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Sheng Zhe E, Zhi Qi Yang, Xi Bai Zeng, Ya Nan Wang, Zhao Xia Luo, Jin Hua Yuan, Zong Xian Che
The changing trend of soil available phosphorus (Olsen-P) content in soil and its relationship with soil phosphorus surplus and crop yield are fundamental when making appropriate phosphate fertilizer recommendations. In this paper, the influences of long-term fertilization on crops phosphorus uptake, soil phosphorus surplus, changing trend of soil available phosphorus content and relationships of soil available phosphorus content with soil phosphorus surplus and crop yield were investigated through 34 years (1981-2015) long-term trial in loessial soil region on the Loess Plateau...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Na Cao, Xiao Rong Chen, Hao Hua He, Chang Lan Zhu, Shuo Cai, Tao Xu, Heng Wang Xie, Fang Ping Liu
Super hybrid early rice variety Ganxin 203 was used as test material, and four foliar spraying treatments were set using clear water as the control group (CK), and 3 concentrations of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2 PO4 ) with 0.1% (P1), 0.3% (P3), 0.5% (P5) and po-tash (MH). The effects of spraying P and K fertilizers on the leaf temperature, yield and physiolo-gical characteristics in double-season early rice under low temperature conditions during panicle primordium differentiation stage were studied...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Li Zhang, Jing Wang, Huan Cheng Pang, Jun Tong Zhang, Jian Jun Guo, Guo Hao Dong
Direct straw return to soils often leads to poor combination between soil and straw, decreases straw decomposition and suppresses crop growth. Those problems hamper crop yield and its stability. Granulated straw with high bulk density and small volume improves the straw quality and the soil-straw combination. It remains unknown how does the practice influence soil carbon emission and grain yield. A micro-field experiment was carried out to investigate the responses of wheat and maize yields, soil respiration and soil carbon use efficiency...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xue Jiao Zheng, Zhen Wen Yu, Yong Li Zhang, Yu Shi
With the large-spike wheat cultivar Shannong 23 as test material,a field experiment was conducted by increasing the relative soil moisture content to 70% and 65% at jointing and anthesis stages. Four nitrogen levels,0 (N0 ), 180 (N1 ), 240 (N2 ) and 300 kg·hm-2 (N3 ), were designed to examine the effects of nitrogen application rates on the interception of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and dry matter distribution of wheat at different canopy layers. The results showed that the total stem number of wheat population at anthesis stage, the leaf area index at 10, 20 and 30 days after anthesis, PAR capture ratio at upper and middle layers and total PAR capture ratio in wheat canopy on day 20 after anthesis of treatment N2 were significantly higher than those in the treatments of both N0 and N1 ...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Jin Zhi Wu, Ming Huang, Zhi Min Wang, You Jun Li, Guo Zhan Fu, Ming Can Chen
In order to explore the cultivation techniques for high yield, quality and nitrogen use efficiency of wheat and guide the production practice of late sowing, a two-year experiment of different sowing times and plant densities in fixed plots was conducted from October 2012 to June 2014. Weak-spring cultivar of Yanzhan4110 (YZ4110) and semi-winter cultivar of Aikang58 (AK58) were sowed with two cropping patterns: Normal sowing (sowing in the middle of October, 2.4×106 plants·hm-2 ) and extremely-late sowing (sowing in the middle of November, 6...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Jin Zhao, Xu Zhao, Shen Qiang Wang, Guang Xi Xing
A five-year successive rice straw-derived biochar (BC) amendment pot trial was conducted to investigate the BC effects on crop growth responses, soil properties and ammonia volatilization in a calcareous alkaline soil from 2010-2015 under the greenhouse condition. We adopted 0 (the control; BC0 ), 2.25 t·hm-2 (BC2.25 ) and 22.5 t·hm-2 (BC22.5 ) for each wheat/millet crop season with an identical dose of NPK fertilizers. The results showed that BC treatments (BC2.25 and BC22.5 ) improved soil fertility and crop growth compared to the no BC control...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xin Xin Xue, Xiao Ping Wu, Yong Fa Zhang, Xue Hua Luo, Bi Xia Zou, Da Peng Wang, Wen Bin Wang
With the common urea split application (CU) as the control, a field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of loss-controlled urea by split application (LCUS) and loss-controlled urea by basal application (LCUB) on ammonia volatilization (NH3 ), nitrogen (N) nutrition status, grain yield and N utilization efficiency in rice plants. The results showed that the ratio of NH3 volatilization loss to total N application were 15.8%, 13.4% and 19.7% under the conditions of CU, LCUS and LCUB treatments, respectively...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Lin Lin Zhang, Shi Jun Sun, Zhi Jun Chen, Hao Jiang, Xu Dong Zhang, Dao Cai Chi
In order to investigate the effect of different colored plastic film mulching and planting density on spring maize dry matter accumulation and yield in the rain-fed area of the Northeast China, a complete combination field experiment which was comprised by three types of mulching (non-mulching, transparent plastic film mulching and black plastic film mulching) and five densities (60000, 67500, 75000, 82500 and 90000 plants·hm-2 ), was conducted to analyze the water and heat effect, dry matter accumulation and yield of spring maize (Liangyu 99)...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yi Feng Wang, Ru Lin Qi, Ya Jun Yang, Yang Yang, Wei Dong Song, Wan Yi Mao
The paper studied the effects of altitude on reproductive characteristics in 12 populations of Saussurea przewalskii at the eastern Qinhai-Tibetan Plateau, China. The results showed that the size, reproductive organ biomass, vegetative organ biomass, capitulum number, and seed number of individual plant decreased with the increasing altitude, and the capitulum mass and hundred-grain mass increased continuously. S. przewalskii could ensure its reproduction by reducing plant body size to decrease resource consumption, and increasing the allocation of limit resources to flower biomass...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Masato Kuramata, Tadashi Abe, Akira Kawasaki, Kaworu Ebana, Taeko Shibaya, Masahiro Yano, Satoru Ishikawa
The authors of article "Genetic diversity of arsenic accumulation in rice and QTL analysis of methylated arsenic in rice grains" (Kuramata et al. 2013) would like to note that the original version of the article online unfortunately contains the following errors.
April 24, 2018: Rice
Kiok Kwon, Kangho Park, Hee-Tae Jung
In nanotechnology and microelectronics research, the generation of an ultradense, single-grain nanostructure with a long-range lateral order is challenging. In this paper, we report upon a new solvent-annealing method using a double-sandwich confinement to promote the formation of a large-area, single-domain array (>0.3 × 0.3 mm2) of supramolecular cylinders with a small feature size (4.7 nm). The in situ GISAXS experiment result shows the ordering process during solvent evaporation. The diffusion of the solvent molecules led to the disassembly of the supramolecules confined between the top and bottom surfaces and their subsequent mobilization, thereby producing a highly ordered hexagonal array of supramolecular materials under the double-sandwich confinement upon solvent evaporation...
April 25, 2018: Nanoscale
Matthias Konrad-Schmolke, Ralf Halama, Richard Wirth, Aurélien Thomen, Nico Klitscher, Luiz Morales, Anja Schreiber, Franziska D H Wilke
Fluid-mediated mineral dissolution and reprecipitation processes are the most common mineral reaction mechanism in the solid Earth and are fundamental for the Earth's internal dynamics. Element exchange during such mineral reactions is commonly thought to occur via aqueous solutions with the mineral solubility in the coexisting fluid being a rate limiting factor. Here we show in high-pressure/low temperature rocks that element transfer during mineral dissolution and reprecipitation can occur in an alkali-Al-Si-rich amorphous material that forms directly by depolymerization of the crystal lattice and is thermodynamically decoupled from aqueous solutions...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Xiaoyang Chen, Qiao Dai, Xingcheng Li, Yalin Lu, Yang Zhang
In this study, as-cast Mg⁻6Sn⁻2Zn (wt.%) alloy was subjected to friction stir processing (FSP) and the microstructure and tensile properties of FSP Mg⁻6Sn⁻2Zn samples were investigated. It was found that, in the stir zone (SZ) of FSP Mg⁻6Sn⁻2Zn samples, α-Mg grains were significantly refined via dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and the Mg₂Sn phase was broken and partially dissolved. The microstructure in SZ was nonuniform and DRXed grains in the SZ-up regions were coarser than those in the SZ-down regions...
April 23, 2018: Materials
Na'Taki Osborne Jelks, Timothy L Hawthorne, Dajun Dai, Christina H Fuller, Christine Stauber
We utilized a participatory mapping approach to collect point locations, photographs, and descriptive data about select built environment stressors identified and prioritized by community residents living in the Proctor Creek Watershed, a degraded, urban watershed in Northwest Atlanta, Georgia. Residents (watershed researchers) used an indicator identification framework to select three watershed stressors that influence urban livability: standing water, illegal dumping on land and in surface water, and faulty stormwater infrastructure...
April 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mariana E Elizondo-García, Valeria Márquez-Miranda, Ingrid Araya-Durán, Jesús A Valencia-Gallegos, Fernando D González-Nilo
Amphiphilic Janus dendrimers (JDs) are repetitively branched molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic components that self-assemble in water to form a variety of morphologies, including vesicles analogous to liposomes with potential pharmaceutical and medical application. To date, the self-assembly of JDs has not been fully investigated thus it is important to gain insight into its mechanism and dependence on JDs’ molecular structure. In this study, the aggregation behavior in water of a second-generation bis-MPA JD was evaluated using experimental and computational methods...
April 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Shan Kothari, José Eduardo Meireles, Matthew A Kaproth, Paul S Manos, Andrew L Hipp
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Evolutionary and biogeographic history, including past environmental change and diversification processes, are likely to have influenced the expansion, migration, and extinction of populations, creating evolutionary legacy effects that influence regional species pools and the composition of communities. We consider the consequences of the diversification process in shaping trait evolution and assembly of oak-dominated communities throughout the continental United States (U...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Eva Commissaire, Anne-Sophie Besse, Elisabeth Demont, Séverine Casalis
This study aimed to investigate grapheme coding during silent word reading in French developing readers from Grades 3 and 5. Children performed a letter detection task in which three conditions were used; the letter to detect was (a) presented as a single-letter grapheme (simple condition; A in phare), (b) embedded within a multi-letter grapheme that is considered as a unit or not depending on context (weakly cohesive complex condition; A in chant where "an" is a unit but not in other words such as cane), or (c) embedded within a multi-letter grapheme that is systematically considered as a unit (highly cohesive complex condition; A in chaud)...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Xiao Chang, Ruth S DeFries, Liming Liu, Kyle Davis
China is facing both non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and micronutrient deficiency, which have been largely related to transitions within Chinese diets, for example, the overconsumption of vegetable oils and animal-source products and decreasing consumption of coarse staple foods. In this study, we use three metrics-dietary diversity score (DDS), staple diversity score (SDS) and the proportion of coarse staple consumption (PoCS)- to investigate overall dietary transitions as well as trends in staple food consumption for nine provinces in China from 1997 to 2009...
2018: PloS One
Yutao Li, Xi Chen, Andrei Dolocan, Zhiming Cui, Sen Xin, Leigang Xue, Henghui Xu, Kyusung Park, John B Goodenough
Garnet-structured Li7La3Zr2O12 is a promising solid Li-ion electrolyte for all-solid-state Li-metal batteries and Li-redox-flow batteries owing to its high Li-ion conductivity at room temperature and good electrochemical stability with Li metal. However, there are still three major challenges unsolved: (1) the controversial electrochemical window of garnet, (2) the impractically large resistance at a garnet/electrode interface and the fast lithium-dendrite growth along the grain boundaries of the garnet pellet, and (3) the fast degradation during storage...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xiaojie Song, Hongzhi Cui, Ye Han, Lei Ding, Qiang Song
In this work, Ti2Al(C, N) solid solution with lamellar structure enhanced TiAl matrix composites were synthesized by vacuum arc melting, using bulk g-C3N4, Ti and Al powders as raw materials. The phases, microstructures, interfaces and mechanical properties were investigated. MAX phase of Ti2Al(C, N) solid solution with lamellar structure was formed. During the melting process, firstly, C3N4 reacted with Ti to form Ti(C, N) by Ti + C3N4 → Ti(C, N). And then, Ti2Al(C, N) was formed by a peritectic reaction of TiAl(l) + Ti(C, N)(s)→Ti2Al(C, N)...
April 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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