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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906749/sodium-and-potassium-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hypertension-focus-on-the-brain
#1
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary hypertension is characterized by Na excess and K deficit in the body, which together are key to its pathogenesis. These derangements work jointly in the brain and the peripheral vascular wall to establish hypertension. In this review, we highlight recent evidence describing the central mechanisms through which Na surfeit and K deficit enhance sympathetic nerve activity, thereby raising peripheral vascular resistance and generating hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies point to a small increase in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [Na], a small decrease in CSF [K], and increased levels of circulating angiotensin II, aldosterone, and endogenous ouabain as the central signals evoking hypertension...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590096/assessing-acid-base-status-physiologic-versus-physicochemical-approach
#2
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco2) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478591/the-utility-and-accuracy-of-four-equations-in-predicting-sodium-levels-in-dysnatremic-patients
#3
Ramy Magdy Hanna, Wan-Ting Yang, Eduardo A Lopez, Joseph Nabil Riad, James Wilson
BACKGROUND: Improper correction of hyponatremia can cause severe complications, including osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS). The Adrogué-Madias equation (AM), the Barsoum-Levine (BL) equation, the Electrolyte Free Water Clearance (EFWC) equation and the Nguyen-Kurtz (NK) equation are four derived equations based on the empirically derived Edelman equation for predicting sodium at a later time (Na2) from a known starting sodium (Na1), fluid/electrolyte composition and input and output volumes...
August 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25607442/integration-of-acid-base-and-electrolyte-disorders
#4
LETTER
Horacio J Adrogué, F John Gennari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25016398/the-impact-of-sodium-and-potassium-on-hypertension-risk
#5
REVIEW
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
The pathogenic role of sodium surfeit in primary hypertension is widely recognized but that of potassium deficiency usually has been ignored or at best assigned subsidiary status. Weighing the available evidence, we recently proposed that the chief environmental factor in the pathogenesis of primary hypertension and the associated cardiovascular risk is the interaction of the sodium surfeit and potassium deficiency in the body. Here, we present the major evidence highlighting the relationship between high-sodium intake and hypertension...
May 2014: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24996937/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia
#6
COMMENT
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24200471/sodium-surfeit-and-potassium-deficit-keys-to-the-pathogenesis-of-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
The pathogenic role of Na(+) in primary hypertension is widely recognized but that of K(+) remains unappreciated. Yet, extensive evidence indicates that together, the body's dominant cations constitute the chief environmental factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension and its cardiovascular sequelae. In this Review, we provide a synthesis of the determinants of Na(+) retention and K(+) loss developing in the body as the Na(+)-rich and K(+)-poor modern diet interacts with kidneys intrinsically poised to conserve Na(+) and excrete K(+); and the molecular pathways utilized by these disturbances in the central nervous system and the periphery to increase sympathetic tone and vascular resistance, and establish hypertension...
March 2014: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23947392/acid-base-patterns-in-acute-severe-asthma
#8
Guillermo A Raimondi, Silvia Gonzalez, Jorge Zaltsman, Guillermo Menga, Horacio J Adrogué
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acid-base status in acute severe asthma (ASA) remains undefined; some studies report complete absence of metabolic acidosis, whereas others describe it as present in one fourth of patients or more. Conclusion discrepancies would therefore appear to derive from differences in assessment methodology. Only a systematic approach centering on patient clinical findings can correctly establish true acid-base disorder prevalence levels. METHODS: This study examines acid-base patterns in ASA (314 patients), taking into account both natural history of disease and treatment, in patients free of other diseases altering acid-base status...
December 2013: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23578478/urine-output-and-resultant-osmotic-water-shift-are-major-determinants-of-plasma-sodium-level-in-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion
#9
Ataru Okumura, Kota Ishikawa, Risako Watanabe, Taku Tsunekawa, Chikako Asai, Atsushi Kiyota, Minemori Watanabe, Yutaka Oiso
Although various formulas predicting plasma sodium level ([Na]) are proposed for correction of hyponatremia, it seems that an anticipated [Na] frequently exceeds or falls below the measured [Na], especially in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). The causative factors of the fluctuation have never been investigated clearly. The aim of this study was to identify the determining factors for accurate prediction of [Na] by comparing data from previously proposed formulas and a novel osmotic compartment model (O-C model)...
July 2013: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22626822/the-challenge-of-hyponatremia
#10
REVIEW
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
Treatment of hypotonic hyponatremia often challenges clinicians on many counts. Despite similar serum sodium concentrations, clinical manifestations can range from mild to life threatening. Some patients require active management, whereas others recover without intervention. Therapeutic measures frequently yield safe correction, yet the same measures can result in osmotic demyelination. To address this challenge, we present a practical approach to managing hyponatremia that centers on two elements: a diagnostic evaluation directed at the pathogenesis and putative causes of hyponatremia, the case-specific clinical and laboratory features, and the associated clinical risk; and a management plan tailored to the diagnostic findings that incorporates quantitative projections of fluid therapy and fluid losses on the patient's serum sodium, balances potential benefits and risks, and emphasizes vigilant monitoring...
July 2012: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22044717/initial-survival-data-of-kidney-transplant-patients-with-pre-transplant-monoclonal-gammopathy
#11
Liliana Soltero, Hector Carbajal, Jiaqiong Xu, John McCarthy, Wadi N Suki, A Osama Gaber, Horacio E Adrogué
BACKGROUND: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is the presence of a serum monoclonal protein at a concentration of <3 g/dL without evidence of lymphoproliferative disease or organ damage. The prevalence of MGUS in kidney transplantation (KT) candidates is unknown. The present is a retrospective report of patients who underwent evaluation for a KT and were found to have MGUS at our center. METHODS: All transplant candidates found to have MGUS between the years 2000 and 2007 were included...
March 2012: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22030189/caution-of-overdependence-on-formulas-while-treating-hyponatremia
#12
Gagangeet Sandhu, Eduardo Zouain, Germaine Chan
Use of online formulas to treat hyponatremia is a common practice. We report here that while using the same goal of correction and type of infusate to treat a patient with hyponatremia, a large discrepancy in infusion rate is obtained from using the 2 commonly available online equations. When the therapy fluid is less concentrated saline (0.9%), Adrogue's formula poses the risk of large amount of volume being administered for only a small change in serum sodium concentration. This may be detrimental especially in patients with congestive heart failure...
October 2012: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21303834/task-force-on-catastrophic-antiphospholipid-syndrome-aps-and-non-criteria-aps-manifestations-ii-thrombocytopenia-and-skin-manifestations
#13
R Cervera, M G Tektonidou, G Espinosa, A R Cabral, E B González, D Erkan, S Vadya, H E Adrogué, M Solomon, G Zandman-Goddard, Y Shoenfeld
The objectives of the 'Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations' were to assess the clinical utility of the international consensus statement on classification criteria and treatment guidelines for the catastrophic APS, to identify and grade the studies that analyze the relationship between the antiphospholipid antibodies and the non-criteria APS manifestations, and to present the current evidence regarding the accuracy of these non-criteria APS manifestations for the detection of patients with APS...
February 2011: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21303833/task-force-on-catastrophic-antiphospholipid-syndrome-aps-and-non-criteria-aps-manifestations-i-catastrophic-aps-aps-nephropathy-and-heart-valve-lesions
#14
R Cervera, M G Tektonidou, G Espinosa, A R Cabral, E B González, D Erkan, S Vadya, H E Adrogué, M Solomon, G Zandman-Goddard, Y Shoenfeld
The objectives of the 'Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations' were to assess the clinical utility of the international consensus statement on classification criteria and treatment guidelines for the catastrophic APS, to identify and grade the studies that analyse the relationship between the antiphospholipid antibodies and the non-criteria APS manifestations and to present the current evidence regarding the accuracy of these non-criteria APS manifestations for the detection of patients with APS...
February 2011: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21007798/-not-available
#15
E ADROGUE, M A DIEZ
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1945: Archivos de Oftalmología de Buenos Aires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21007794/-not-available
#16
E ADROGUE, M A DIEZ
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1945: Archivos de Oftalmología de Buenos Aires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20838881/significance-of-hyponatremia-in-heart-failure
#17
REVIEW
Luca Bettari, Mona Fiuzat, Gary M Felker, Christopher M O'Connor
Heart failure is one of the most common, costly, disabling and growing diseases (McMurray and Pfeffer in Lancet 365(9474):1877-1889, 2005). Hyponatremia, conventionally defined as a serum-sodium concentration equal or less than 135 mmol/l (American Heart Association in Heart disease and stroke statistics--2007 update. American Heart Association, Dallas, 2007; Stewart et al. in Eur J Heart Fail 4:361-371, 2002), is a common phenomenon in patients with heart failure, with an incidence of 20-25% (Krumholz et al...
January 2012: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20673604/diagnosis-and-management-of-severe-respiratory-acidosis-a-65-year-old-man-with-a-double-lung-transplant-and-shortness-of-breath
#18
Horacio J Adrogué
Respiratory acidosis is characterized by a primary increase in whole-body carbon dioxide stores caused by a positive carbon dioxide balance. This acid-base disorder, if severe, may be life-threatening, therefore requiring prompt recognition and expert management. The case presented highlights the essential features of the diagnosis and management of respiratory acidosis. A brief description of the modifiers of carbon dioxide production, the pathogenesis of respiratory acidosis, and an algorithm for assessment and management of this disorder is included...
November 2010: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20431042/secondary-responses-to-altered-acid-base-status-the-rules-of-engagement
#19
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
Each of the four canonical acid-base disorders expresses as a primary change in carbon dioxide tension or plasma bicarbonate concentration followed by a secondary response in the countervailing variable. Quantified empirically, these secondary responses are directional and proportional to the primary changes, run a variable time course, and tend to minimize the impact on body acidity engendered by the primary changes. Absence of an appropriate secondary response denotes the coexistence of an additional acid-base disorder...
June 2010: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19919989/adaptive-and-maladptive-effects-of-smad3-signaling-in-the-adult-heart-after-hemodynamic-pressure-overloading
#20
Vijay Divakaran, Julia Adrogue, Masakuni Ishiyama, Mark L Entman, Sandra Haudek, Natarajan Sivasubramanian, Douglas L Mann
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that transforming growth factor-beta provokes cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis; however, it is unclear whether the deleterious effects of transforming growth factor-beta signaling are conveyed through SMAD-dependent or SMAD-independent signaling pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS: To determine the contribution of SMAD-dependent signaling to cardiac remodeling, we performed transaortic constriction in SMAD3 null (SMAD3(-/-)) and littermate control mice (age, 10 to 12 weeks)...
November 2009: Circulation. Heart Failure
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