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Zinc homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642478/a-novel-plant-e3-ligase-stabilizes-escherichia-coli-heat-shock-factor-%C3%AF-32
#1
Yulong Niu, Xibing Xu, Chengcheng Liu, Tao Wang, Ke Liang, Jianmei Wang, Zhibin Liu, Xufeng Li, Yi Yang
The heat shock response is crucial for organisms against heat-damaged proteins and maintaining homeostasis at a high temperature. Heterologous expression of eukaryotic molecular chaperones protects Escherichia coli from heat stress. Here we report that expression of the plant E3 ligase BnTR1 significantly increases the thermotolerance of E. coli. Different from eukaryotic chaperones, BnTR1 expression induces the accumulation of heat shock factor σ(32) and heat shock proteins. The active site of BnTR1 in E...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636874/next-generation-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitors-novel-strategies-bring-new-prospects
#2
REVIEW
Maxim Levin, Yael Udi, Inna Solomonov, Irit Sagi
Enzymatic proteolysis of cell surface proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for tissue homeostasis and cell signaling. These proteolytic activities are mediated predominantly by a family of proteases termed matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The growing evidence in recent years that ECM and non-ECM bioactive molecules (e.g., growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, on top of matrikines and matricryptins) have versatile functions redefines our view on the roles matrix remodeling enzymes play in many physiological and pathological processes, and underscores the notion that ECM proteolytic reaction mechanisms represent master switches in the regulation of critical biological processes and govern cell behavior...
June 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636417/a-novel-antimicrobial-approach-based-on-the-inhibition-of-zinc-uptake-in-salmonella-enterica
#3
Andrea Battistoni, Serena Ammendola, Emilia Chiancone, Andrea Ilari
In this review we discuss evidences suggesting that bacterial zinc homeostasis represents a promising target for new antimicrobial strategies. The ability of the gut pathogen Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium to withstand the host responses aimed at controlling growth of the pathogen critically depends on the zinc importer ZnuABC. Strains lacking a functional ZnuABC or its soluble component ZnuA display a dramatic loss of pathogenicity, due to a reduced ability to express virulence factors; withstand the inflammatory response; and compete with other gut microbes...
June 21, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635330/multiple-functions-of-insulin-degrading-enzyme-a-metabolic-crosslight
#4
Grazia R Tundo, Diego Sbardella, Chiara Ciaccio, Giuseppe Grasso, Magda Gioia, Andrea Coletta, Fabio Polticelli, Donato Di Pierro, Danilo Milardi, Peter Van Endert, Stefano Marini, Massimo Coletta
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a ubiquitous zinc peptidase of the inverzincin family, which has been initially discovered as the enzyme responsible for insulin catabolism; therefore, its involvement in the onset of diabetes has been largely investigated. However, further studies on IDE unraveled its ability to degrade several other polypeptides, such as β-amyloid, amylin, and glucagon, envisaging the possible implication of IDE dys-regulation in the "aggregopathies" and, in particular, in neurodegenerative diseases...
June 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629136/zinc-in-infection-and-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
Nour Zahi Gammoh, Lothar Rink
Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation...
June 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627969/identification-of-potential-inhibitors-of-fasciola-gigantica-thioredoxin1-computational-screening-molecular-dynamics-simulation-and-binding-free-energy-studies
#6
Rohit Shukla, Harish Shukla, Parismita Kalita, Amit Sonkar, Tripti Pandey, Dev Bukhsh Singh, Awanish Kumar, Timir Tripathi
Fasciola gigantica is the causative organism of fascioliasis and is responsible for major economic losses in livestock production globally. F. gigantica thioredoxin1 (FgTrx1) is an important redox-active enzyme involved in maintaining the redox homeostasis in the cell. To identify a potential anti-fasciolid compound, we conducted a structure-based virtual screening of natural compounds from the ZINC database (n = 1,67,740) against the FgTrx1 structure. The ligands were docked against FgTrx1 and 309 ligands were found to have better docking score...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624432/zinc-transporter-3-znt3-and-vesicular-zinc-in-central-nervous-system-function
#7
REVIEW
Brendan B McAllister, Richard H Dyck
Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) is the sole mechanism responsible for concentrating zinc ions within synaptic vesicles in a subset of the brain's glutamatergic neurons. This vesicular zinc can then be released into the synaptic cleft in an activity-dependent fashion, where it can exert many signaling functions. This review provides a comprehensive discussion of the localization and function of ZnT3 and vesicular zinc in the central nervous system. We begin by reviewing the fundamentals of zinc homeostasis and transport, and the discovery of ZnT3...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624420/biophysical-characterization-and-thermal-stability-of-pneumococcal-histidine-triad-protein-d-phtd-in-the-presence-of-zinc-and-manganese
#8
Salvador F Ausar, Kavisha Jayasundara, Lamees Akawi, Cristopher Roque, Anthony Sheung, Jian Hu, Marina Kirkitadze, Nausheen Rahman
The Pneumococcal Histidine Triad Protein D (PhtD) is believed to play a central role in pneumococcal metal ion homeostasis and has been proposed as a promising vaccine candidate against pneumococcal disease. To investigate for potential stabilizers, a panel of physiologically relevant metals was screened using the thermal shift assay and it was found that only Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) were able to increase PhtD melting temperature. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed a sequential unfolding of PhtD and the presence of at least 3 independent folding domains that can be stabilized by Zn(2+) and Mn(2+)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621798/the-relationship-of-serum-adipokines-with-malnutrition-inflammation-score-in-hemodialysis
#9
Elham Alipoor, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Mitra Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mehdi Yaseri, Narges Sadat Zahed, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar
BACKGROUND: Protein-energy wasting is a prevalent disorder in hemodialysis. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) are novel adipokines with recognized lipolytic effects and proposed role in metabolic homeostasis. This study was conducted to investigate the association of ZAG and ATGL concentrations with malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) and metabolic profile of patients with hemodialysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-eight patients under regular hemodialysis divided based on MIS to normal to mild wasting (NMW; n=35) or moderate wasting (MW; n=53) groups...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617866/characterization-of-trace-metal-content-in-the-developing-zebrafish-embryo
#10
Rebecca T Thomason, Michael A Pettiglio, Carolina Herrera, Clara Kao, Jonathan D Gitlin, Thomas B Bartnikas
Trace metals are essential for health but toxic when present in excess. The maintenance of trace metals at physiologic levels reflects both import and export by cells and absorption and excretion by organs. The mechanism by which this maintenance is achieved in vertebrate organisms is incompletely understood. To explore this, we chose zebrafish as our model organism, as they are amenable to both pharmacologic and genetic manipulation and comprise an ideal system for genetic screens and toxicological studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602864/nckx3-was-compensated-by-calcium-transporting-genes-and-bone-resorption-in-a-nckx3-ko-mouse-model
#11
Hyun Yang, Changhwan Ahn, Eun-Kyeong Shin, Ji-Sun Lee, Beum-Soo An, Eui-Bae Jeung
Gene knockout is the most powerful tool for determination of gene function or permanent modification of the phenotypic characteristics of an animal. Existing methods for gene disruption are limited by their efficiency, time required for completion and potential for confounding off-target effects. In this study, a rapid single-step approach to knockout of a targeted gene in mice using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) was demonstrated for generation of mutant (knockout; KO) alleles. Specifically, ZFNs to target the sodium/calcium/potassium exchanger3 (NCKX3) gene in C57bl/6j were designed using the concept of this approach...
June 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600501/hatching-enzymes-disrupt-aberrant-gonadal-degeneration-by-the-autophagy-apoptosis-cell-fate-decision
#12
Tapas Chakraborty, Sipra Mohapatra, Megumi Tobayama, Kayoko Ohta, Yong-Woon Ryu, Yukinori Kazeto, Kohei Ohta, Linyan Zhou, Yoshitaka Nagahama, Takahiro Matsubara
Environmental stressors, gonadal degenerative diseases and tumour development can significantly alter the oocyte physiology, and species fertility and fitness. To expand the molecular understanding about oocyte degradation, we isolated several spliced variants of Japanese anchovy hatching enzymes (AcHEs; ovastacin homologue) 1 and 2, and analysed their potential in oocyte sustenance. Particularly, AcHE1b, an ovary-specific, steroid-regulated, methylation-dependent, stress-responsive isoform, was neofunctionalized to regulate autophagic oocyte degeneration...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598435/zinc-dependent-regulation-of-zinc-import-and-export-genes-by-zur
#13
Seung-Hwan Choi, Kang-Lok Lee, Jung-Ho Shin, Yoo-Bok Cho, Sun-Shin Cha, Jung-Hye Roe
In most bacteria, zinc depletion is sensed by Zur, whereas the surplus is sensed by different regulators to achieve zinc homeostasis. Here we present evidence that zinc-bound Zur not only represses genes for zinc acquisition but also induces the zitB gene encoding a zinc exporter in Streptomyces coelicolor, a model actinobacteria. Zinc-dependent gene regulation by Zur occurs in two phases. At sub-femtomolar zinc concentrations (phase I), dimeric Zur binds to the Zur-box motif immediately upstream of the zitB promoter, resulting in low zitB expression...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598392/the-functions-of-metamorphic-metallothioneins-in-zinc-and-copper-metabolism
#14
REVIEW
Artur Krężel, Wolfgang Maret
Recent discoveries in zinc biology provide a new platform for discussing the primary physiological functions of mammalian metallothioneins (MTs) and their exquisite zinc-dependent regulation. It is now understood that the control of cellular zinc homeostasis includes buffering of Zn(2+) ions at picomolar concentrations, extensive subcellular re-distribution of Zn(2+), the loading of exocytotic vesicles with zinc species, and the control of Zn(2+) ion signalling. In parallel, characteristic features of human MTs became known: their graded affinities for Zn(2+) and the redox activity of their thiolate coordination environments...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596293/the-uncoupling-of-autophagy-and-zinc-homeostasis-in-airway-epithelial-cells-as-a-fundamental-contributor-to-copd
#15
Eugene Roscioli, Hai Bac Tran, Hubertus Jersmann, Phan Tien Nguyen, Emily Hopkins, Susan Elizabeth Lester, Nigel Farrow, Peter D Zalewski, Paul N Reynolds, Sandra Hodge
The proper regulation of Zinc (Zn) trafficking proteins and the cellular distribution of Zn is critical for the maintenance of autophagic processes. However, there have been no studies which have examined Zn dyshomeostasis and the disease-related modulation of autophagy observed in the airways afflicted with COPD. We hypothesized that dysregulated autophagy in airway epithelial cells (AEC) is related to Zn dysregulation in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD. We applied a human ex vivo air-liquid interface model, a murine model of smoke-exposure, and human lung tissues, and investigated Zn, ZIP1 and ZIP2 Zn-influx proteins, autophagy (Microtubule-associated 1A/1B-light chain-3 (LC3), Beclin-1), autophagic flux (Sequestosome), apoptosis (Bcl2; X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP), Poly (ADP)-ribose Polymerase (PARP)), and inflammation (TSLP, RANTES, and IL-1β)...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595780/the-beneficial-effects-of-zinc-on-diabetes-induced-kidney-damage-in-murine-rodent-model-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Fan Yang, Bing Li, Xiaoming Dong, Wenpeng Cui, Ping Luo
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic multi-factorial metabolic disorder resulting from impaired glucose homeostasis. Zinc is a key co-factor for the correct functioning of anti-oxidant enzymes. Zinc deficiency therefore, impairs their synthesis, leading to increased oxidative stress within cells. Zinc deficiency occurs commonly in diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of zinc on diabetic nephropathy (DN) and the underlying mechanisms involved. FVB male mice aged 8 weeks were injected intraperitoneally with multiple low-dose streptozotocin at a concentration of 50mg/kg body weight daily for 5 days...
July 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587098/function-of-metallothionein-3-in-neuronal-cells-do-metal-ions-alter-expression-levels-of-mt3
#17
Jamie Bousleiman, Alexa Pinsky, Sohee Ki, Angela Su, Irina Morozova, Sergey Kalachikov, Amen Wiqas, Rae Silver, Mary Sever, Rachel Narehood Austin
A study of factors proposed to affect metallothionein-3 (MT3) function was carried out to elucidate the opaque role MT3 plays in human metalloneurochemistry. Gene expression of Mt2 and Mt3 was examined in tissues extracted from the dentate gyrus of mouse brains and in human neuronal cell cultures. The whole-genome gene expression analysis identified significant variations in the mRNA levels of genes associated with zinc homeostasis, including Mt2 and Mt3. Mt3 was found to be the most differentially expressed gene in the identified groups, pointing to the existence of a factor, not yet identified, that differentially controls Mt3 expression...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586364/intracellular-zinc-flux-causes-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-leading-to-cell-death-in-leishmania-donovani
#18
Anjali Kumari, Krishn Pratap Singh, Abhishek Mandal, Ranjeet Kumar Paswan, Preeti Sinha, Pradeep Das, Vahab Ali, Sanjiva Bimal, Chandra Shekhar Lal
Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania parasite is a global threat to public health and one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Therefore, the discovery of novel drug targets and effective drug is a major challenge and an important goal. Leishmania is an obligate intracellular parasite that alternates between sand fly and human host. To survive and establish infections, Leishmania parasites scavenge and internalize nutrients from the host. Nevertheless, host cells presents mechanism like nutrient restriction to inhibit microbial growth and control infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576725/imaging-of-glial-cell-morphology-sod1-distribution-and-elemental-composition-in-the-brainstem-and-hippocampus-of-the-als-hsod1-g93a-rat
#19
Stefan Stamenković, Tanja Dučić, Vera Stamenković, Alexander Kranz, Pavle R Andjus
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor and cognitive domains of the CNS. Mutations in the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause 20% of familial ALS and provoke formation of intracellular aggregates and copper and zinc unbinding, leading to glial activation and neurodegeneration. Therefore, we investigated glial cell morphology, intracellular SOD1 distribution, and elemental composition in the brainstem and hippocampus of the hSOD1(G93A) transgenic rat model of ALS...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570269/zinc-deficiency-primes-the-lung-for-ventilator-induced-injury
#20
Francis Boudreault, Miguel Pinilla-Vera, Joshua A Englert, Alvin T Kho, Colleen Isabelle, Antonio J Arciniegas, Diana Barragan-Bradford, Carolina Quintana, Diana Amador-Munoz, Jiazhen Guan, Kyoung Moo Choi, Lynette Sholl, Shelley Hurwitz, Daniel J Tschumperlin, Rebecca M Baron
Mechanical ventilation is necessary to support patients with acute lung injury, but also exacerbates injury through mechanical stress-activated signaling pathways. We show that stretch applied to cultured human cells, and to mouse lungs in vivo, induces robust expression of metallothionein, a potent antioxidant and cytoprotective molecule critical for cellular zinc homeostasis. Furthermore, genetic deficiency of murine metallothionein genes exacerbated lung injury caused by high tidal volume mechanical ventilation, identifying an adaptive role for these genes in limiting lung injury...
June 2, 2017: JCI Insight
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