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Botulinum toxin a

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441004/insights-into-the-mechanisms-by-which-clostridial-neurotoxins-discriminate-between-gangliosides
#1
Joshua R Burns, Gregory S Lambert, Michael R Baldwin
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. Entry of toxins into neurons is mediated through initial interactions with gangliosides, followed by binding to a protein co-receptor. Herein we aimed to understand the mechanism through which individual neurotoxins recognize the carbohydrate motif of gangliosides. Using cell-based and in vitro binding assays, in conjunction with structure-driven site directed mutagenesis, a conserved hydrophobic residue within the BoNTs that contributes to both affinity and specificity towards Sia5-containing gangliosides was identified...
April 25, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437820/-therapy-of-hemifacial-spasm-with-botulinum-toxin
#2
Wolfgang H Jost, Rainer Laskawi, Anja Palmowski-Wolfe, Peter P Urban
Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a frequent disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of those muscles innervated by the facialis nerve on one side of the face. The symptoms can appear as tonic or clonic, intermittent or permanent. Diagnosis is based purely on clinical observation. Differential diagnosis should rely on cranial MRI, which can demonstrate a pathological contact between the nerves and vessels and exclude alternative causation. Often, the symptoms are not marked so that therapy may not be necessary...
April 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434389/evaluation-of-the-protective-effect-of-botulinum-toxin-type-a-injection-on-otitis-media-with-effusion
#3
Ömer Faruk Çalım, Yavuz Selim Yıldırım, Remzi Doğan, Selhattin Tuğrul, Özge Gedik, Orhan Özturan
OBJECTIVE: This study makes an analysis of the effect of Botulinum toxin type A on otitis media with effusion in rats. METHOD: As part of the study, 24 male Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Group 1: Botulinum toxin Type A and Histamıne (intratympanic 0.2 ml = 20 unit BTA); Group 2: Saline and Histamine (intratympanic 0.2 ml 0.9%); Group 3: Histamine (intratympanic 0.2 ml). Histamine (intratympanic 0.2 ml) was administered into the right ear for all groups...
April 22, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431598/apraclonidine-in-the-treatment-of-ptosis
#4
Subhashie Wijemanne, Dhanya Vijayakumar, Joseph Jankovic
Transient ptosis is a known complication of botulinum toxin (BoNT) injection due to inadvertent migration of toxin into the levator palpebrae superioris muscle. Currently there is no treatment available for BoNT induced ptosis. Apraclonidine hydrochloride is a topical ophthalmic solution with selective alpha-2 and weak alpha-1 receptor agonist activity that has the ability to elevate the eye lid. Apraclonidine has been used as a diagnostic test in Horner's syndrome. We evaluated the effects apraclonidine in a cohort of BoNT induced ptosis and a patient with Horner syndrome...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431196/switch-to-abobotulinum-toxin-a-may-be-useful-in-the-treatment-of-neurogenic-detrusor-overactivity-when-intradetrusor-injections-of-onabotulinum-toxin-a-failed
#5
Florie Bottet, Benoit Peyronnet, Romain Boissier, Bénédicte Reiss, Jean G Previnaire, Andrea Manunta, Jacques Kerdraon, Alain Ruffion, Loïc Lenormand, Brigitte Perrouin Verbe, Sarah Gaillet, Xavier Gamé, Gilles Karsenty
AIMS: To assess the outcomes of switching to a different brand of botulinum toxin A (BTA, from Botox® to Dysport®) in case of failure of intradetrusor injections (IDI) of Botox® in the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). METHODS: The charts of all patients who underwent a switch to IDI of Dysport® after failure of an IDI of Botox® at six departments of neurourology were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcomes of interest were the bladder diary data and four urodynamic parameters: maximum cystometric capacity (MCC), maximum detrusor pressure (PDET max), and volume at first uninhibited detrusor contraction (UDC)...
April 21, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430703/evidence-based-recommendations-for-pediatric-orthopaedic-practice
#6
Kishore Mulpuri, Emily K Schaeffer, H Kerr Graham, Mininder S Kocher, James Sanders, Ira Zaltz
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based medicine has become the cornerstone to guide clinical practice decision-making. Evidence-based medicine integrates the strongest available evidence with clinical expertise to make decisions about clinical care. The quality of the evidence depends upon the soundness of the study methodology to allow for meaningful interpretation of the clinical results. The purpose of this review is to analyze the methodological design and clinical findings of published pediatric orthopaedic studies to determine their ability to change or influence clinical practice...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427139/-advances-in-the-research-of-mechanism-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-scar-with-botulinum-toxin-type-a-and-its-clinical-application
#7
Y H Li, J Q Liu, D Xiao, W Zhang, D H Hu
Scar is a common complication in wound healing process, and how to effectively prevent and treat it is a hot and difficult problem in burns and plastic surgery field. Botulinum toxin type A is a neurotoxin that has been widely and effectively used in the cosmetic surgery field such as anti-wrinkle and thin face. In recent years, botulinum toxin type A has been applied in prevention and treatment of scar, which causes a great concern. Nowadays, the relevant reports have gradually increased, and the mechanisms have been explored more deeply...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426903/the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-botulinum-toxin-in-treating-scleroderma-associated-raynaud-s-phenomenon-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-assessing
#8
Ricardo J Bello, Carisa M Cooney, Eitan Melamed, Keith Follmar, Gayane Yenokyan, Gwendolyn Leatherman, Ami A Shah, Fredrick M Wigley, Laura K Hummers, Scott D Lifchez
Objective To assess the therapeutic efficacy of local injections with Botulinum Toxin Type-A (Btx-A) in improving blood flow to the hands of patients with Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP) secondary to scleroderma. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (http://ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02165111), patients with scleroderma-associated RP received Btx-A (50 units in 2.5 mL) in one randomly selected hand and sterile saline (2.5 mL) in the opposite hand. Follow-up at 1 and 4 months post-injection included Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) of hands, patient-reported outcomes, and physical exam...
April 20, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424953/treatment-update-of-chronic-migraine
#9
REVIEW
Soo-Jin Cho, Tae-Jin Song, Min Kyung Chu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although chronic migraine (CM) is a common disorder that severely impacts patient functioning and quality of life, it is usually underdiagnosed, and treatment responses often remain poor even after diagnosis. In addition, effective treatment options are limited due to the rarity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients with CM. In the present review, we discuss updated pharmacological, non-pharmacological, and neurostimulation treatment options for CM...
June 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421047/genetic-characterization-of-the-exceptionally-high-heat-resistance-of-the-non-toxic-surrogate-clostridium-sporogenes-pa-3679
#10
Robert R Butler, Kristin M Schill, Yun Wang, Jean-François Pombert
Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 is a non-toxic endospore former that is widely used as a surrogate for Clostridium botulinum by the food processing industry to validate thermal processing strategies. PA 3679 produces spores of exceptionally high heat resistance without botulinum neurotoxins, permitting the use of PA 3679 in inoculated pack studies while ensuring the safety of food processing facilities. To identify genes associated with this heat resistance, the genomes of C. sporogenes PA 3679 isolates were compared to several other C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421032/spasticity-motor-recovery-and-neural-plasticity-after-stroke
#11
REVIEW
Sheng Li
Spasticity and weakness (spastic paresis) are the primary motor impairments after stroke and impose significant challenges for treatment and patient care. Spasticity emerges and disappears in the course of complete motor recovery. Spasticity and motor recovery are both related to neural plasticity after stroke. However, the relation between the two remains poorly understood among clinicians and researchers. Recovery of strength and motor function is mainly attributed to cortical plastic reorganization in the early recovery phase, while reticulospinal (RS) hyperexcitability as a result of maladaptive plasticity, is the most plausible mechanism for poststroke spasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415952/effective-treatment-of-ketamine-associated-cystitis-with-botulinum-toxin-type-a-injection-combined-with-bladder-hydrodistention
#12
Jianfeng Zeng, Haibiao Lai, Dongxiang Zheng, Liang Zhong, Zhifeng Huang, Shanyun Wang, Weiwei Zou, Lianbo Wei
Objective Ketamine-associated cystitis (KAC) has been described in a few case reports, but its treatment in a relatively large number of patients has not been documented. This study aimed to describe our experience of treatment of 36 patients with KAC. Methods Thirty-six patients (30 males and 6 females, aged 19-38 years) with KAC, who had previously taken a muscarinic receptor blocker and/or antibiotics, but without symptomatic relief, were treated with botulinum toxin A injection combined with bladder hydrodistention...
April 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414728/clown-care-reduces-pain-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-undergoing-recurrent-botulinum-toxin-injections-a-quasi-randomized-controlled-crossover-study
#13
Hilla Ben-Pazi, Avraham Cohen, Naama Kroyzer, Renana Lotem-Ophir, Yaakov Shvili, Gidon Winter, Lisa Deutsch, Yehuda Pollak
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of clown-care on pain in 45 children with cerebral palsy who underwent recurrent Botulinum-toxin injections (age 7.04± 4.68 years). Participants were randomized to receive either clown (n = 20) or standard (n = 25) -care. METHODS: Pain Visual-Analogue-Scale (range 1-5) was reported before and after procedures. Pain assessment was lower for children undergoing Botulinum-toxin injections with clown-care (2.89± 1.36) compared to standard-care (3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413643/cytotoxic-and-antimigratory-effects-of-cratoxy-formosum-extract-against-hepg2-liver-cancer-cells
#14
Benjaporn Buranrat, Nootchanat Mairuae, Watchara Kanchanarach
The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying Cratoxylum formosum (CF) Dyer-induced cancer cell death and antimigratory effects in HepG2 liver cancer cells. The cytotoxic, antiproliferative and antimigratory effects of CF leaf extract on human liver cancer HepG2 cell lines were evaluated using sulforhodamine B, colony formation, and wound healing assays. In addition, apoptosis induction mechanisms were investigated via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, caspase 3 activities, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) disruption...
April 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410268/long-term-anti-itch-effect-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-is-associated-with-downregulation-of-trpv1-and-trpa1-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglia-in-mice
#15
Lei-Fang Cao, Meng Si, Ya Huang, Li-Hua Chen, Xiao-Yan Peng, Ya-Qin Qin, Teng-Teng Liu, Yan Zhou, Tong Liu, Wei-Feng Luo
Itch is a common symptom in patients with skin and systemic diseases, but the effective treatment is limited. Here, we evaluated the anti-itch effects of the botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) using acute and chronic dry skin itch mouse models, which were induced by compound 48/80, chloroquine, and a mixture of acetone-diethylether-water treatment, respectively. Pretreatment of intradermal BoNT/A exerted long-term inhibitory effects on compound 48/80-induced and chloroquine-induced acute itch on days 1, 3, 7, and 14, but not on day 21, in mice...
April 13, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407626/exogenous-mirna-146a-enhances-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-increasing-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-secretion-in-the-ischemia-reperfusion-injured-heart
#16
Hyang-Hee Seo, Se-Yeon Lee, Chang Youn Lee, Ran Kim, Pilseog Kim, Sekyung Oh, Hojin Lee, Min Young Lee, Jongmin Kim, Lark Kyun Kim, Ki-Chul Hwang, Woochul Chang
Adult stem cells have been studied as a promising therapeutic modality for the functional restoration of the damaged heart. In the present study, a strategy for enhancing the angiogenic efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) using micro-RNA was examined. We investigated whether micro-RNA-146a (miR-146a) influences the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenesis of MSCs. Our data indicated that miR-146a-transfected hMSCs (hMSCmiR-146a) decreased the expression of neurofibromin 2, an inhibitor of p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1)...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398677/preparing-for-biological-threats-addressing-the-needs-of-pregnant-women
#17
REVIEW
Amelia K Watson, Sascha Ellington, Christina Nelson, Tracee Treadwell, Denise J Jamieson, Dana M Meaney-Delman
Intentional release of infectious agents and biological weapons to cause illness and death has the potential to greatly impact pregnant women and their fetuses. We review what is known about the maternal and fetal effects of seven biological threats: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola virus (smallpox); Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism); Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); and Rickettsia prowazekii (typhus)...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397562/office-based-electromyography-guided-botulinum-toxin-injection-to-the-cricopharyngeus-muscle-optimal-patient-selection-and-technique
#18
Min-Su Kim, Go-Woon Kim, Young-Soo Rho, Kee-Hwan Kwon, Eun-Jae Chung
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness and safety of office-based electromyography-guided injection of botulinum toxin in the cricopharyngeus muscle of patients who did not show upper esophageal sphincter passage in a swallowing study in spite of maximal swallowing rehabilitation. METHODS: Thirty-six patients who showed no or limited ability to oral feed after maximum swallowing rehabilitation were enrolled. Video fluoroscopic swallowing study, flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, disability rating scale, penetration aspiration score, and National Institutes of Health swallowing safety scale were used in the evaluation of dysphagia...
May 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396998/operative-and-medical-treatment-of-chronic-anal-fissures-a-review-and-network-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
REVIEW
Sabrina Maria Ebinger, Julia Hardt, René Warschkow, Bruno Martin Schmied, Alexander Herold, Stefan Post, Lukas Marti
Anal fissures are a common problem and have a cumulative lifetime incidence of 11%. Previous reviews on anal fissures show inconsistent results regarding post-interventional healing and incontinence rates. In this review our aim was to compare the treatments for chronic anal fissures by incorporating indirect comparisons using network meta-analysis. The PubMed database was searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1975 and 2015. The primary outcome measures were healing and incontinence rates after lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS), anal dilatation (DILA), anoplasty and/or fissurectomy (FIAP), botulinum toxin (BT) and noninvasive treatment (NIT)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395302/botulinum-toxin-for-burning-mouth-syndrome
#20
Domenico A Restivo, Giuseppe Lauria, Rosario Marchese-Ragona, Riccardo Vigneri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
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