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Zinc homeostasis

Rajendran Jayanthi, Abu Raghavan Srinivasan, Gopal Niranjan
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance with altered thyroid status in women is observed in type 2 diabetics and varies with advancing age and estrogen profile. We compared thyroid status between premenopausal and postmenopausal women in obese, non obese and overweight type 2 diabetes. METHODOLOGY: We included 301type 2 diabetics who were segregated into premenopausal (n = 100) 33.2% and postmenopausal (n = 201) 66.8% among three sub groups (Non obese, overweight and Obese)...
May 10, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Yu-Hsuan Lai, Chin Kuo, Macus Tien Kuo, Helen H W Chen
Platinum (Pt)-based antitumor agents have been effective in treating many human malignancies. Drug importing, intracellular shuffling, and exporting-carried out by the high-affinity copper (Cu) transporter ( hCtr1 ), Cu chaperone (Ato x1), and Cu exporters (ATP7A and ATP7B), respectively-cumulatively contribute to the chemosensitivity of Pt drugs including cisplatin and carboplatin, but not oxaliplatin. This entire system can also handle Pt drugs via interactions between Pt and the thiol-containing amino acid residues in these proteins; the interactions are strongly influenced by cellular redox regulators such as glutathione...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Arshia Tabassum, Syeda Nuzhat Fatima Zaidi, Kausar Yasmeen, Tabassum Mahboob
AIMS: Electrolytes and trace elements dysregulation play an important role in the progression of obesity and diabetes complications. The present study was designed to evaluate the insulin sensitizing effects of peroxisomes proliferators activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist on trace elements in obesity induced type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlate with serum visfatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were categorized into five groups. Group I served as control; Group II fed on high fat diet (HFD); Group III fed on HFD and treated with rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg) for 7 days; Group IV were T2DM rats induce by HFD and low dose of streptozotocin (i...
May 14, 2018: Life Sciences
Mingwei Sheng, Ge Zhang, Jiannan Wang, Qing Yang, Huanhuan Zhao, Xinxin Cheng, Zhelong Xu
BACKGROUND: Although it is well known that remifentanil (Rem) elicits cardiac protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study tested if Rem can protect the heart from I/R injury by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through the maintenance of zinc (Zn) homeostasis. METHODS: Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of regional ischemia followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. Rem was given by 3 consecutive 5-minute infusions, and each infusion was followed by a 5-minute drug-free perfusion before ischemia...
May 15, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Michael Francis, Arthur Grider
The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the position or number of metal regulatory elements (MREs) near gene transcriptional or translational start sites, and the strength of metal response element-binding transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) regulation. A secondary analysis was performed in silico on published results measuring the effects of Zn and MTF-1 on transcriptional regulation of genes (n = 120) in the Caco-2 cell line. MRE sequence variations throughout the human genome were sorted using a position weight matrix...
May 16, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Lian Duan, Jing-Jing Kong, Tong-Qing Wang, Yue Sun
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of ubiquitous, low-molecular-mass, cysteine-rich proteins that play a significant role in maintaining intracellular metal homeostasis, eliminating metal toxification, and protecting cells against oxidative damages. Research activity on plant MTs, although known for 30 years, has only moderately increased in the past few years. In this study, a type 1 MT from maize (Zea mays) (ZmMT1) was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). The UV absorption spectra recorded after the reconstitution of apo-ZmMT1 with different metals demonstrated that ZmMT1 can coordinate up to six Zn(II) ions, six Cd(II) ions, and even higher amounts of Pb(II)...
May 15, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Tania Kalsotra, Shikha Khullar, Radhika Agnihotri, Mondem Sudhakara Reddy
Metallothioneins (MTs) are small proteins with highly conserved cysteine residues and are involved in metal homeostasis and metal detoxification. Two metallothionein genes ShMT1 and ShMT2 from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus himalayensis were characterised for their potential role in heavy metal detoxification. The response of these MTs to the exogenous concentrations of copper and cadmium was studied by qPCR analysis. The exogenous copper but not the cadmium at the tested concentrations induced the expression of the MT genes...
May 15, 2018: Microbiology
Gautam Rishi, Eriza S Secondes, V Nathan Subramaniam
Our knowledge of iron homeostasis has increased steadily over the last two decades; much of this has been made possible through the study of animal models of iron-related disease. Analysis of transgenic mice with deletions or perturbations in genes known to be involved in systemic or local regulation of iron metabolism has been particularly informative. The effect of these genes on iron accumulation and hepcidin regulation is traditionally compared with wildtype mice fed a high iron diet, most often a 2% carbonyl iron diet...
May 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Artur Jóźwik, Joanna Marchewka, Nina Strzałkowska, Jarosław Olav Horbańczuk, Małgorzata Szumacher-Strabel, Adam Cieślak, Paulina Lipińska-Palka, Damian Józefiak, Agnieszka Kamińska, Atanas G Atanasov
The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of the different levels of Cu, Zn, and Mn nanoparticles on the activity of aminopeptidases in turkey. An experiment was carried out on 144 turkey hen Hybrid Converter. The birds were divided into groups given standard- and nanoparticle-supplementation of different level of copper (Cu 20, 10, 2 mg/kg), zinc (Zn 100, 50, 10 ppm), and manganese (Mn 100, 50, 10 ppm), covering respectively 100%, 50%, and 10% of the physiological demands for those minerals in the diet...
May 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jessica Wang, Phoebe Um, Barbra A Dickerman, Jianghong Liu
Micronutrient deficiency and depression are major global health problems. Here, we first review recent empirical evidence of the association between several micronutrients—zinc, magnesium, selenium—and depression. We then present potential mechanisms of action and discuss the clinical implications for each micronutrient. Collectively, empirical evidence most strongly supports a positive association between zinc deficiency and the risk of depression and an inverse association between zinc supplementation and depressive symptoms...
May 9, 2018: Nutrients
Lorenzo Iovino, Francesco Mazziotta, Giovanni Carulli, Francesca Guerrini, Riccardo Morganti, Valentina Mazzotti, Fabrizio Maggi, Lisa Macera, Enrico Orciuolo, Gabriele Buda, Edoardo Benedetti, Francesco Caracciolo, Sara Galimberti, Mauro Pistello, Mario Petrini
INTRODUCTION: Zinc plays an important role in thymic function and immune homeostasis. We performed a prospective clinical trial using a high-dose zinc oral supplementation to improve the immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 18 patients undergoing autologous HSCT for multiple myeloma. Nine patients were randomized to receive only a standard antimicrobial prophylaxis; whereas, nine patients received in addition 150 mg/day of zinc from day +5 to day +100 after transplant...
May 2, 2018: Leukemia Research
Sung Ryul Lee
Zinc is recognized as an essential trace metal required for human health; its deficiency is strongly associated with neuronal and immune system defects. Although zinc is a redox-inert metal, it functions as an antioxidant through the catalytic action of copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase, stabilization of membrane structure, protection of the protein sulfhydryl groups, and upregulation of the expression of metallothionein, which possesses a metal-binding capacity and also exhibits antioxidant functions. In addition, zinc suppresses anti-inflammatory responses that would otherwise augment oxidative stress...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Chengcheng Christine Zhang, Martin Volkmann, Sabine Tuma, Wolfgang Stremmel, Uta Merle
Different mutations in the copper transporter gene Atp7b are identified as the primary cause of Wilson's disease. These changes result in high copper concentrations especially in the liver and brain, and consequently lead to a dysfunction of these organs. The Atp7(-/-) mouse is an established animal model for Wilson's disease and characterized by an abnormal copper accumulation, a low serum oxidase activity and an increased copper excretion in urine. Metallothionein (MT) proteins are low molecular weight metal-binding proteins and essential for the zinc homeostasis but also play a role for the regulation of other metals, e...
May 7, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Peter Joe, Matthew Petrilli, Dolores Malaspina, Judith Weissman
OBJECTIVE: The role of zinc homeostasis in various psychopathologies is an emerging area of interest. Zinc is strongly implicated in depressive disorders but is inadequately studied in schizophrenia, despite growing evidence of abnormal zinc transporters associated with schizophrenia. A meta-analysis of serum zinc concentrations in persons with schizophrenia was conducted to address this gap. METHOD: PubMed and Embase were searched for all articles published through February 2018 that reported serum zinc concentrations in individuals with schizophrenia and in comparison subjects...
April 27, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
Aaron C Crawford, Laura E Lehtovirta-Morley, Omran Alamir, Maria J Niemiec, Bader Alawfi, Mohammad Alsarraf, Volha Skrahina, Anna C B P Costa, Andrew Anderson, Sujan Yellagunda, Elizabeth R Ballou, Bernhard Hube, Constantin F Urban, Duncan Wilson
Nutritional immunity describes the host-driven manipulation of essential micronutrients, including iron, zinc and manganese. To withstand nutritional immunity and proliferate within their hosts, pathogenic microbes must express efficient micronutrient uptake and homeostatic systems. Here we have elucidated the pathway of cellular zinc assimilation in the major human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Bioinformatics analysis identified nine putative zinc transporters: four cytoplasmic-import Zip proteins (Zrt1, Zrt2, Zrt3 and orf19...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Dengliang Huang, Yiting Wang, Jiabin Tang, Shiwen Luo
Highly conserved throughout evolution, the hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in embryonic development, stem cell maintenance and tissue homeostasis in animals ranging from invertebrates to vertebrates. In the human body, a variety of cancer types are associated with the aberrantly activated Hh signalling pathway. Multiple studies have revealed suppressor of fused (Sufu) as a key negative regulator of this signalling pathway. In vertebrates, Sufu primarily functions as a tumor suppressor factor by interacting with and inhibiting glioma-associated oncogene homologues (GLIs), which are the terminal transcription factors of the Hh signalling pathway and belong to the Kruppel family of zinc finger proteins; by contrast, the regulation of Sufu itself remains relatively unclear...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Xuekun Fu, Yunyan Li, Tongling Huang, Zhiwu Yu, Kun Ma, Meng Yang, Qingli Liu, Haobo Pan, Huaiyu Wang, Junfeng Wang, Min Guan
Citrate is essential to biomineralization of the bone especially as an integral part of apatite nanocomposite. Citrate precipitate of apatite is hypothesized to be derived from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) upon differentiation into mature osteoblasts. Based on 13 C-labeled signals identified by solid-state multinuclear magnetic resonance analysis, boosted mitochondrial activity and carbon-source replenishment of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates coordinate to feed forward mitochondrial anabolism and deposition of citrate...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Fruzsina Bakti, Christoph Sasse, Thorsten Heinekamp, István Pócsi, Gerhard H Braus
Most of the metal transporters in Aspergillus fumigatus are yet uncharacterized. Their role in fungal metabolism and virulence remains unclear. This paper describes the novel PIB-type cation ATPase PcaA, which links metal homeostasis and heavy metal tolerance in the opportunistic human pathogen A. fumigatus . The protein possesses conserved ATPase motif and shares 51% amino acid sequence identity with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cadmium exporter Pca1p. A pcaA deletion, an overexpression and a gfp-pcaA complementation strain of A...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sanae Kurakado, Rika Arai, Takashi Sugita
Bloodstream infection by the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is a major health problem. Candidemia is often associated with medical devices, which can act as substrates for biofilm development. Biofilm-related infections are relatively difficult to treat because of their resistance to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, it is important to explore the mechanism of biofilm formation. Dimorphism is a major contributor to biofilm formation in C. albicans. To address whether the hypha-related proteins Pra1 (pH-regulated antigen) and Zrt1 (zinc transporter) are responsible for biofilm formation, we investigated the ability of pra1 and zrt1 deletion mutants to form biofilms...
April 28, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Anne Robert, Weixin Zhang, Yan Liu, Christelle Hureau, Bernard Meunier
The disruption of copper homeostasis and the oxidative stress induced by Cu-amyloids are crucial features of Alzheimer's disease pathology. The copper specific N4-tetradendate ligands TDMQ20 and 1 are able to fully inhibit in vitro the aerobic oxidation of ascorbate induced by Cu-Aβ1-16, even in the presence of 100 molar equivalents of Zn(II) with respect to Cu(II), while other ligands with N2O2 or N3O2 coordination spheres failed to do so. This essential result indicates that, in addition to metal selectivity, the coordination sphere of copper chelators should exhibit a N4-tetradendate motif to be able to reduce an oxidative stress in the zinc-rich physiological environment of brain...
April 24, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
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