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Zinc homeostasis

Prashanti Patel, Karuna Yadav, Thumballi Ramabhatta Ganapathi
MicroRNAs are emerging players in plant development and response to stresses, both biotic and abiotic such as micronutrient deficiency. These small RNAs regulate cognate downstream targets either by transcript cleavage or translational inhibition. Micronutrient deficiencies lead to poor quality and yield of crops and impaired human health. Over the years several microRNAs have been identified which regulate expression of genes controlling uptake, mobilization and homeostasis of macronutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur to ensure sufficiency without toxicity...
January 17, 2017: MicroRNA
Hermeto Gerber, Fang Wu, Mitko Dimitrov, Guillermo M Garcia Osuna, Patrick C Fraering
Recent evidence suggests involvement of biometal homeostasis in the pathological mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). For example, increased intracellular copper or zinc has been linked to a reduction in secreted levels of the AD-causing amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). However, little is known about whether these biometals modulate the generation of Aβ. In the present study, we demonstrate in both cell-free and cell-based assays that zinc and copper regulate Aβ production by distinct molecular mechanisms affecting the processing by γ-secretase of its Aβ precursor protein substrate APP-C99...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kurt Warnhoff, Hyun C Roh, Zuzana Kocsisova, Chieh-Hsiang Tan, Andrew Morrison, Damari Croswell, Daniel L Schneider, Kerry Kornfeld
Nuclear receptors were originally defined as endocrine sensors in humans, leading to the identification of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Despite intensive efforts, most nuclear receptors have no known ligand, suggesting new ligand classes remain to be discovered. Furthermore, nuclear receptors are encoded in the genomes of primitive organisms that lack endocrine signaling, suggesting the primordial function may have been environmental sensing. Here we describe a novel Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear receptor, HIZR-1, that is a high zinc sensor in an animal and the master regulator of high zinc homeostasis...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
Eden Shusterman, Ofer Beharier, Shiri Levy, Raz Zarivach, Yoram Etzion, Craig R Campbell, Il-Ha Lee, Anuwat Dinudom, David I Cook, Asher Peretz, Amos Katz, Daniel Gitler, Arie Moran
Traditionally, proteins are considered to perform a single role, be it as an enzyme, a channel, a transporter or as a structural scaffold. However, recent studies have described moonlighting proteins that perform distinct and independent functions; for example, TRPM7 is both an ion channel and a kinase. ZnT-1 is a member of the Carrier Diffusion Facilitator family that is expressed throughout the phylogenetic tree from bacteria to humans. Since its cloning in 1995, ZnT-1 is considered a major extruder of Zn(2+) based on its capability to protect cells against zinc toxicity...
January 16, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Chi Nam Ignatius Pang, Yu-Wen Lai, Leona T Campbell, Sharon C-A Chen, Dee A Carter, Marc R Wilkins
Invasive fungal infections are difficult to treat. The few available antifungal drugs have problems with toxicity or efficacy, and resistance is increasing. To overcome these challenges, existing therapies may be enhanced by synergistic combination with another agent. Previously, we found amphotericin B (AMB) and the iron chelator, lactoferrin (LF), were synergistic against a range of different fungal pathogens. This study investigates the mechanism of AMB-LF synergy, using RNA-seq and network analyses. AMB treatment resulted in increased expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis and ATP synthesis...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Junjie Wang, Qiuqiang Hou, Penghui Li, Lina Yang, Xuecheng Sun, Vagner A Benedito, Jiangqi Wen, Beibei Chen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Jian Zhao
The MATE transporter family comprises 70 members in the Medicago truncatula genome, and they play seemingly important, yet mostly uncharacterized, physiological functions. Here, we employed bioinformatics and molecular genetics to identify and characterize MATE transporters involved in citric acid export, Al(3+) tolerance and Fe translocation. MtMATE69 is a citric acid transporter induced by Fe-deficiency. Overexpression of MtMATE69 in hairy roots altered Fe homeostasis and hormone levels under Fe-deficient or Fe-oversupplied conditions...
January 4, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Clemente Capasso, Claudiu Supuran
BACKGROUND: Clinically used antibiotics act through one of these four mechanisms: cell wall biosynthesis inhibition, inhibition of protein biosynthesis, interference with DNA and RNA synthesis and the folate pathway. OBJECTIVE: The metalloenzymes carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC widespread in microorganisms and present as three genetically distinct families may be considered for the design of antiinfective agents with a different mechanism of action compared to the clinically used antibiotics...
January 3, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Claire M Weekley, Chuan He
Metal dyshomeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Metal chelators and ionophores are well known modulators of transition metal homeostasis, and a number of these molecules are in clinical trials. Metal-binding compounds are not the only drugs capable of targeting transition metal homeostasis. This review presents recent highlights in the development of chelators and ionophores for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative disease...
December 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Andrzej Szutowicz, Hanna Bielarczyk, Marlena Zyśk, Aleksandra Dyś, Anna Ronowska, Sylwia Gul-Hinc, Joanna Klimaszewska-Łata
There are several systemic and intracerebral pathologic conditions, which limit provision and utilization of energy precursor metabolites in neuronal cells. Energy deficits cause excessive depolarization of neuronal cells triggering glutamate-zinc evoked excitotoxic cascade. The intracellular zinc excess hits several intraneuronal targets yielding collapse of energy balance and impairment functional and structural impairments cholinergic neurons. Disturbances in metabolism of acetyl-CoA, which is a direct precursor for energy, acetylcholine, N-acetyl-L-aspartate and acetylated proteins synthesis, play an important role in these pathomechanisms...
December 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Amit K Dubey, Shiri Barad, Neta Luria, Dilip Kumar, Eduardo A Espeso, Dov B Prusky
Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in the presence of cation salts NaCl and KCl inhibited fungal growth and anthracnose symptom of colonization. Previous reports indicate that adaptation of Aspergillus nidulans to salt- and osmotic-stress conditions revealed the role of zinc-finger transcription factors SltA and CrzA in cation homeostasis. Homologs of A. nidulans SltA and CrzA were identified in C. gloeosporioides. The C. gloeosporioides CrzA homolog is a 682-amino acid protein, which contains a C2H2 zinc finger DNA-binding domain that is highly conserved among CrzA proteins from yeast and filamentous fungi...
2016: PloS One
Jinlong Zhang, Jiaxue Wang, Wei Jiang, Juge Liu, Songnan Yang, Junyi Gai, Yan Li
Soil alkalinity is a major abiotic constraint to crop productivity and quality. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) is considered to be more stress-tolerant than cultivated soybean (G. max), and has considerable genetic variation for increasing alkalinity tolerance of soybean. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome profile in the roots of an alkalinity tolerant wild soybean variety N24852 at 12 and 24 h after 90 mM NaHCO3 stress by RNA-sequencing. Compared with the controls, a total of 449 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 95 and 140 up-regulated genes, and 108 and 135 down-regulated genes at 12 and 24 h after NaHCO3 treatment, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Adam J Johnson, Ming J Wu
The pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase CK2 was the first kinase discovered. It is renowned for its role in cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis. The complexity of this kinase is well reflected by the findings of past decades in terms of its heterotetrameric structure, subcellular location, constitutive activity and the extensive catalogue of substrates. With the advent of non-biased high-throughput functional genomics such as genome-wide deletion mutant screening, novel aspects of CK2 functionality have been revealed...
December 21, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
Sarah J Zyba, Swapna V Shenvi, David W Killilea, Tai C Holland, Elijah Kim, Adrian Moy, Barbara Sutherland, Virginia Gildengorin, Mark K Shigenaga, Janet C King
BACKGROUND: Food fortification has been recommended to improve a population's micronutrient status. Biofortification techniques modestly elevate the zinc content of cereals, but few studies have reported a positive impact on functional indicators of zinc status. OBJECTIVE: We determined the impact of a modest increase in dietary zinc that was similar to that provided by biofortification programs on whole-body and cellular indicators of zinc status. DESIGN: Eighteen men participated in a 6-wk controlled consumption study of a low-zinc, rice-based diet...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Aaron T Smith, Matthew O Ross, Brian M Hoffman, Amy C Rosenzweig
The P1B-ATPases, a family of transmembrane metal transporters important for transition metal homeostasis in all organisms, are subdivided into classes based on sequence conservation and metal specificity. The multifunctional P1B-4-ATPase CzcP is part of the cobalt, zinc, and cadmium resistance system from the metal-tolerant, model organism Cupriavidus metallidurans. Previous work revealed the presence of an unusual soluble metal-binding domain (MBD) at the CzcP N-terminus, but the nature, extent, and selectivity of the transmembrane metal-binding site (MBS) of CzcP have not been resolved...
January 10, 2017: Biochemistry
Yinfei Zhang, Yu Wang, Zhaotang Ding, Hui Wang, Lubin Song, Sisi Jia, Dexin Ma
The research of physiological responses to Zn stress in plants has been extensively studied. However, the ionomics and metabolomics responses of plants to Zn stress remain largely unknown. In present study, the nutrient elements were identified involved in ion homeostasis and metabolomics changes related to Zn deficiency or excess in tea plants. Nutrient element analysis demonstrated that the concentrations of Zn affected the ion-uptake in roots and the nutrient element transportation to leaves, leading to the different distribution of P, S, Al, Ca, Fe and Cu in the tea leaves or roots...
December 12, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Mingui Fu, Perry J Blackshear
Nearly 60 CCCH zinc finger proteins have been identified in humans and mice. These proteins are involved in the regulation of multiple steps of RNA metabolism, including mRNA splicing, polyadenylation, transportation, translation and decay. Several CCCH zinc finger proteins, such as tristetraprolin (TTP), roquin 1 and MCPIP1 (also known as regnase 1), are crucial for many aspects of immune regulation by targeting mRNAs for degradation and modulation of signalling pathways. In this Review, we focus on the emerging roles of CCCH zinc finger proteins in the regulation of immune responses through their effects on cytokine production, immune cell activation and immune homeostasis...
December 19, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Chen Dai, Weiti Cui, Jincheng Pan, Yanjie Xie, Jin Wang, Wenbiao Shen
: Recently, molecular hydrogen (H2) has emerged as a bio-regulator both in animals and plants. Normally, functions of endogenous generated H2 could be mimicked by exogenously applied hydrogen-rich water (HRW) or hydrogen-rich saline (particularly in animals). Although alfalfa seedlings showed more cadmium (Cd) resistance after the administration with HRW, corresponding molecular mechanism is still elusive. To address this gap, iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics was used. The results showed that a total of 2377 proteins were identified with <1% FDR, and 1254 protein abundance perturbations were confidently assessed...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
A Cancarini, J Fostinelli, L Napoli, M E Gilberti, P Apostoli, F Semeraro
Tear film is critical for the well-being and homeostasis of the ocular surface. Although the composition of the tear film is well known, the composition of metallic elements have yet to be analysed. Despite trace elements metabolism has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease that affects several aspects of homeostasis, little is known in the literature regarding concentration and possible variation of metallic elements in tear film. We studied the concentrations of several essential and non-essential metallic elements in the tear fluid and serum of patients with type II diabetes mellitus and a group of non-diabetic controls...
October 29, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Anna Chu, Meika Foster, Dale Hancock, Peter Petocz, Samir Samman
SCOPE: The involvement of zinc in multiple physiological systems requires tight control of cellular zinc concentration. This study aims to explore the relationships among selected mediators of cellular zinc homeostasis in an apparently healthy (AH) population and a cohort with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS AND RESULTS: Baseline data of three trials forming two cohorts, AH (n = 70) and T2DM (n = 42), were used for multivariate analyses to identify groupings within 10 zinc transporter and metallothionein gene expressions, stratified by health status...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Mohammad Khanahmadi, Dariush D Farhud, Maryam Malmir, Soheila Orang
BACKGROUND: Metal ions effect on homeostasis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the metal ions (Iron, Zinc and Copper) and CBC in patients with AD in comparison with normal range. METHODS: The samples of study were 17 patients with AD in Tehran's aging centers in 2015, selected as an access sample. Blood samples were analyzed in a pathobiology laboratory. Data were analyzed by one sample t-test. RESULTS: According to the normal range, provided by laboratory, there is a significant difference between zinc in patients with AD and normal reference interval (α=0...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
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