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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719744/high-resolution-insights-into-the-stepwise-self-assembly-of-nanofiber-from-bioactive-peptides
#1
Fude Sun, Long Chen, Xiufang Ding, Lida Xu, Xirui Zhou, Peng Wei, Jun-Feng Liang, Shi-Zhong Luo
Peptide self-assembly has a profound biological significance since self-assembled bioactive peptides are gifted with improved bioactivity as well as life-span. In this study, peptide self-assembly was investigated using a therapeutic peptide, PTP-7S (EENFLGALFKALSKLL). Combining experiments of atomic force microscopy (AFM), circular dichroism (CD) and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence spectra, PTP-7S showing α-helix was found self-assembling into nanofibers in solution. Relying on the coarse-grained (CG) dynamic simulations, the self-assembling of PTP-7S was revealed as a stepwise process that peptide monomers first clustered into peptide-assembling units (PUs) with charged surface, and then the PUs integrated together to construct nano-fibril aggregates...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719638/combination-of-twelve-alleles-at-six-quantitative-trait-loci-determines-grain-weight-in-rice
#2
Yuxiang Zeng, Junsheng Shi, Zhijuan Ji, Zhihua Wen, Yan Liang, Changdeng Yang
Grain weight, which is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs), is one of the most important determinants of rice yield. Although many QTLs for grain weight have been identified, little is known about how different alleles in different QTLs coordinate to determine grain weight. In the present study, six grain-weight-QTLs were detected in seven mapping populations (two F2, one F3, and four recombinant inbred lines) developed by crossing 'Lemont', a United States japonica variety, with 'Yangdao 4', a Chinese indica variety...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719184/nanoparticle-mediated-mechanical-destruction-of-cell-membranes-a-coarse-grained-molecular-dynamics-study
#3
Liuyang Zhang, Yiping Zhao, Xianqiao Wang
The effects of binding mode, shape, binding strength, and rotational speed of actively rotating nanoparticles on the integrity of cell membranes have been systematically studied using dissipative particle dynamics simulations. With theoretical analyses of lipid density, surface tension, stress distribution, and water permeation, we demonstrate that the rotation of nanoparticles can provide a strong driving force for membrane rupture. The results show that nanoparticles embedded inside a cell membrane via endocytosis are more capable of producing large membrane deformations under active rotation than nanoparticles attached on the cell membrane surface...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719021/high-temperature-ionic-epitaxy-of-halide-perovskite-thin-film-and-the-hidden-carrier-dynamics
#4
Yiping Wang, Xin Sun, Zhizhong Chen, Yi-Yang Sun, Shengbai Zhang, Toh-Ming Lu, Esther Wertz, Jian Shi
High-temperature vapor phase epitaxy (VPE) has been proved ubiquitously powerful in enabling high-performance electro-optic devices in III-V semiconductor field. A typical example is the successful growth of p-type GaN by VPE for blue light-emitting diodes. VPE excels as it controls film defects such as point/interface defects and grain boundary, thanks to its high-temperature processing condition and controllable deposition rate. For the first time, single-crystalline high-temperature VPE halide perovskite thin film has been demonstrated-a unique platform on unveiling previously uncovered carrier dynamics in inorganic halide perovskites...
July 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718948/effects-of-short-term-heat-stress-at-the-grain-formation-stage-on-physicochemical-properties-of-waxy-maize-starch
#5
Xiaotian Gu, Tianqi Huang, Mengqiu Ding, Weiping Lu, Dalei Lu
BACKGROUND: Waxy maize (Zea mays L. sinensis Kulesh) suffers short-term exposure to high temperature during grain filling in Southern China. The effects of such exposure are poorly understood. RESULTS: Starch granule size was increased by 5 d short-term heat stress (35 °C) and the increase was higher when the stress was introduced early. Heat stress increased the iodine-binding capacity of starches and no difference was observed among the three stages. Starch relative crystallinity was increased and swelling power was decreased only when heat stress was introduced early...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718930/genesis-1-1-a-hybrid-parallel-molecular-dynamics-simulator-with-enhanced-sampling-algorithms-on-multiple-computational-platforms
#6
Chigusa Kobayashi, Jaewoon Jung, Yasuhiro Matsunaga, Takaharu Mori, Tadashi Ando, Koichi Tamura, Motoshi Kamiya, Yuji Sugita
GENeralized-Ensemble SImulation System (GENESIS) is a software package for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of biological systems. It is designed to extend limitations in system size and accessible time scale by adopting highly parallelized schemes and enhanced conformational sampling algorithms. In this new version, GENESIS 1.1, new functions and advanced algorithms have been added. The all-atom and coarse-grained potential energy functions used in AMBER and GROMACS packages now become available in addition to CHARMM energy functions...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718805/emerging-fusarium-and-alternaria-mycotoxins-occurrence-toxicity-and-toxicokinetics
#7
REVIEW
Sophie Fraeyman, Siska Croubels, Mathias Devreese, Gunther Antonissen
Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg range), higher contamination levels of enniatins and tenuazonic acid may occasionally occur...
July 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717440/stigmatic-limitations-on-reproductive-success-in-a-paleotropical-tree-causes-and-consequences
#8
Madhu Raina, Raman Kumar, Veenu Kaul
Success in reproduction is subject to the successful initiation as well as successful completion of a chain of consecutive events starting from flower formation and ending with viable seed production. A pivotal role in this chain is played by the stigma which is the seat of pollen recognition and initiation of pollen-pistil interaction. An interesting feature of the family Bignoniaceae is the presence of thigmosensitive stigmas which open, close and re-open in response to touch. Kigelia pinnata bears a touch sensitive stigma and is a low fruit setter in Jammu and Kashmir (India)...
July 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717149/transcriptome-analysis-of-rice-seedling-roots-in-response-to-potassium-deficiency
#9
Xiaoqin Zhang, Hua Jiang, Hua Wang, Jun Cui, Jiahui Wang, Jiang Hu, Longbiao Guo, Qian Qian, Dawei Xue
Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world, and its growth, development, yield, and grain quality are susceptible to a deficiency of the macronutrient potassium (K(+)). The molecular mechanism for K(+) deficiency tolerance remains poorly understood. In this study, K(+) deficient conditions were employed to investigate the resulting changes in the transcriptome of rice seedling roots. Using ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-Seq) and analysis, a total of 805 differentially expressed genes were obtained, of which 536 genes were upregulated and 269 were downregulated...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717134/ash-production-by-attrition-in-volcanic-conduits-and-plumes
#10
T J Jones, J K Russell
Tephra deposits result from explosive volcanic eruption and serve as indirect probes into fragmentation processes operating in subsurface volcanic conduits. Primary magmatic fragmentation creates a population of pyroclasts through volatile-driven decompression during conduit ascent. In this study, we explore the role that secondary fragmentation, specifically attrition, has in transforming primary pyroclasts upon transport in volcanic conduits and plumes. We utilize total grain size distributions from a suite of natural and experimentally produced tephra to show that attrition is likely to occur in all explosive volcanic eruptions...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715485/characterization-of-the-maize-lipoxygenase-gene-family-in-relation-to-aflatoxin-accumulation-resistance
#11
Oluwaseun F Ogunola, Leigh K Hawkins, Erik Mylroie, Michael V Kolomiets, Eli Borrego, Juliet D Tang, W Paul Williams, Marilyn L Warburton
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a globally important staple food crop prone to contamination by aflatoxin, a carcinogenic secondary metabolite produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. An efficient approach to reduce accumulation of aflatoxin is the development of germplasm resistant to colonization and toxin production by A. flavus. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a group of non-heme iron containing dioxygenase enzymes that catalyze oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). LOX derived oxylipins play critical roles in plant defense against pathogens including A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715430/resequencing-and-variation-identification-of-whole-genome-of-the-japonica-rice-variety-longdao24-with-high-yield
#12
Shukun Jiang, Shichen Sun, Liangming Bai, Guohua Ding, Tongtong Wang, Tianshu Xia, Hui Jiang, Xijuan Zhang, Fengming Zhang
Japonica rice mainly distributes in north of China, which accounts for more than half of the total japonica rice cultivated area of China. High yield, good grain quality and early heading date were the main breeding traits and commercial property in this region. We performed re-sequencing and genome wide variation analysis of one typical northern japonica rice variety Longdao24 and its parents (Longdao5 and Jigeng83) using the Illumina sequencing technology. 53.17 G clean bases were generated and more than 96...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715345/local-oxidation-and-reduction-of-graphene
#13
Yi-Zhe Hong, Wei-Huan Chiang, Hung-Chieh Tsai, Min-Chiang Chuang, Yen-Chien Kuo, Lo-Yueh Chang, Chia-Hao Chen, Jonathon David White, Wei-Yen Woon
Micrometer sized oxidation patterns were created in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene through scanning probe lithography (SPL) and then subsequently reduced by irradiation using a focused x-ray beam. Throughout the process, the films were characterized by lateral force microscopy (LFM), micro-Raman (µ-RS) and micro-x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (µ-XPS). Firstly, the density of grain boundaries was found to be crucial in determining the maximum possible oxygen coverage with SPL. Secondly, the dominate factor in SPL oxidation was found to be the bias voltage...
July 17, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715195/thermo-mechanical-response-of-self-assembled-nanoparticle-membranes
#14
Yifan Wang, Henry Chan, Badri Narayanan, Sean P McBride, Subramanian K R S Sankaranarayanan, Xiao-Min Lin, Heinrich Martin Jaeger
Monolayers composed of colloidal nanoparticles, with a thickness of less than ten nanometers, have remarkable mechanical moduli and can suspend over micron-sized holes to form free-standing membranes. In this paper, we discuss experiments and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations characterizing the thermo-mechanical properties of these self-assembled nanoparticle membranes. These membranes remain strong and resilient up to temperatures much higher than previous simulation predictions, and exhibit an unexpected hysteretic behavior during the first heating-cooling cycle...
July 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714956/the-uncertainty-of-crop-yield-projections-is-reduced-by-improved-temperature-response-functions
#15
Enli Wang, Pierre Martre, Zhigan Zhao, Frank Ewert, Andrea Maiorano, Reimund P Rötter, Bruce A Kimball, Michael J Ottman, Gerard W Wall, Jeffrey W White, Matthew P Reynolds, Phillip D Alderman, Pramod K Aggarwal, Jakarat Anothai, Bruno Basso, Christian Biernath, Davide Cammarano, Andrew J Challinor, Giacomo De Sanctis, Jordi Doltra, Elias Fereres, Margarita Garcia-Vila, Sebastian Gayler, Gerrit Hoogenboom, Leslie A Hunt, Roberto C Izaurralde, Mohamed Jabloun, Curtis D Jones, Kurt C Kersebaum, Ann-Kristin Koehler, Leilei Liu, Christoph Müller, Soora Naresh Kumar, Claas Nendel, Garry O'Leary, Jørgen E Olesen, Taru Palosuo, Eckart Priesack, Ehsan Eyshi Rezaei, Dominique Ripoche, Alex C Ruane, Mikhail A Semenov, Iurii Shcherbak, Claudio Stöckle, Pierre Stratonovitch, Thilo Streck, Iwan Supit, Fulu Tao, Peter Thorburn, Katharina Waha, Daniel Wallach, Zhimin Wang, Joost Wolf, Yan Zhu, Senthold Asseng
Increasing the accuracy of crop productivity estimates is a key element in planning adaptation strategies to ensure global food security under climate change. Process-based crop models are effective means to project climate impact on crop yield, but have large uncertainty in yield simulations. Here, we show that variations in the mathematical functions currently used to simulate temperature responses of physiological processes in 29 wheat models account for >50% of uncertainty in simulated grain yields for mean growing season temperatures from 14 °C to 33 °C...
July 17, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714731/falsifiability-is-not-optional
#16
Etienne P LeBel, Derek Berger, Lorne Campbell, Timothy J Loving
Finkel, Eastwick, and Reis (2016; FER2016) argued the post-2011 methodological reform movement has focused narrowly on replicability, neglecting other essential goals of research. We agree multiple scientific goals are essential, but argue, however, a more fine-grained language, conceptualization, and approach to replication is needed to accomplish these goals. Replication is the general empirical mechanism for testing and falsifying theory. Sufficiently methodologically similar replications, also known as direct replications, test the basic existence of phenomena and ensure cumulative progress is possible a priori...
August 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713028/the-effect-of-fusarium-culmorum-infection-and-deoxynivalenol-don-application-on-proteome-response-in-barley-cultivars-chevron-and-pedant
#17
Klára Kosová, Jana Chrpová, Jiří Šantrůček, Radovan Hynek, Lenka Štěrbová, Pavel Vítámvás, Jana Bradová, Ilja Tom Prášil
Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease adversely affects grain quality and final yield in small-grain cereals including barley. In the present study, the effect of an artificial infection with Fusarium culmorum and an application of deoxynivalenol (DON) on barley spikes of cultivars Chevron and Pedant during flowering was investigated at grain mid-dough stage (BBCH 73) 10days after pathogen inoculation (10 dai). Proteomic analysis using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) technique coupled with LC-MS/MS investigated 98 protein spots revealing quantitative or qualitative differences between the experimental variants...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712913/acute-ochratoxin-a-exposure-induces-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-human-embryonic-kidney-hek293-cells
#18
Shanel Raghubeer, Savania Nagiah, Anil A Chuturgoon
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a common contaminant of grain and fruit and known carcinogen, has been linked to impaired antioxidant response and cellular repair. The effect of OTA on inflammation in cells has not been explored. This study investigated OTA's influence on inflammatory mediators using a range of OTA concentrations (0.5 μM (sub-IC50), 1.2 μm (IC50) and 2 μm (supra-IC50)) on human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells over 24hr. The markers of inflammation in HEK293 cells were evaluated using the following techniques: western blotting (phosphorylated (p-)NFκB (Ser536), p-IKK (Ser176/180) and p-p53 (Ser392), total NFκB, IKK, IκBα and p53), luminometry (caspases 1, 3/7, 8, 9, ATP) and ELISA to determine IL-1β levels...
July 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712083/predictive-statistical-modelling-of-cadmium-content-in-durum-wheat-grain-based-on-soil-parameters
#19
Yoann Viala, Julien Laurette, Laurence Denaix, Emmanuelle Gourdain, Benoit Méléard, Christophe Nguyen, André Schneider, Valérie Sappin-Didier
Regulatory limits on cadmium (Cd) content in food products are tending to become stricter, especially in cereals, which are a major contributor to dietary intake of Cd by humans. This is of particular importance for durum wheat, which accumulates more Cd than bread wheat. The contamination of durum wheat grain by Cd depends not only on the genotype but also to a large extent on soil Cd availability. Assessing the phytoavailability of Cd for durum wheat is thus crucial, and appropriate methods are required. For this purpose, we propose a statistical model to predict Cd accumulation in durum wheat grain based on soil geochemical properties related to Cd availability in French agricultural soils with low Cd contents and neutral to alkaline pH (soils commonly used to grow durum wheat)...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712077/insecticidal-effect-and-impact-of-fitness-of-three-diatomaceous-earths-on-different-maize-hybrids-for-the-eco-friendly-control-of-the-invasive-stored-product-pest-prostephanus-truncatus-horn
#20
Nickolas G Kavallieratos, Christos G Athanassiou, Gerassimos G Peteinatos, Maria C Boukouvala, Giovanni Benelli
Diatomaceous earths (DEs) are able to successfully protect grain commodities from noxious stored-product insect and mite infestations; however, their effectiveness may be moderated by the grain hybrid or variety they are applied to. There is a gap of information on the comparison of the efficacy of different DEs when are applied on different maize hybrids against Prostephanus truncatus (Horn). Therefore, here we tested three commercially available DEs (DEA-P at 75 and 150 ppm, Protect-It at 500 ppm, and PyriSec at 500 ppm) on five different maize hybrids (Calaria, Doxa, Rio Grande, Sisco, and Studio) for the control of P...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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