from significant increase of protein catabolism and loss of myofibrillar contents during long period of hibernation inactivity. METHODS: Here we use iTRAQ based quantitative analysis to examine proteomic changes in the soleus of squirrels in pre-hibernation, hibernation and post-hibernation states. The total proteolysis rate of soleus was measured by the release of the essential amino acid tyrosine from isolated muscles...
2016: Proteome Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815474/effect-of-20-hydroxyecdysone-on-proteolytic-regulation-in-skeletal-muscle-atrophy
#7
Muthita Hirunsai, Tossaporn Yimlamai, Apichart Suksamrarn
BACKGROUND/AIM: 20-Hydroxyecdystone (20E) is an ecdysteroid hormone which controls molting and reproduction in arthropods. 20E also produces a variety of effects in vertebrates, including enhancing protein synthesis and skeletal muscle regeneration. The effect of 20E on disuse muscle atrophy has not been reported to date. This study examined the proteolytic regulation of 20E in tenotomized rat slow soleus and fast plantaris muscles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary control (CON), tenotomy without 20E treatment (TEN), and tenotomy with treatment of 5 mg/kg BW of 20E (TEN+20E)...
November 2016: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799714/effects-of-skin-stretching-without-joint-movement-on-skin-extensibility-of-rats
#8
Atsushi Tasaka, Takeya Ono, Hideki Ishikura, Kazuki Aihara, Yuta Sato, Tomohiro Matsumoto, Takeshi Morifuji, Sadaaki Oki
[Purpose] This study examined the possibility of maintaining skin extensibility by stretching the skin involved in disuse joint contracture. [Subjects and Methods] The study was carried out using 18 male Wistar rats. The rats were randomly allocated to three groups. The control group received no intervention for the right ankle joint, the fixation group received one-week's fixation of the right ankle joint in maximum plantar-flexion with a cast, and the stretching group received continuous stretching of the skin over the Achilles tendon for 30 min once daily for one week with the cast removed during the skin stretching, but the joint was not moved...
September 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799576/accommodative-et-high-ac-a-ratio-esotropia-the-case-for-glasses
#9
Edward L Raab
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a continuing debate as to whether the patient optically correctable at distance to within 8 prism diopters of perfect alignment requires treatment for persisting overconvergence at near, and if treatment is indicated, what it should be. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For the patient whose misalignment at distance is reduced to 8 or fewer prism diopters, my preference is for the full cycloplegic correction plus a bifocal in the first prescription, to discourage virtually all accommodation initially, with pull back later...
January 2016: American Orthoptic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794458/myosin-content-of-single-muscle-fibers-following-short-term-disuse-and-active-recovery-in-young-and-old-healthy-men
#10
Lars G Hvid, Lorenza Brocca, Niels Ørtenblad, Charlotte Suetta, Per Aagaard, Michael Kjaer, Roberto Bottinelli, Maria Antonietta Pellegrino
Short-term disuse and subsequent recovery affect whole muscle and single myofiber contractile function in young and old. While the loss and recovery of single myofiber specific force (SF) following disuse and rehabilitation has been shown to correlate with alterations in myosin concentrations in young, it is unknown whether similar relationships exist in old. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 14days lower limb disuse followed by 28days of active recovery on single muscle fiber myosin content in old (68yrs) and young (24yrs) recreationally physically active healthy men...
October 26, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792730/time-course-of-muscle-mass-loss-damage-and-proteolysis-in-gastrocnemius-following-unloading-and-reloading-implications-in-chronic-diseases
#11
Alba Chacon-Cabrera, Helena Lund-Palau, Joaquim Gea, Esther Barreiro
BACKGROUND: Disuse muscle atrophy is a major comorbidity in patients with chronic diseases including cancer. We sought to explore the kinetics of molecular mechanisms shown to be involved in muscle mass loss throughout time in a mouse model of disuse muscle atrophy and recovery following immobilization. METHODS: Body and muscle weights, grip strength, muscle phenotype (fiber type composition and morphometry and muscle structural alterations), proteolysis, contractile proteins, systemic troponin I, and mitochondrial content were assessed in gastrocnemius of mice exposed to periods (1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days) of non-invasive hindlimb immobilization (plastic splint, I cohorts) and in those exposed to reloading for different time-points (1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, R cohorts) following a seven-day period of immobilization...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789768/neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-prior-to-pre-sleep-protein-feeding-stimulates-the-use-of-protein-derived-amino-acids-for-overnight-muscle-protein-synthesis
#12
Marlou L Dirks, Bart B L Groen, Rinske Franssen, Janneau van Kranenburg, Luc J C van Loon
BACKGROUND: Short periods of muscle disuse result in substantial skeletal muscle atrophy. Recently, we showed that both neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) as well as pre-sleep dietary protein ingestion represent effective strategies to stimulate muscle protein synthesis rates. In this study we test our hypothesis that NMES can augment the use of pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids for overnight muscle protein synthesis in older males. METHODS: Twenty healthy, older (69±1 y) males were subjected to 24 h of bed rest, starting at 8:00 AM...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786562/spontaneous-breathing-during-mechanical-ventilation-risks-mechanisms-management
#13
Takeshi Yoshida, Yuji Fujino, Marcelo B P Amato, Brian P Kavanagh
Spontaneous respiratory effort during mechanical ventilation has long been recognized to improve oxygenation (1, 2) and because oxygenation is a key management target, such effort may seem beneficial. Also, disuse and loss of peripheral muscle and diaphragm function is increasingly recognized (3), and thus spontaneous breathing may confer additional advantage. Of course, all patients will need to transition to spontaneous effort if they are to become independent of the ventilator. Finally, epidemiologic data suggest that the use of partial (vs...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767211/foxo-dependent-atrogenes-vary-among-catabolic-conditions-and-play-a-key-role-in-muscle-atrophy-induced-by-hindlimb-suspension
#14
Lorenza Brocca, Luana Toniolo, Carlo Reggiani, Roberto Bottinelli, Marco Sandri, Maria Antonietta Pellegrino
Muscle atrophy is a complex process that is in common with many different catabolic diseases including disuse/inactivity and ageing. The signalling pathways that control the atrophy program in the different disuse/inactivity conditions have not yet been completely dissected. It has been recently reported that inhibition of FoxO only partially spared muscle mass after denervation. The purposes of this study were: (i) to determine the involvement of FoxOs in hindlimb suspension disuse model, (ii) to define whether the molecular events of protein breakdown are shared among different unloaded muscles and finally (iii) to compare the data obtained in this model with another model of inactivity such as denervation...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759788/understanding-the-international-consensus-for-acute-pancreatitis-classification-of-atlanta-2012
#15
Gleim Dias de Souza, Luciana Rodrigues Queiroz Souza, Ronaldo Máfia Cuenca, Bárbara Stephane de Medeiros Jerônimo, Guilherme Medeiros de Souza, Vinícius Martins Vilela
Introduction: Contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are widely used due to its image quality and ability to study pancreatic and peripancreatic morphology. The understanding of the various subtypes of the disease and identification of possible complications requires a familiarity with the terminology, which allows effective communication between the different members of the multidisciplinary team. Aim: Demonstrate the terminology and parameters to identify the different classifications and findings of the disease based on the international consensus for acute pancreatitis ( Atlanta Classification 2012)...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757402/biomechanical-rupture-risk-assessment-a-consistent-and-objective-decision-making-tool-for-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-patients
#16
T Christian Gasser
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is a local event in the aneurysm wall that naturally demands tools to assess the risk for local wall rupture. Consequently, global parameters like the maximum diameter and its expansion over time can only give very rough risk indications; therefore, they frequently fail to predict individual risk for AAA rupture. In contrast, the Biomechanical Rupture Risk Assessment (BRRA) method investigates the wall's risk for local rupture by quantitatively integrating many known AAA rupture risk factors like female sex, large relative expansion, intraluminal thrombus-related wall weakening, and high blood pressure...
April 2016: Aorta (Stamford, Conn.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742499/sclerostin-s-role-in-bone-s-adaptive-response-to-mechanical-loading
#17
Gabriel L Galea, Lance E Lanyon, Joanna S Price
Mechanical loading is the primary functional determinant of bone mass and architecture, and osteocytes play a key role in translating mechanical signals into (re)modelling responses. Although the precise mechanisms remain unclear, Wnt signalling pathway components, and the anti-osteogenic canonical Wnt inhibitor Sost/sclerostin in particular, play an important role in regulating bone's adaptive response to loading. Increases in loading-engendered strains down-regulate osteocyte sclerostin expression, whereas reduced strains, as in disuse, are associated with increased sclerostin production and bone loss...
October 12, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734100/meagre-effects-of-disuse-on-the-human-fibula-are-not-explained-by-bone-size-or-geometry
#18
A Ireland, R F Capozza, G R Cointry, L Nocciolino, J L Ferretti, J Rittweger
: Fibula response to disuse is unknown; we assessed fibula bone in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients and able-bodied counterparts. Group differences were smaller than in the neighbouring tibia which could not be explained by bone geometry. Differential adaptation of the shank bones may indicate previously unknown mechanoadaptive behaviours of bone. INTRODUCTION: The fibula supports only a small and highly variable proportion of shank compressive load (-8 to +19 %), and little is known about other kinds of stresses...
October 12, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717815/reorganization-of-motor-cortex-and-impairment-of-motor-performance-induced-by-hindlimb-unloading-are-partially-reversed-by-cortical-igf-1-administration
#19
Julien Mysoet, Marie-Hélène Canu, Christophe Gillet, Julie Fourneau, Cyril Garnier, Bruno Bastide, Erwan Dupont
Immobilization, bed rest, or sedentary lifestyle, are known to induce a profound impairment in sensorimotor performance. These alterations are due to a combination of peripheral and central factors. Previous data conducted on a rat model of disuse (hindlimb unloading, HU) have shown a profound reorganization of motor cortex and an impairment of motor performance. Recently, our interest was turned towards the role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in cerebral plasticity since this growth factor is considered as the mediator of beneficial effects of exercise on the central nervous system, and its cortical level is decreased after a 14-day period of HU...
October 4, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714819/short-and-long-term-hindlimb-immobilization-and-reloading-profile-of-epigenetic-events-in-gastrocnemius
#20
Alba Chacon-Cabrera, Joaquim Gea, Esther Barreiro
Skeletal muscle dysfunction and atrophy are characteristic features accompanying chronic conditions. Epigenetic events regulate muscle mass and function maintenance. We hypothesized that the pattern of epigenetic events (muscle-enriched microRNAs and histone acetylation) and acetylation of transcription factors known to signal muscle wasting may differ between early- and late-time points in skeletal muscles of mice exposed to hindlimb immobilization (I) and recovery following I. Body and muscle weights, grip strength, muscle-enriched microRNAs, histone deacetylases (HDACs), acetylation of proteins, histones, and transcription factors (TF), myogenic TF factors, and muscle phenotype were assessed in gastrocnemius of mice exposed to periods (1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days, I groups) of hindlimb immobilization, and in those exposed to reloading for different periods of time (1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, R groups) following 7-day immobilization...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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