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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245115/effects-of-grain-size-on-the-microstructures-and-mechanical-properties-of-304-austenitic-steel-processed-by-torsional-deformation
#1
Ji Gu, Lixin Zhang, Song Ni, Min Song
In this paper, two grain sized 304 austenitic steel rods (coarse-grained steel with an average grain size of ∼20μm and ultra-coarse-grained steel with an average grain size of ∼1mm) were treated by pre-torsional deformation. Gradient microstructures with "dislocations→stacking faults→nanotwins" along the radial direction were formed in the ultra-coarse-grained specimen, and this type of gradient microstructures is beneficial to the mechanical properties. The results also showed that grain size affects the onset of twinning...
December 11, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244880/comparative-study-of-qualitative-and-quantitative-methods-to-determine-toxicity-level-of-aspergillus-flavus-isolates-in-maize
#2
Meena Shekhar, Nirupma Singh, Ram Dutta, Shrvan Kumar, Vinay Mahajan
An attempt was made to compare between easy and inexpensive qualitative method (ammonia vapour test) and analytical methods (thin layer chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for identification of aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus in maize. In this comparative study the toxicity level of A. flavus isolates exhibited 100% agreement among ammonia vapour test, ELISA and TLC for highly toxigenic (>2000 ppb) and toxigenic (501-2000 ppb) isolates while 88.5% agreement observed for least toxic (<20 ppb) isolates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244775/spatial-temporal-and-dietary-variables-associated-with-elevated-mercury-exposure-in-peruvian-riverine-communities-upstream-and-downstream-of-artisanal-and-small-scale-gold-mining
#3
Lauren Wyatt, Ernesto J Ortiz, Beth Feingold, Axel Berky, Sarah Diringer, Ana Maria Morales, Elvis Rojas Jurado, Heileen Hsu-Kim, William Pan
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the relationship between environmental and human mercury exposure, how exposure has changed over time, and risk factors beyond fish consumption are not well understood in ASGM settings. In Peruvian riverine communities (n = 12), where ASGM has increased 4-6 fold over the past decade, we provide a large-scale assessment of the connection between environmental and human mercury exposure by comparing total mercury contents in human hair (2-cm segment, n = 231) to locally caught fish tissue, analyzing temporal exposure in women of child bearing age (WCBA, 15-49 years, n = 46) over one year, and evaluating general mercury exposure risks including fish and non-fish dietary items through household surveys and linear mixed models...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244752/proteomic-analysis-reveals-coordinated-regulation-of-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-through-signal-transduction-and-sugar-metabolism-in-black-rice-leaf
#4
Linghua Chen, Yining Huang, Ming Xu, Zuxin Cheng, Jingui Zheng
Black rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered to be a healthy food due to its high content of anthocyanins in the pericarp. The synthetic pathway of anthocyanins in black rice grains has been identified, however, the proteomic profile of leaves during grain development is still unclear. Here, isobaric Tags Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS was carried out to identify statistically significant changes of leaf proteome in the black rice during grain development. Throughout three sequential developmental stages, a total of 3562 proteins were detected and 24 functional proteins were differentially expressed 3-10 days after flowering (DAF)...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244538/associations-between-dietary-patterns-and-longitudinal-quality-of-life-changes-in-colorectal-cancer-patients-the-colocare-study
#5
Biljana Gigic, Heiner Boeing, Reka Toth, Jürgen Böhm, Nina Habermann, Dominique Scherer, Petra Schrotz-King, Clare Abbenhardt-Martin, Stephanie Skender, Hermann Brenner, Jenny Chang-Claude, Michael Hoffmeister, Karen Syrjala, Paul B Jacobsen, Martin Schneider, Alexis Ulrich, Cornelia M Ulrich
Quality of life (QoL) is an important clinical outcome in cancer patients. We investigated associations between dietary patterns and QoL changes in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The study included 192 CRC patients with available EORTC QLQ-C30 data before and 12 months post-surgery and food frequency questionnaire data at 12 months post-surgery. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multivariate regression models assessed associations between dietary patterns and QoL changes over time...
December 15, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244513/scission-free-energies-for-wormlike-surfactant-micelles-development-of-a-simulation-protocol-application-and-validation-for-personal-care-formulations
#6
Huan Wang, Xueming Tang, David Michael Eike, Ronald G Larson, Peter H Koenig
We present a scheme to calculate wormlike micelle scission free energies from a potential of mean force (PMF) derived from a Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM) applied to coarse grained dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. In contrast to previous related work, we use a specially chosen external potential based on a reaction coordinate that reversibly drives surfactants out of the nascent scission location. For the application to a model body wash formulation, we predict how addition of NaCl and small molecules such as perfume raw materials (PRMs) affect scission energies...
December 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244007/detecting-intermediate-protein-conformations-using-algebraic-topology
#7
Nurit Haspel, Dong Luo, Eduardo González
BACKGROUND: Understanding protein structure and dynamics is essential for understanding their function. This is a challenging task due to the high complexity of the conformational landscapes of proteins and their rugged energy levels. In particular, it is important to detect highly populated regions which could correspond to intermediate structures or local minima. RESULTS: We present a hierarchical clustering and algebraic topology based method that detects regions of interest in protein conformational space...
December 6, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243424/-tissue-culture-of-callus-and-establishment-of-regeneration-system-of-tussilago-farfara-petiole
#8
Ji-Wen Ren, Ying Lei, Xiao-Ling Li
Young petiole of Tussilago farfara was used as the material to investigate the plant growth regulators which could influence in vitro culture and plant regeneration and to establish rapid propagation technique. The ideal sterilization method was that young petiole of T. farfara was sterilized with 75% ethanol for 30 s, and then transferred to saturated bleaching power supernatant for 15 min. The suitable medium for callus induction was MS+6-BA 3.0 mg•L⁻¹+2,4-D 2.0 mg•L⁻¹ with 96.2% induction rate...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243240/initial-steps-in-defining-the-environment-of-the-prepuce-of-the-bull-by-measuring-ph-and-temperature
#9
J H Koziol, N S Fraser, T Passler, D F Wolfe
OBJECTIVE: To determine the baseline pH and temperature of the preputial cavity of bulls. METHODS: We enrolled 55 bulls ranging in age from 15 to 84 months. The preputial temperature and pH were measured by insertion of temperature and pH probes, respectively, into the preputial orifice prior to routine breeding soundness examinations. Information was obtained from owners regarding the diet of each bull and categorised as one of three categories: forage only, grain supplemented or silage supplemented...
December 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242881/understanding-the-formation-of-the-metastable-ferroelectric-phase-in-hafnia-zirconia-solid-solution-thin-films
#10
Min Hyuk Park, Young Hwan Lee, Han Joon Kim, Yu Jin Kim, Taehwan Moon, Keum Do Kim, Seung Dam Hyun, Thomas Mikolajick, Uwe Schroeder, Cheol Seong Hwang
Hf1-xZrxO2 (x ∼ 0.5-0.7) has been the leading candidate of ferroelectric materials with a fluorite crystal structure showing highly promising compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices. Despite the notable improvement in device performance and processing techniques, the origin of its ferroelectric crystalline phase (space group: Pca21) formation has not been clearly elucidated. Several recent experimental and theoretical studies evidently showed that the interface and grain boundary energies of the higher symmetry phases (orthorhombic and tetragonal) contribute to the stabilization of the metastable non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic phase or tetragonal phase...
December 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242554/response-of-pedogenic-magnetite-to-changing-vegetation-in-soils-developed-under-uniform-climate-topography-and-parent-material
#11
Daniel P Maxbauer, Joshua M Feinberg, David L Fox, Edward A Nater
Pedogenesis produces fine-grained magnetic minerals that record important information about the ambient climatic conditions present during soil formation. Yet, differentiating the compounding effects of non-climate soil forming factors is a nontrivial challenge that must be overcome to establish soil magnetism as a trusted paleoenvironmental tool. Here, we isolate the influence of vegetation by investigating magnetic properties of soils developing under uniform climate, topography, and parent material but changing vegetation along the forest-prairie ecotone in NW Minnesota...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241130/calculation-of-thallium-s-toxicity-coefficient-in-the-evaluation-of-potential-ecological-risk-index-a-case-study
#12
Yongxia Liu, Qian Wang, Wen Zhuang, Yanli Yuan, Yani Yuan, Keqin Jiao, Mantang Wang, Qing Chen
As a common pollutive metal element, Tl is very biotoxic. The potential ecological risk index (RI) proposed by Håkanson is one of the commonest methods for evaluation of ecological risk of a metal in sedimentary environment of a water body. According to the calculation principle proposed by Håkanson, the toxicity coefficient of Tl was calculated, and determined as 10 in this paper. In addition, the environmental risk of Tl in the surface sediment of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Zaozhuang Section) was evaluated by RI method, enrichment factor method, etc...
December 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240782/conservation-and-divergence-of-starch-synthase-iii-genes-of-monocots-and-dicots
#13
Bhavya Priyadarshini Mishra, Rajeev Kumar, Amita Mohan, Kulvinder S Gill
Starch Synthase (SS) plays an important role in extending the α-1,4 glucan chains during starch biosynthesis by catalyzing the transfer of the glucosyl moiety from ADP-glucose to the non-reducing end of a pre-existing glucan chain. SS has five distinct isoforms of which SSIII is involved in the formation of longer glucan chain length. Here we report identification and detailed characterization of 'true' orthologs of the well-characterized maize SSIII (ZmSSIII), among six monocots and two dicot species. ZmSSIII orthologs have nucleotide sequence similarity ranging from 56-81%...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240762/rethinking-3r-strategies-digging-deeper-into-animaltestinfo-promotes-transparency-in-in-vivo-biomedical-research
#14
Bettina Bert, Antje Dörendahl, Nora Leich, Julia Vietze, Matthias Steinfath, Justyna Chmielewska, Andreas Hensel, Barbara Grune, Gilbert Schönfelder
In the European Union (EU), animal welfare is seen as a matter of great importance. However, with respect to animal experimentation, European citizens feel quite uninformed. The European Directive 2010/63/EU for the protection of laboratory animals aims for greater transparency and requires that a comprehensible, nontechnical summary (NTS) of each authorised research project involving animals is published by the respective Member State. However, the NTSs remain sleeping beauties if their contents are not easily and systematically accessible...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240429/stabilizing-nanocrystalline-oxide-nanofibers-at-elevated-temperatures-by-coating-nanoscale-surface-amorphous-films
#15
Lei Yao, Wei Pan, Jian Luo, Xiaohui Zhao, Jing Cheng, Hiroki Nishijima
Nanocrystalline materials often exhibit extraordinary mechanical and physical properties, but their applications at elevated temperatures are impaired by the rapid grain growth. Moreover, the grain growth in nanocrystalline oxide nanofibers at high temperatures can occur at hundreds of degrees lower than that would occur in corresponding bulk nanocrystalline materials, which would eventually break the fibers. Herein, by characterizing a model system of scandia-stabilized zirconia (ScSZ) using hot-stage in-situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we discover that the enhanced grain growth in nanofibers is initiated at the surface...
December 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240421/photochemistry-of-fe-h2o-adducts-in-argon-matrices-a-combined-experimental-and-theoretical-study-in-the-mid-ir-and-uv-visible-regions
#16
Vincent Deguin, Joëlle Mascetti, Aude Simon, Nadia Ben Amor, Christian Aupetit, Sandra Latournerie, Jennifer Anna Noble
The photochemistry of Fe:H2O adducts is of interest in fields as diverse as catalysis and astrochemistry. Industrially, iron can be used as a catalyst to convert H2O to H2, while in the interstellar medium it may be an important component of dust grains, influencing the chemistry on their icy surfaces. This study consisted of the deposition and spectral characterisation of binary systems of atomic iron with H2O in cryogenic argon matrices. In this way, we were able to obtain information about the interaction of the two species; we observed the formation of adducts of iron monomers and dimers with water molecules in the mid-IR and UV-visible spectral domains...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240311/systemic-changes-in-photosynthesis-and-ros-homeostasis-in-shoots-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-infected-with-beet-cyst-nematode-heterodera-schachtii
#17
Mateusz Labudda, Elżbieta Różańska, Weronika Czarnocka, Mirosław Sobczak, Jolanta Maria Dzik
Photosynthetic efficiency and redox homeostasis are important for plant physiological processes during regular development as well as defence responses. The second-stage juveniles of the Heterodera schachtii, induce syncytial feeding sites in host roots. To ascertain whether development of the syncytia alters photosynthesis and metabolism of ROS, chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements and antioxidant responses were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana shoots at the day of inoculation and at 3, 7 and 15 days post-inoculation (dpi)...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240151/wavefront-sensing-with-a-thin-diffuser
#18
Pascal Berto, Hervé Rigneault, Marc Guillon
We propose and implement a broadband, compact, and low-cost wavefront sensing scheme by simply placing a thin diffuser in the close vicinity of a camera. The local wavefront gradient is determined from the local translation of the speckle pattern. The translation vector map is computed thanks to a fast diffeomorphic image registration algorithm and integrated to reconstruct the wavefront profile. The simple translation of speckle grains under local wavefront tip/tilt is ensured by the so-called "memory effect" of the diffuser...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239423/two-step-synthesis-and-characterization-of-vertically-stacked-sns-ws2-and-sns-mos2-p-n-heterojunctions
#19
Adha Sukma Aji, Masanori Izumoto, Kenshiro Suenaga, Keisuke Yamamoto, Hiroshi Nakashima, Hiroki Ago
We demonstrate the synthesis of unique heterostructures consisting of SnS and WS2 (or SnS and MoS2) by two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD). After the first CVD growth of triangular WS2 (MoS2) grains, the second CVD step was performed to grow square SnS grains on the same substrate. We found that these SnS grains can be grown at very low temperature with the substrate temperature of 200 °C. Most of the SnS grains nucleated from the side edges of WS2 (MoS2) grains, resulting in the formation of partly stacked heterostructures with a large overlapping area...
December 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239176/development-of-betalain-producing-callus-lines-from-colored-quinoa-varieties-chenopodium-quinoa-willd
#20
Paula Henarejos-Escudero, Berenice Guadarrama-Flores, M Alejandra Guerrero-Rubio, Luz Rayda Gómez-Pando, Francisco García-Carmona, Fernando Gandía-Herrero
Betalains are water soluble plant pigments of hydrophilic nature with promising bioactive potential. Among the scarce edible sources of betalains is the grain crop quinoa (Chenopodim quinoa Willd), with violet, red, and yellow grains being colored by these pigments. In this work callus cultures have been developed from differently colored plant varieties. Stable callus lines exhibited color and pigment production when maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with the plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (8...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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