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Nanotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773873/therapeutic-nanoparticles-penetrate-leaves-and-deliver-nutrients-to-agricultural-crops
#1
Avishai Karny, Assaf Zinger, Ashima Kajal, Janna Shainsky-Roitman, Avi Schroeder
As the world population grows, there is a need for efficient agricultural technologies to provide global food requirements and reduce environmental toll. In medicine, nanoscale drug delivery systems grant improved therapeutic precision by overcoming biological barriers and enhancing drug targeting to diseased tissues. Here, we loaded nanoscale drug-delivery systems with agricultural nutrients, and applied them to the leaves of tomato plants. We show that the nanoparticles - liposomes composed of plant-derived lipids, penetrate the leaf and translocate in a bidirectional manner, distributing to other leaves and to the roots...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772963/simplifying-skin-disease-diagnosis-with-topical-nanotechnology
#2
David C Yeo, Chenjie Xu
A new study published in the journal Nature Biomedical Engineering1 documents a novel diagnostic technology that exploits topically applied nanotechnology to detect skin tissue biomarkers for diagnosis. This concept is demonstrated by noninvasively imaging connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA in abnormal scar cells, whole tissue, and animal models. In this commentary, we highlight the main findings and discuss their implications. Successful implementation in the clinic could give rise to self-applied, biopsy-free diagnostic technology and significantly reduce healthcare burden...
May 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772748/drug-delivery-strategies-for-antivirals-against-hepatitis-b-virus
#3
REVIEW
Latavia Singh, Sunaina Indermun, Mershen Govender, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C du Toit, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses a significant health challenge due to associated morbidity and mortality from cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer that eventually results in the breakdown of liver functionality. Nanotechnology has the potential to play a pivotal role in reducing viral load levels and drug-resistant HBV through drug targeting, thus reducing the rate of evolution of the disease. Apart from tissue targeting, intracellular delivery of a wide range of drugs is necessary to exert a therapeutic action in the affected organelles...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771531/exosomes-as-a-drug-delivery-system-in-cancer-therapy-potential-and-challenges
#4
Golam Kibria, Erika Kathryn Ramos, David R Gius, Yong Wan, Huiping Liu
Exosomes play a pivotal role in mediating intercellular communications and package delivery. They have recently been discovered to serve as diagnostic biomarkers as well as a possible drug delivery vehicle based on their nanometer size range and capability to transfer biological materials to recipient cells. Their unique biocompatibility, high stability, preferred tumor homing, and adjustable targeting efficiency can make exosomes an attractive and potentially effective tool of drug delivery in cancer therapy...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768880/tio%C3%A2-nps-induce-dna-damage-in-lymphocytes-from-healthy-individuals-and-patients-with-respiratory-diseases-an-ex-vivo-in-vitro-study
#5
Ilham F Osman, Mojgan Najafzadeh, Vyom Sharma, Ritesh K Shukla, B K Jacob, Alok Dhawan, D Anderson
Little is known of the effects of nanoparticles in human systems, let alone in diseased individuals and nanotechnology has preceded nanotoxicology. Therefore, the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with respiratory diseases [lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma] were compared with those in healthy Individuals, to determine differences in sensitivity to nanochemical insult. The Comet assay was performed according to recommended guidelines...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768240/green-synthesis-and-characterisation-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-effects-on-antimicrobial-efficacy-and-biochemical-profiling-in-citrus-reticulata
#6
Mubashir Hussain, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Zia-Ur-Rehman Mashwani, Farah Naz, Muhammad Iqbal, Sumaira Aslam
The synthesis of nanoparticles by utilising plant extract has revolutionised the field of nanotechnology. In the present study, AgNPs were synthesised by utilising the leaves of Moringa oleifera as reducing and stabilising agent. UV-visible spectroscopy showed characteristic surface plasmon band in the range of 413-420 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) elucidated rectangular segments fused together. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of AgNPs and presence of metallic silver ions was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX)...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767981/optical-activity-of-semiconductor-gammadions-beyond-the-planar-chirality
#7
Nikita V Tepliakov, Ilia A Vovk, Anvar S Baimuratov, Mikhail Yu Leonov, Alexander V Baranov, Anatoly V Fedorov, Ivan D Rukhlenko
We present a rigorous analysis of optical activity of chiral semiconductor gammadions whose chirality in three dimensions is caused by the nonuniformity of thickness in the transverse plane. It is shown that such gammadions not only distinguish between the two circular polarisations upon scattering and reflection of light, like all two-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures with planar chirality do, but also exhibit circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence. Chiral semiconductor gammadions whose charge carriers are mostly confined to the arms are found to feature both high dissymmetry of optical response and a constant-sign circular dichroism signal over a wide frequency range...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766753/toxicity-of-pristine-and-paint-embedded-tio-2-nanomaterials
#8
A T Saber, A Mortensen, J Szarek, N R Jacobsen, M Levin, I K Koponen, K A Jensen, U Vogel, H Wallin
Little is known on the toxicity of nanomaterials in the user phase. Inclusion of nanomaterials in paints is a common nanotechnology application. This study focuses on the toxicity of dusts from sanding of paints containing nanomaterials. We compared the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanomaterials (TiO2 NMs) and dusts generated by sanding boards coated with paints with different amounts of two different types of uncoated TiO2 NMs (diameters:10.5 nm and 38 nm). Mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose of 18, 54 and 162 µg of TiO2 NMs or 54, 162 and 486 µg of sanding dusts...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765215/in-vivo-investigation-on-the-chronic-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-intraperitoneal-administration-of-10-nm-silicon-dioxide-nanoparticles
#9
Mansour Almansour, Saud Alarifi, Bashir Jarrar
Background: Silicon dioxide (silica) nanoparticles (SDNPs) are widely used in nanotechnology and medicine, but these nanomaterials may carry a high risk for human health while little is known about their toxicity. Methods: We investigated the alterations in morphometry, biochemistry, hematology, histology of liver tissue and gene expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes induced by 10-nm SDNPs. Healthy male Wistar albino rats were exposed to 20, 35 and 50 repeated injections of SDNPs (2 mg/kg body weight)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763544/multi-fluorophore-dna-origami-beacon-as-a-biosensing-platform
#10
Denis Selnihhin, Steffen Møller Sparvath, Søren Preus, Victoria Birkedal, Ebbe Sloth Andersen
Biosensors play increasingly important roles in many fields, from clinical diagnosis to environmental monitoring, and there is a growing need for cheap and simple analytical devices. DNA nanotechnology provides methods for the creation of sophisticated biosensors, however many of the developed DNA-based sensors are limited by cumbersome and time-consuming readouts involving advanced experimental techniques. Here we describe design, construction and characterization of an optical DNA origami nano-biosensor device exploiting arrays of precisely positioned organic fluorophores...
May 15, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763386/trends-in-polymeric-electrospun-fibers-and-their-use-as-oral-biomaterials
#11
Agnes B Meireles, Daniella K Corrêa, João Vw da Silveira, Ana Lg Millás, Edison Bittencourt, Gustavo Ea de Brito-Melo, Libardo A González-Torres
Electrospinning is one of the techniques to produce structured polymeric fibers in the micro or nano scale and to generate novel materials for biomedical proposes. Electrospinning versatility provides fibers that could support different surgical and rehabilitation treatments. However, its diversity in equipment assembly, polymeric materials, and functional molecules to be incorporated in fibers result in profusion of recent biomaterials that are not fully explored, even though the recognized relevance of the technique...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761629/simultaneous-local-heating-thermometry-based-on-plasmonic-magnetochromic-nanoheaters
#12
Zhi Li, Alberto Lopez-Ortega, Antonio Aranda-Ramos, José Luis Tajada, Jordi Sort, Carme Nogues, Paolo Vavassori, Josep Nogues, Borja Sepulveda
A crucial challenge in nanotherapies is achieving accurate and real-time control of the therapeutic action, which is particularly relevant in local thermal therapies to minimize healthy tissue damage and necrotic cell deaths. Here, a nanoheater/thermometry concept is presented based on magnetoplasmonic (Co/Au or Fe/Au) nanodomes that merge exceptionally efficient plasmonic heating and simultaneous highly sensitive detection of the temperature variations. The temperature detection is based on precise optical monitoring of the magnetic-induced rotation of the nanodomes in solution...
May 14, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761188/peptide-and-protein-nanotechnology-into-the-2020s-beyond-biology
#13
EDITORIAL
Rein V Ulijn, Roman Jerala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760550/synergistic-antifungal-effect-of-chitosan-stabilized-selenium-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-pulsed-laser-ablation-in-liquids-against-candida-albicans-biofilms
#14
Humberto H Lara, Gregory Guisbiers, Jonathan Mendoza, Lawrence C Mimun, Brandy A Vincent, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Kelly L Nash
Background: Candida albicans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen. One of the most important virulence factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of candidiasis is its ability to form biofilms. A key characteristic of Candida biofilms is their resistance to antifungal agents. Due to significant morbidity and mortality rates related to biofilm-associated drug resistance, there is an urgency to develop novel nanotechnology-based approaches preventing biofilm-related infections. Methods: In this study, we report, for the first time, the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by irradiating selenium pellets by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in liquid chitosan as a capping agent...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758660/mechanical-transduction-via-a-single-soft-polymer
#15
Ruizheng Hou, Nan Wang, Weizhu Bao, Zhisong Wang
Molecular machines from biology and nanotechnology often depend on soft structures to perform mechanical functions, but the underlying mechanisms and advantages or disadvantages over rigid structures are not fully understood. We report here a rigorous study of mechanical transduction along a single soft polymer based on exact solutions to the realistic three-dimensional wormlike-chain model and augmented with analytical relations derived from simpler polymer models. The results reveal surprisingly that a soft polymer with vanishingly small persistence length below a single chemical bond still transduces biased displacement and mechanical work up to practically significant amounts...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757977/zno-and-tio%C3%A2-based-nanostructures
#16
EDITORIAL
Andrea Lamberti
Transition-metal oxide (TMO) nanostructures are the focus of current research efforts in nanotechnology since they are the most common minerals on Earth, and also thanks to their special shapes, compositions, and chemical and physical properties.[...].
May 14, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756603/solid-lipid-nanoparticles-release-dna-upon-endosomal-acidification-in-human-embryonic-kidney-cells
#17
Allan Radaic, Marcelo B de Jesus
Nanotechnology can produce materials with unique features compared to the bulk counterparts, which can be useful for medical applications (i.e., nanomedicine). Among the therapeutic agents used in nanomedicine, small molecules or biomacromolecules, such as proteins or genetic materials, can be designed for disease diagnostics and treatment. To transport these biomacromolecules to the target cells, nanomedicine requires nanocarriers. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are one of the promising nanocarriers available, because they can be made of biocompatible materials and present high stability (over one year)...
May 14, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756442/modulation-of-cellular-uptake-of-dna-origami-through-control-over-mass-and-shape
#18
Maartje Bastings, Frances Anastassacos, Nandhini Ponnuswamy, Franziska Leifer, Garry Cuneo, Chenxiang Lin, Donald E Ingber, Ju Hee Ryu, William M Shih
Designer nanoparticles with controlled shape and size are increasingly popular vehicles for therapeutic delivery due to their enhanced cell delivery performance. However, our ability to fashion nanoparticles has offered only limited control over these parameters. Structural DNA nanotechnology has an unparalleled ability to self-assemble three-dimensional nanostructures with near-atomic resolution features and thus, it offers an attractive platform for systematic exploration of the parameter space relevant to nanoparticle uptake by living cells...
May 14, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756036/tuning-peptide-self-assembly-by-an-in-tether-chiral-center
#19
Kuan Hu, Yixiang Jiang, Wei Xiong, Hu Li, Pei-Yu Zhang, Feng Yin, Qianling Zhang, Hao Geng, Fan Jiang, Zhou Li, Xinwei Wang, Zigang Li
The self-assembly of peptides into ordered nanostructures is important for understanding both peptide molecular interactions and nanotechnological applications. However, because of the complexity and various self-assembling pathways of peptide molecules, design of self-assembling helical peptides with high controllability and tunability is challenging. We report a new self-assembling mode that uses in-tether chiral center-induced helical peptides as a platform for tunable peptide self-assembly with good controllability...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755926/challenges-in-paper-based-fluorogenic-optical-sensing-with-smartphones
#20
REVIEW
Tiffany-Heather Ulep, Jeong-Yeol Yoon
Application of optically superior, tunable fluorescent nanotechnologies have long been demonstrated throughout many chemical and biological sensing applications. Combined with microfluidics technologies, i.e. on lab-on-a-chip platforms, such fluorescent nanotechnologies have often enabled extreme sensitivity, sometimes down to single molecule level. Within recent years there has been a peak interest in translating fluorescent nanotechnology onto paper-based platforms for chemical and biological sensing, as a simple, low-cost, disposable alternative to conventional silicone-based microfluidic substrates...
2018: Nano Convergence
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