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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532012/an-overview-of-carboxymethyl-derivatives-of-chitosan-their-use-as-biomaterials-and-drug-delivery-systems
#1
REVIEW
Bruno Fonseca-Santos, Marlus Chorilli
Chitin is one of the most abundant natural polymers in the world and is used for the production of chitosan by deacetylation. Chitosan is nontoxic and biodegradable and, therefore, can be used as a biomaterial and for the construction of drug delivery systems. Nevertheless, the poor solubility of chitosan in neutral or alkalinized media has restricted its applications in the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields. Chitosan can be easily carboxymethylated to improve its solubility in aqueous media while its biodegradability and biocompatibility are preserved...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530745/self-assembling-peptide-and-protein-amyloids-from-structure-to-tailored-function-in-nanotechnology
#2
REVIEW
Gang Wei, Zhiqiang Su, Nicholas P Reynolds, Paolo Arosio, Ian W Hamley, Ehud Gazit, Raffaele Mezzenga
Self-assembled peptide and protein amyloid nanostructures have traditionally been considered only as pathological aggregates implicated in human neurodegenerative diseases. In more recent times, these nanostructures have found interesting applications as advanced materials in biomedicine, tissue engineering, renewable energy, environmental science, nanotechnology and material science, to name only a few fields. In all these applications, the final function depends on: (i) the specific mechanisms of protein aggregation, (ii) the hierarchical structure of the protein and peptide amyloids from the atomistic to mesoscopic length scales and (iii) the physical properties of the amyloids in the context of their surrounding environment (biological or artificial)...
May 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530187/application-of-snps-to-improve-yield-of-pisum-sativum-l-pea
#3
Ansar Mehmood, Ghulam Murtaza
Nanotechnology opens an enormous scope of novel application in the fields of biotechnology and agricultural industries, because nanoparticles (NPs) have unique physicochemical properties, i.e. high surface area, high reactivity, tunable pore size and particle morphology. Present study was carried out to determine the role of silver NPs (SNPs) to improve yield of Pisum sativum L. SNPs (10-100 nm) were synthesised by green method using extract of Berberis lycium Royle. Pea seeds were soaked and seedling were foliage sprayed by 0, 30, 60 and 90 ppm SNPs...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530146/an-emerging-integration-between-ionic-liquids-and-nanotechnology-general-uses-and-future-prospects-in-drug-delivery
#4
Tânia Santos de Almeida, Ana Júlio, Joana Portugal Mota, Patrícia Rijo, Catarina Pinto Reis
There is a growing need to develop drug-delivery systems that overcome drawbacks such as poor drug solubility/loading/release, systemic side effects and limited stability. Ionic liquids (ILs) offer many advantages and their tailoring represents a valuable tuning tool. Nano-based systems are also prized materials that prevent drug degradation, enhance their transport/distribution and extend their release. Consequently, structures containing ILs and nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to attain synergistic effects...
June 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527520/recent-advances-in-smart-biotechnology-hydrogels-and-nanocarriers-for-tailored-bioactive-molecules-depot
#5
REVIEW
Gesmi Milcovich, Stefania Lettieri, Filipe E Antunes, Bruno Medronho, Ana C Fonseca, Jorge F J Coelho, Paolo Marizza, Francesca Perrone, Rossella Farra, Barbara Dapas, Gabriele Grassi, Mario Grassi, Silvia Giordani
Over the past ten years, the global biopharmaceutical market has remarkably grown, with ten over the top twenty worldwide high performance medical treatment sales being biologics. Thus, biotech R&D (research and development) sector is becoming a key leading branch, with expanding revenues. Biotechnology offers considerable advantages compared to traditional therapeutic approaches, such as reducing side effects, specific treatments, higher patient compliance and therefore more effective treatments leading to lower healthcare costs...
May 9, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527243/-synthesis-of-antibiotic-loaded-polylactic-acid-nanoparticles-and-their-antibacterial-activity-against-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Mónica Tatiana Herrera, Jhon Jhamilton Artunduaga, Claudia Cristina Ortiz, Rodrigo Gonzalo Torres
INTRODUCTION: Polymeric nanoparticles are promising nanotechnology tools to fight pathogenic bacteria resistant to conventional antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize polylactic acid nanoparticles loaded with ofloxacin and vancomycin, and to determine their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We synthesized ofloxacin or vancomycin loaded polylactic acid nanoparticles by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method, and characterized them by dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler electrophoresis and scanning electron microscopy...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526811/proteomic-analysis-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-children-with-central-nervous-system-tumors-identifies-candidate-proteins-relating-to-tumor-metastatic-spread
#7
Filippo Spreafico, Italia Bongarzone, Sara Pizzamiglio, Ruben Magni, Elena Taverna, Maida De Bortoli, Chiara M Ciniselli, Elena Barzanò, Veronica Biassoni, Alessandra Luchini, Lance A Liotta, Weidong Zhou, Michele Signore, Paolo Verderio, Maura Massimino
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid tumors in childhood. Since the sensitivity of combined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and radiological neuroimaging in detecting meningeal metastases remains relatively low, we sought to characterize the CSF proteome of patients with CSF tumors to identify biomarkers predictive of metastatic spread. CSF samples from 27 children with brain tumors and 13 controls (extra-CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma) were processed using core-shell hydrogel nanoparticles, and analyzed with reverse-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524668/emerging-trends-in-micro-and-nanoscale-technologies-in-medicine-from-basic-discoveries-to-translation
#8
Mario M Alvarez, Joanna Aizenberg, Mostafa Analoui, Anne M Andrews, Gili Bisker, Edward S Boyden, Roger D Kamm, Jeffrey M Karp, David J Mooney, Rahmi Oklu, Dan Peer, Michelle Stolzoff, Michael S Strano, Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago, Thomas J Webster, Paul S Weiss, Ali Khademhosseini
We discuss the state of the art and innovative micro- and nanoscale technologies that are finding niches and opening up new opportunities in medicine, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. We take the design of point-of-care applications and the capture of circulating tumor cells as illustrative examples of the integration of micro- and nanotechnologies into solutions of diagnostic challenges. We describe several novel nanotechnologies that enable imaging cellular structures and molecular events...
May 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524069/helical-plant-viral-nanoparticles-bioinspired-synthesis-of-nanomaterials-and-nanostructures
#9
Kannan Badri Narayanan, Sung Soo Han
Viral nanotechnology is revolutionizing the biomimetic and bioinspired synthesis of novel nanomaterials. Bottom-up nanofabrication by self-assembly of individual molecular components of elongated viral nanoparticles (VNPs) and virus-like particles (VLPs) has resulted in the production of superior materials and structures in the nano(bio)technological fields. Viral capsids are attractive materials, because of their symmetry, monodispersity, and polyvalency. Helical VNPs/VLPs are unique prefabricated nanoscaffolds with large surface area to volume ratios and high aspect ratios, and enable the construction of exquisite supramolecular nanostructures...
May 19, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522213/harnessing-self-assembled-peptide-nanoparticles-in-epitope-vaccine-design
#10
REVIEW
Manica Negahdaripour, Nasim Golkar, Nasim Hajighahramani, Sedigheh Kianpour, Navid Nezafat, Younes Ghasemi
Vaccination has been one of the most successful breakthroughs in medical history. In recent years, epitope-based subunit vaccines have been introduced as a safer alternative to traditional vaccines. However, they suffer from limited immunogenicity. Nanotechnology has shown value in solving this issue. Different kinds of nanovaccines have been employed, among which virus-like nanoparticles (VLPs) and self-assembled peptide nanoparticles (SAPNs) seem very promising. Recently, SAPNs have attracted special interest due to their unique properties, including molecular specificity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility...
May 15, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521696/nanotechnology-as-a-promising-strategy-for-anticancer-drug-delivery
#11
Mona Basha
Cancer was and still a very stressful and urgent disease condition representing a leading cause of death in developed as well as developing countries. Although, much research work in both medical and pharmaceutical fields has evolved in the past few years in addition to some promising clinical trials and few market products, cancer becomes much wilder, threatening and getting more lives. Most approaches have focused on the synthesis of new active ingredients or chemical modification of available ones, formulating them in suitable dosage forms aiming for targeted and effective drug delivery with minimal side effects...
May 15, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521694/bioresponsive-injectable-hydrogels-for-on-demand-drug-release-and-tissue-engineering
#12
Arti Vashist, Ajeet Kaushik, Kayla Alexis, Rahul Dev Jayant, Vidya Sagar, Atul Vashist, Madhavan Nair
The emergence of injectable hydrogels as biomaterials has been a revolutionary breakthrough in the field of on-demand drug delivery and tissue engineering. The promising features of these systems include their biodegradability, biocompatibility, permeability, ease of the surgical implantation, and most importantly exhibit minimally invasiveness. These hydrogels have been explored as sustained and on demand release carriers for the various bioactive agents, growth factors, live cells, various hydrophobic drugs and as extracellular matrices for tissue engineering...
May 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521675/chemotherapy-with-si-rna-and-anti-cancer-drugs
#13
Kamaljeet Kaur, Goutam Rath, Saket Chandra, Ranjit Singh, Amit K Goyal
To treat cancer, chemotherapy is a key therapeutic approach which is associated with several limitations. This chemotherapeutical agents exhibit multi drug resistance coupled with undesirable side effects. This multidrug resistance is exhibited by tumor cell due to actuation of drug out flow mechanism, programmed cell death and protection mechanisms etc. One of the therapeutic approaches to cure cancer is RNA interference (RNAi). Small interfering RNA (si-RNA) is considered as a major therapeutic tool used to control expression of a particular gene...
May 18, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521201/validation-of-the-use-of-an-artificial-mitochondrial-reporter-dna-vector-containing-a-cytomegalovirus-promoter-for-mitochondrial-transgene-expression
#14
Yuma Yamada, Takuya Ishikawa, Hideyoshi Harashima
Mitochondria have their own gene expression system that is independent of the nuclear system, and control cellular functions in cooperation with the nucleus. While a number of useful technologies for achieving nuclear transgene expression have been reported, only a few have focused on mitochondria. In this study, we validated the utility of an artificial mitochondrial DNA vector with a virus promoter on mitochondrial transgene expression. We designed and constructed pCMV-mtLuc (CGG) that contains a CMV promotor derived from Cytomegalovirus and an artificial mitochondrial genome with a NanoLuc (Nluc) luciferase gene that records adjustments to the mitochondrial codon system...
May 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520517/nanoantibiotics-a-new-paradigm-for-the-treatment-of-surgical-infection
#15
Joseph S Fernandez-Moure, Michael Evangelopoulos, Kayla Colvill, Jeffrey L Van Eps, Ennio Tasciotti
Infections following orthopedic device implantations often impose a substantial health burden and result in high medical costs. Currently, preventative methods are often employed following an orthopedic implant to reduce risk of infection; however, contamination of the surgical site can still occur. Although antibiotics have demonstrated a substantial reduction in bacterial growth and maintenance, biofilm formation around the implant can often minimize efficacy of the antibiotic. Recently, nanotechnology has garnered significant interest, resulting in the development of several antibiotic delivery strategies that exhibit extended release and increased efficacy...
May 18, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520255/core-shell-and-layer-by-layer-assembly-of-3d-dna-crystals
#16
Ronald McNeil, Paul J Paukstelis
A long-standing goal of DNA nanotechnology has been to assemble 3D crystals to be used as molecular scaffolds. The DNA 13-mer, BET66, self-assembles via Crick-Watson and noncanonical base pairs to form crystals. The crystals contain solvent channels that run through them in multiple directions, allowing them to accommodate tethered guest molecules. Here, the first example of biomacromolecular core-shell crystal growth is described, by showing that these crystals can be assembled with two or more discrete layers...
May 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516205/applications-of-white-rot-fungi-in-bioremediation-with-nanoparticles-and-biosynthesis-of-metallic-nanoparticles
#17
REVIEW
Kai He, Guiqiu Chen, Guangming Zeng, Zhenzhen Huang, Zhi Guo, Tiantian Huang, Min Peng, Jiangbo Shi, Liang Hu
White rot fungi (WRF) are important environmental microorganisms that have been widely applied in many fields. To our knowledge, the application performance of WRF in bioremediation can be greatly improved by the combination with nanotechnology. And the preparation of metallic nanoparticles using WRF is an emerging biosynthesis approach. Understanding the interrelation of WRF and nanoparticles is important to further expand their applications. Thus, this mini-review summarizes the currently related reports mainly from the two different point of views...
May 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515315/the-c-terminal-peptide-of-aquifex-aeolicus-riboflavin-synthase-directs-encapsulation-of-native-and-foreign-guests-by-a-cage-forming-lumazine-synthase
#18
Yusuke Azuma, Reinhard Zschoche, Donald Hilvert
Encapsulation of specific enzymes in self-assembling protein cages is a hallmark of bacterial compartments that function as counterparts to eukaryotic organelles. The cage-forming enzyme lumazine synthase (LS) from Bacillus subtilis (BsLS), for example, encapsulates riboflavin synthase (BsRS), enabling channeling of lumazine from the site of its generation to the site of its conversion to vitamin B2. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the assembly of these supramolecular complexes could help inform new approaches for metabolic engineering, nanotechnology, and drug delivery...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514955/label-free-biosensing-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-at-single-cell-level
#19
Bin Wang, Bosoon Park, Bingqian Xu, Yongkuk Kwon
BACKGROUND: The emerging nanotechnologies have greatly facilitated the development of label-free biosensors. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to study the molecular mechanism of the reactions for protein and aptamers. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been used in fast detections of various pathogens such as bacteria. This study used both AFM and SPR to investigate the complex reactions between aptamers and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) on the surface of S. typhimurium...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514924/rapid-and-annealing-free-self-assembly-of-dna-building-blocks-for-3d-hydrogel-chaperoned-by-cationic-comb-type-copolymers
#20
Zheng Zhang, Yuyang Wu, Feng Yu, Chaoqun Niu, Zhi Du, Yong Chen, Jie Du
The construction and self-assembly of DNA building blocks are the foundation of bottom-up development of three-dimensional DNA nanostructures or hydrogels. However, most self-assembly from DNA components is impeded by the mishybridized intermediates or the thermodynamic instability. To enable rapid production of complicated DNA objects with high yields no need for annealing process, herein different DNA building blocks (Y-shaped, L- and L'-shaped units) were assembled in presence of a cationic comb-type copolymer, poly (L-lysine)-graft-dextran (PLL-g-Dex), under physiological conditions...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
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