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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448624/overexpression-of-the-protein-phosphatase-2a-regulatory-subunit-a-gene-zmpp2aa1-improves-low-phosphate-tolerance-by-remodeling-the-root-system-architecture-of-maize
#1
Jiemin Wang, Laming Pei, Zhe Jin, Kewei Zhang, Juren Zhang
Phosphate (Pi) limitation is a constraint for plant growth and development in many natural and agricultural ecosystems. In this study, a gene encoding Zea mays L. protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit A, designated ZmPP2AA1, was induced in roots by low Pi availability. The function of the ZmPP2AA1 gene in maize was analyzed using overexpression and RNA interference. ZmPP2AA1 modulated root gravitropism, negatively regulated primary root (PR) growth, and stimulated the development of lateral roots (LRs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448617/seagrass-blue-carbon-spatial-patterns-at-the-meadow-scale
#2
Matthew P J Oreska, Karen J McGlathery, John H Porter
Most information on seagrass carbon burial derives from point measurements, which are sometimes scaled by meadow area to estimate carbon stocks; however, sediment organic carbon (Corg) concentrations may vary with distance from the meadow edge, resulting in spatial gradients that affect the accuracy of stock estimates. We mapped sediment Corg concentrations throughout a large (6 km2) restored seagrass meadow to determine whether Corg distribution patterns exist at different spatial scales. The meadow originated from ≤1-acre plots seeded between 2001 and 2004, so we expected Corg to vary spatially according to the known meadow age at sample sites and with proximity to the meadow edge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448589/morpho-physiological-analysis-of-tolerance-to-aluminum-toxicity-in-rice-varieties-of-north-east-india
#3
Jay Prakash Awasthi, Bedabrata Saha, Preetom Regon, Smita Sahoo, Umakanta Chowra, Amit Pradhan, Anupam Roy, Sanjib Kumar Panda
Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant metal in earth crust, whose chemical form is mainly dependent on soil pH. The most toxic form of Al with respect to plants is Al3+, which exists in soil pH <5. Acidic soil significantly limits crop production mainly due to Al3+ toxicity worldwide, impacting approximately 50% of the world's arable land (in North-Eastern India 80% soil are acidic). Al3+ toxicity in plants ensues root growth inhibition leading to less nutrient and water uptake impacting crop productivity as a whole...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448537/mapping-of-quantitative-trait-loci-associated-with-resistance-to-net-form-net-blotch-pyrenophora-teres-f-teres-in-a-doubled-haploid-norwegian-barley-population
#4
Ronja Wonneberger, Andrea Ficke, Morten Lillemo
Barley net blotch caused by the necrotrophic fungus Pyrenophora teres is a major barley disease in Norway. It can cause grain shriveling and yield losses, and resistance in currently grown cultivars is insufficient. In this study, a set of 589 polymorphic SNP markers was used to map resistance loci in a population of 109 doubled haploid lines from a cross between the closely related Norwegian cultivars Arve (moderately susceptible) and Lavrans (moderately resistant). Resistance to three net form net blotch (P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448503/etiologic-effects-and-optimal-intakes-of-foods-and-nutrients-for-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-and-diabetes-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-from-the-nutrition-and-chronic-diseases-expert-group-nutricode
#5
Renata Micha, Masha L Shulkin, Jose L Peñalvo, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Gitanjali M Singh, Mayuree Rao, Saman Fahimi, John Powles, Dariush Mozaffarian
BACKGROUND: Dietary habits are major contributors to coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. However, comprehensive evaluation of etiologic effects of dietary factors on cardiometabolic outcomes, their quantitative effects, and corresponding optimal intakes are not well-established. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence for effects of dietary factors on cardiometabolic diseases, including comprehensively assess evidence for causality; estimate magnitudes of etiologic effects; evaluate heterogeneity and potential for bias in these etiologic effects; and determine optimal population intake levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448168/management-of-textile-wastewater-for-improving-growth-and-yield-of-field-mustard-brassica-campestris-l
#6
Muhammad Yaseen, Muhammad Zahir Aziz, Aqleema Komal, Muhammad Naveed
Disposal of industrial wastewater is a current issue of urbanization. However, this problem can be sorted by using wastewater as alternate source of irrigation after the addition of some amendment. In this way, the problem of disposal of wastewater not only will be resolved but also scarcity of irrigation water can be kept off in future. Current research study was performed to evaluate the influence of different concentration of wastewater along with canal water for enhancing growth and yield of field mustard...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448145/coarse-grained-molecular-dynamics-model-of-double-stranded-dna-for-dna-nanostructure-design
#7
Hiromasa Yagyu, Jae-Young Lee, Do-Nyun Kim, Osamu Tabata
A new coarse-grained molecular dynamics double-stranded DNA model (nCG-dsDNA model) using an improved beads-spring model was proposed. In this model, nucleotide comprising phosphate, sugar, and base group were replaced by a single bead. The double stranded model with 202 base pairs was created to tune the parameters of the bond, the non-bond, stack, angle bending, and electrostatic interaction. The average twisted angle and the persistence length of the model without electrostatic interaction were calculated at 35...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447998/characterization-of-ultra-fine-grained-and-nanocrystalline-materials-using-transmission-kikuchi-diffraction
#8
Gwénaëlle Proust, Patrick Trimby, Sandra Piazolo, Delphine Retraint
One of the challenges in microstructure analysis nowadays resides in the reliable and accurate characterization of ultra-fine grained (UFG) and nanocrystalline materials. The traditional techniques associated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), such as electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), do not possess the required spatial resolution due to the large interaction volume between the electrons from the beam and the atoms of the material. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has the required spatial resolution...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447704/influence-of-dopants-on-the-impermeability-of-graphene
#9
S S K Mallineni, D W Boukhvalov, I S Zhidkov, A I Kukharenko, A I Slesarev, A F Zatsepin, S O Cholakh, A M Rao, S M Serkiz, S Bhattacharya, E Z Kurmaev, R Podila
Graphene has attracted much attention as an impermeable membrane and a protective coating against oxidation. While many theoretical studies have shown that defect-free graphene is impermeable, in reality graphene inevitably has defects in the form of grain boundaries and vacancies. Here, we study the effects of N-dopants on the impermeability of few-layered graphene (FLG) grown on copper using chemical vapor deposition. The grain boundaries in FLG have minimal impact on their permeability to oxygen as they do not provide a continuous channel for gas transport due to high tortuosity...
April 27, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447674/role-of-grain-size-on-redox-induced-compositional-stresses-in-pr-doped-ceria-thin-films
#10
Jay Sheth, Di Chen, Harry L Tuller, Scott T Misture, Sean R Bishop, Brian W Sheldon
In constrained geometries and in varying oxygen partial pressures and operating temperatures, exchange of oxygen ions between non-stoichiometric oxide thin films (for example, doped and undoped ceria systems) and the gas phase can lead to stresses. In this study, these compositional stresses were investigated in thin films of nanocrystalline 10% praseodymium doped ceria (PCO), as a function of average grain size. In situ wafer curvature measurements, along with High Temperature X-Ray Diffraction (HTXRD), were employed to measure stresses and strains, respectively on the PCO films during oxidation-reduction cycling, over the pO2 range of 10(-1)-10(-5) atm at 750 °C...
April 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447640/abrasion-set-limits-on-himalayan-gravel-flux
#11
Elizabeth H Dingle, Mikaël Attal, Hugh D Sinclair
Rivers sourced in the Himalayan mountain range carry some of the largest sediment loads on the planet, yet coarse gravel in these rivers vanishes within approximately 10-40 kilometres on entering the Ganga Plain (the part of the North Indian River Plain containing the Ganges River). Understanding the fate of gravel is important for forecasting the response of rivers to large influxes of sediment triggered by earthquakes or storms. Rapid increase in gravel flux and subsequent channel bed aggradation (that is, sediment deposition by a river) following the 1999 Chi-Chi and 2008 Wenchuan earthquakes reduced channel capacity and increased flood inundation...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447635/a-chromosome-conformation-capture-ordered-sequence-of-the-barley-genome
#12
Martin Mascher, Heidrun Gundlach, Axel Himmelbach, Sebastian Beier, Sven O Twardziok, Thomas Wicker, Volodymyr Radchuk, Christoph Dockter, Pete E Hedley, Joanne Russell, Micha Bayer, Luke Ramsay, Hui Liu, Georg Haberer, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Qisen Zhang, Roberto A Barrero, Lin Li, Stefan Taudien, Marco Groth, Marius Felder, Alex Hastie, Hana Šimková, Helena Staňková, Jan Vrána, Saki Chan, María Muñoz-Amatriaín, Rachid Ounit, Steve Wanamaker, Daniel Bolser, Christian Colmsee, Thomas Schmutzer, Lala Aliyeva-Schnorr, Stefano Grasso, Jaakko Tanskanen, Anna Chailyan, Dharanya Sampath, Darren Heavens, Leah Clissold, Sujie Cao, Brett Chapman, Fei Dai, Yong Han, Hua Li, Xuan Li, Chongyun Lin, John K McCooke, Cong Tan, Penghao Wang, Songbo Wang, Shuya Yin, Gaofeng Zhou, Jesse A Poland, Matthew I Bellgard, Ljudmilla Borisjuk, Andreas Houben, Jaroslav Doležel, Sarah Ayling, Stefano Lonardi, Paul Kersey, Peter Langridge, Gary J Muehlbauer, Matthew D Clark, Mario Caccamo, Alan H Schulman, Klaus F X Mayer, Matthias Platzer, Timothy J Close, Uwe Scholz, Mats Hansson, Guoping Zhang, Ilka Braumann, Manuel Spannagl, Chengdao Li, Robbie Waugh, Nils Stein
Cereal grasses of the Triticeae tribe have been the major food source in temperate regions since the dawn of agriculture. Their large genomes are characterized by a high content of repetitive elements and large pericentromeric regions that are virtually devoid of meiotic recombination. Here we present a high-quality reference genome assembly for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). We use chromosome conformation capture mapping to derive the linear order of sequences across the pericentromeric space and to investigate the spatial organization of chromatin in the nucleus at megabase resolution...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447119/maxillary-sinus-lift-with-beta-tricalcium-phosphate-%C3%AE-tcp-in-edentulous-patients-a-nanotomographic-and-raman-study
#13
Florence Pascaretti-Grizon, Bernard Guillaume, Lisa Terranova, Baptiste Arbez, Hélène Libouban, Daniel Chappard
Sinus lift elevation restores bone mass at the maxilla in edentulate patients before the placement of dental implants. It consists of opening the lateral side of the sinus and grafting beta-tricalcium phosphate granules (β-TCP) under the olfactory membrane. Bone biopsies were obtained in five patients after 60 weeks. They were embedded undecalcified in poly(methyl methacrylate) (pMMA); blocks were analyzed by nanocomputed tomography (nanoCT); specific areas were studied by Raman microspectroscopy. Remnants of β-TCP were osseointegrated and covered with mineralized bone; osteoid tissue was also filling the inner porosity...
April 26, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446916/oil-accumulation-in-transgenic-potato-tubers-alters-starch-quality-and-nutritional-profile
#14
Madeline Mitchell, Jenifer Pritchard, Shoko Okada, Oscar Larroque, Dina Yulia, Filomena Pettolino, Nicolas Szydlowski, Surinder Singh, Qing Liu, Jean-Philippe Ral
Plant storage compounds such as starch and lipids are important for human and animal nutrition as well as industry. There is interest in diverting some of the carbon stored in starch-rich organs (leaves, tubers, and cereal grains) into lipids in order to improve the energy density or nutritional properties of crops as well as providing new sources of feedstocks for food and manufacturing. Previously, we generated transgenic potato plants that accumulate up to 3.3% triacylglycerol (TAG) by dry weight in the tubers, which also led to changes in starch content, starch granule morphology and soluble sugar content...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446759/transcriptomic-response-of-durum-wheat-to-nitrogen-starvation
#15
Pasquale L Curci, Riccardo Aiese Cigliano, Diana L Zuluaga, Michela Janni, Walter Sanseverino, Gabriella Sonnante
Nitrogen (N) is a key macronutrient representing a limiting factor for plant growth and development and affects productivity in wheat. In this study, durum wheat response to N chronic starvation during grain filling was investigated through a transcriptomic approach in roots, leaves/stems, flag leaf and spikes of cv. Svevo. Nitrogen stress negatively influenced plant height, tillering, flag leaf area, spike and seed traits, and total N content. RNA-seq data revealed 4,626 differentially expressed genes (DEGs)...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446499/food-groups-and-risk-of-all-cause-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#16
Lukas Schwingshackl, Carolina Schwedhelm, Georg Hoffmann, Anna-Maria Lampousi, Sven Knüppel, Khalid Iqbal, Angela Bechthold, Sabrina Schlesinger, Heiner Boeing
Background: Suboptimal diet is one of the most important factors in preventing early death and disability worldwide.Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the knowledge about the relation between intake of 12 major food groups, including whole grains, refined grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with risk of all-cause mortality.Design: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar for prospective studies investigating the association between these 12 food groups and risk of all-cause mortality...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446042/the-use-of-fibroblasts-for-ameliorating-structural-changes-associated-with-skin-aging
#17
Toshimitsu Itaya, Tatsuo Hirai, Takahisa Hirai, Hideki Numoto, Hideo Takeda, Minoru Ueda
Various causes underlie the structural changes associated with skin aging. To treat these problems, surgical or non-surgical approaches are available. One of the non-surgical approaches- regeneration therapy-has become the focus of research and clinical applications. In an earlier clinical study, we injected fibroblasts into the nasolabial region and lips to counter the structural changes associated with skin aging. Assessments performed 12 months after the first injection showed mostly adequate satisfaction scores...
April 27, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445995/microstructure-of-spark-plasma-sintered-silicon-nitride-ceramics
#18
O A Lukianova, V Yu Novikov, A A Parkhomenko, V V Sirota, V V Krasilnikov
The microstructure and phase composition of the high-content Al2O3-Y2O3-doped spark plasma-sintered silicon nitride were investigated. Fully dense silicon nitride ceramics with a typical α-Si3N4 equiaxed structure with average grain size from 200 to 530 nm, high elastic modulus of 288 GPa, and high hardness of 2038 HV were spark plasma sintered (SPSed) at 1550 °C. Silicon nitride with elongated β-Si3N4 grains, higher hardness of 1800 HV, density of 3.25 g/cm(3), and Young's modulus 300 GPa SPSed at 1650 °C was also reviewed...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445748/directional-force-originating-from-atp-hydrolysis-drives-the-groel-conformational-change
#19
Jie Liu, Kannan Sankar, Yuan Wang, Kejue Jia, Robert L Jernigan
Protein functional mechanisms usually require conformational changes, and often there are known structures for the different conformational states. However, usually neither the origin of the driving force nor the underlying pathways for these conformational transitions is known. Exothermic chemical reactions may be an important source of forces that drive conformational changes. Here we investigate this type of force originating from ATP hydrolysis in the chaperonin GroEL, by applying forces originating from the chemical reaction...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445491/how-people-used-ochre-at-rose-cottage-cave-south-africa-sixty-thousand-years-of-evidence-from-the-middle-stone-age
#20
Tammy Hodgskiss, Lyn Wadley
We describe colour, hardness, grain size, geological type and surface modifications of ochre pieces excavated, first by Malan and later by Harper, from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) of Rose Cottage Cave, 96, 000 to 30, 000 years ago. Soft, bright-red shales are abundant, and most ochre has clayey or silty grain sizes. The post-Howiesons Poort layers contain the most ochre pieces, but the Howiesons Poort layers have the highest frequency of ochre per sediment volume. The pre-Howiesons Poort layers have the highest utilization rate...
2017: PloS One
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