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Sung-Il Baik, Dieter Isheim, David N Seidman
Atom-probe tomography (APT) is a unique analysis tool that enables true three-dimensional (3-D) analyses with sub-nano scale spatial resolution. Recent implementations of the local-electrode atom-probe (LEAP) tomograph with ultraviolet laser pulsing have significantly expanded the research applications of APT. The small field-of-view of a needle-shaped specimen with a less than 100 nm diam. is, however, a major limitation for analyzing materials. The systematic approaches for site-specific targeting of an APT nanotip in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) of a thin sample are introduced to solve the geometrical limitations of a sharpened APT nanotip...
October 12, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
David C Perry, Jesse A Brown, Katherine L Possin, Samir Datta, Andrew Trujillo, Anneliese Radke, Anna Karydas, John Kornak, Ana C Sias, Gil D Rabinovici, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Adam L Boxer, Mary De May, Katherine P Rankin, Virginia E Sturm, Suzee E Lee, Brandy R Matthews, Aimee W Kao, Keith A Vossel, Maria Carmela Tartaglia, Zachary A Miller, Sang Won Seo, Manu Sidhu, Stephanie E Gaus, Alissa L Nana, Jose Norberto S Vargas, Ji-Hye L Hwang, Rik Ossenkoppele, Alainna B Brown, Eric J Huang, Giovanni Coppola, Howard J Rosen, Daniel Geschwind, John Q Trojanowski, Lea T Grinberg, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley
Accurately predicting the underlying neuropathological diagnosis in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) poses a daunting challenge for clinicians but will be critical for the success of disease-modifying therapies. We sought to improve pathological prediction by exploring clinicopathological correlations in a large bvFTD cohort. Among 438 patients in whom bvFTD was either the top or an alternative possible clinical diagnosis, 117 had available autopsy data, including 98 with a primary pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), 15 with Alzheimer's disease, and four with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who lacked neurodegenerative disease-related pathology outside of the motor system...
October 6, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
J E N Tilley, J L Grimes, M D Koci, R A Ali, C R Stark, P K Nighot, T F Middleton, A C Fahrenholz
Corn with naturally occurring aflatoxin (AF), wheat with naturally occurring doxynivalenol (DON), and barley with naturally occurring zearalenone (ZEA) were used to make rations for feeding turkey hen poults to 6 weeks of age. Control rations with equal amounts of corn, wheat, and barley were also fed. The control rations did contain some DON while both sets of rations contained ZEA. Within each grain source, there were 4 treatments: the control ration plus 3 rations each with a different feed additive which were evaluated for the potential to lessen potential mycotoxin effects on bird performance and physiology...
September 20, 2017: Poultry Science
Nora Honsdorf, Timothy J March, Klaus Pillen
Drought is a major abiotic stress impeding the yield of cereal crops globally. Particularly in Mediterranean environments, water becomes a limiting factor during the reproductive developmental stage, causing yield losses. The wild progenitor of cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare ssp spontaneum (Hsp) is a potentially useful source of drought tolerance alleles. Wild barley introgression lines like the S42IL library may facilitate the introduction of favorable exotic alleles into breeding material. The complete set of 83 S42ILs was genotyped with the barley 9k iSelect platform in order to complete genetic information obtained in previous studies...
2017: PloS One
Galo E Balatti, Ernesto E Ambroggio, Gerardo D Fidelio, M Florencia Martini, Mónica Pickholz
In this work; we investigated the differential interaction of amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) lipid structures by means of extensive molecular dynamics simulations. By using a coarse-grained (CG) model within the MARTINI force field; we simulated the peptide-lipid system from three different initial configurations: (a) peptides in water in the presence of a pre-equilibrated lipid bilayer; (b) peptides inside the hydrophobic core of the membrane; and (c) random configurations that allow self-assembled molecular structures...
October 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Asad M Iqbal, Ghulam Hassnain Jaffari, Mohsin Saleemi, Abdullah Ceylan
We present the frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric response of Eu1-x Ba x TiO3 (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.5) in detail. Excluding grain boundary effects, four relaxation mechanisms were observed. Relaxation dynamics were observed to arise due to hopping conduction associated with defects, namely oxygen vacancies as well as Eu(3+) and Ti(3+) ions. Dielectric relaxation analysis led to the identification of Ti ions in two different environments with different relaxation rates in the overall EuTiO3 perovskite structure...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
I Kriuchevskyi, J P Wittmer, H Meyer, J Baschnagel
Using molecular dynamics simulation of a standard coarse-grained polymer glass model, we investigate by means of the stress-fluctuation formalism the shear modulus μ as a function of temperature T and sampling time Δt. While the ensemble-averaged modulus μ(T) is found to decrease continuously for all Δt sampled, its standard deviation δμ(T) is nonmonotonic, with a striking peak at the glass transition. Confirming the effective time-translational invariance of our systems, μ(Δt) can be understood using a weighted integral over the shear-stress relaxation modulus G(t)...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Pin Chia Hsu, Mohd Firdaus Samsudin, Jonathan Shearer, Syma Khalid
The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is composed of two membranes separated by a soluble region. Here, we report microsecond timescale coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of models of the E. coli cell envelope that incorporate both membranes and various native membrane proteins. Our results predict that both the inner and outer membranes curve in a manner dependent on the size of the embedded proteins. The tightly cross-linked lipopolysaccharide molecules (LPS) of the outer membrane cause a strong coupling between the movement of proteins and lipids...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Xu-Liang Cao, Luc Pelletier, Melissa Sparling, Robert Dabeka
Levels of most VOCs in foods are usually low because of their volatility, and human exposure to VOCs is expected to be mainly via inhalation of ambient and indoor air. However, dietary exposures to VOCs can be significant to overall exposures if elevated concentrations of VOCs are present in foods consumed in high amounts and/or on a regular basis, and this was demonstrated in this study with the occurrence data of toluene from the recent 2014 Canadian Total Diet Study (TDS). Concentrations of toluene in the composite samples of most food types from the 2014 TDS are low and similar to the results from the previous 2007 TDS with some exceptions, such as beef steak (670 ng/g (2014 TDS) vs...
October 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Aaron S White, Valentine Hacquard, Jeffrey Lidz
Propositional attitude verbs, such as think and want, have long held interest for both theoretical linguists and language acquisitionists because their syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic properties display complex interactions that have proven difficult to fully capture from either perspective. This paper explores the granularity with which these verbs' semantic and pragmatic properties are recoverable from their syntactic distributions, using three behavioral experiments aimed at explicitly quantifying the relationship between these two sets of properties...
October 19, 2017: Cognitive Science
Gaofeng Zhou, Jianbo Jian, Penghao Wang, Chengdao Li, Ye Tao, Xuan Li, Daniel Renshaw, Jonathan Clements, Mark Sweetingham, Huaan Yang
An ultra-high density genetic map containing 34,574 sequence-defined markers was developed in Lupinus angustifolius. Markers closely linked to nine genes of agronomic traits were identified. A physical map was improved to cover 560.5 Mb genome sequence. Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is a recently domesticated legume grain crop. In this study, we applied the restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) method to genotype an F9 recombinant inbred line population derived from a wild type × domesticated cultivar (W × D) cross...
October 19, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Giovanni Landi, Heinz Christoph Neitzert, Carlo Barone, Costantino Mauro, Felix Lang, Steve Albrecht, Bernd Rech, Sergio Pagano
In the present study, random current fluctuations measured at different temperatures and for different illumination levels are used to understand the charge carrier kinetics in methylammonium lead iodide CH3NH3PbI3-based perovskite solar cells. A model, combining trapping/detrapping, recombination mechanisms, and electron-phonon scattering, is formulated evidencing how the presence of shallow and deeper band tail states influences the solar cell recombination losses. At low temperatures, the observed cascade capture process indicates that the trapping of the charge carriers by shallow defects is phonon assisted directly followed by their recombination...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Xin Yao, Junhui Liang, Yuelong Li, Jingshan Luo, Biao Shi, Changchun Wei, Dekun Zhang, Baozhang Li, Yi Ding, Ying Zhao, Xiaodan Zhang
Intensive studies on low-temperature deposited electron transport materials have been performed to improve the efficiency of n-i-p type planar perovskite solar cells to extend their application on plastic and multijunction device architectures. Here, a TiO2 film with enhanced conductivity and tailored band edge is prepared by magnetron sputtering at room temperature by hydrogen doping (HTO), which accelerates the electron extraction from perovskite photoabsorber and reduces charge transfer resistance, resulting in an improved short circuit current density and fill factor...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Mariana Zavala-López, Silverio García-Lara
BACKGROUND: Phenolic acids are a major group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants. In the case of maize, the major proportion of these metabolites occurs in the edible grain and their antioxidant activities are associated with improvements in human health. However, conventional extraction of secondary metabolites is very time consuming and generates a substantial amount of solvent waste. One approach to resolve these limitations is the use of microscale approaches, which minimize the quantity of solvents required, as well as the sample amounts and processing times...
2017: Plant Methods
Zhongshan He, Jing Zeng, Yun Ren, Dan Chen, Wenjie Li, Fengyan Gao, Ye Cao, Tao Luo, Guoqiang Yuan, Xianghong Wu, Yueyang Liang, Qiming Deng, Shiquan Wang, Aiping Zheng, Jun Zhu, Huainian Liu, Lingxia Wang, Ping Li, Shuangcheng Li
Growth-regulating factor (GRF) interacting factors (GIFs) are involved in several developmental processes in Arabidopsis. We previously showed that upregulation of OsGIF1 expression improves rice grain size. However, whether OsGIF1 is involved in other developmental processes remains unclear. Here, we report pleiotropic effects of OsGIF1 on rice organ size regulation. Overexpression and functional knock-out via a CRISPR/Cas9 strategy revealed that OsGIF1 not only positively regulates the sizes of rice leaf, stem, and grain but also influences rice reproduction...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chenling Qu, Hongliang Wang, Shengqiang Liu, Fangting Wang, Chang Liu
The effect of microwave heating wheat grains (700 W for 0-60 s) on gluten, farinograph, pasting properties and baking (steamed bread and biscuit) of flour was studied. The lipase (LA) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities of the microwave-treated wheat were monitored, and the accelerated storage at 35 °C of whole wheat flour was also investigated. The results showed that the gluten, farinograph properties and viscosity were influenced to a small extent when microwave treatment time was less than or equal to 20 s and the temperature of the grains was less than or equal to 56 °C...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Ramnarain Ramakrishna, Dipayan Sarkar, Avani Manduri, Shreyas Ganesan Iyer, Kalidas Shetty
Sprouts of cereal grains, such as barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), are a good source of beneficial phenolic bioactives. Such health relevant phenolic bioactives of cereal sprouts can be targeted to manage chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress commonly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Therefore improving phenolic bioactives by stimulating plant endogenous defense responses such as protective pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during sprouting has significant merit. Based on this metabolic rationale, this study aimed to enhance phenolic bioactives and associated antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic functions in dark germinated barley sprouts using exogenous elicitor treatments...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Sayali Pande, S D Sakhare, M G Bhosale, D J Haware, A A Inamdar
Non-wheat grains, complementing the nutritional profile of wheat were utilized for the development of atta with multi-whole grains. Based on the dimensions, selected grains were segregated and the grinding techniques were applied for the production of multi whole grains flour. Multi whole grains flour was replaced with whole wheat flour to obtain five different formulations and further compared with control atta. With the increase in incorporation of the multi whole grain flours reduction in brightness (L*) from 79...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Conrado R M Afonso, Angelica Amigó, Vladimir Stolyarov, Dmitri Gunderov, Vicente Amigó
β-Ti alloys have low elastic modulus, good specific strength and high corrosion resistance for biomaterial applications. Noble elements, such as Nb, Ta and Mo, are used to obtain β-Ti due to their chemical biocompatibility. However, due to their refractory nature, β-Ti requires specific processing routes. Powder metallurgy (P/M) allows for the development of new β-Ti alloys with decreasing costs, but dealing with high-elemental-content alloys can lead to a lack of diffusion and grain growth. One method to refine the structure and improve mechanical properties is a severe plastic deformation technique through high-pressure torsion (HPT)...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Elif Karacaoğlu, Güldeniz Selmanoğlu
T-2 toxin, which is produced in grain and grain products as a secondary metabolite by Fusarium species, is also potentially dangerous for human health. Up to date, no study was reported the cytotoxicity of T-2 toxin on SerW3 cells in the perspective of junctional barriers. This study focused on revealing the cytotoxic effects of T-2 on Sertoli cells associated with cell junctional barriers. In the present study, SerW3 cells were exposed to T-2 toxin at 12, 120 and 1200ng/ml doses for 24 and 48h. Cytotoxicity tests including cell viability (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity test and trypan blue exclusion assay were performed...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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