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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458053/circulating-bile-acids-in-healthy-adults-respond-differently-to-a-dietary-pattern-characterized-by-whole-grains-legumes-and-fruits-and-vegetables-compared-to-a-diet-high-in-refined-grains-and-added-sugars-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-feeding-study
#1
Bigina N R Ginos, Sandi L Navarro, Yvonne Schwarz, Haiwei Gu, Dongfang Wang, Timothy W Randolph, Ali Shojaie, Meredith A J Hullar, Paul D Lampe, Mario Kratz, Marian L Neuhouser, Daniel Raftery, Johanna W Lampe
OBJECTIVE: The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18-45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18...
February 16, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457903/the-excited-state-proton-transfer-in-3-cyano-7-azaindole-from-aqueous-solution-to-ice
#2
Ting-Husn Tu, Yi-Ting Chen, Jiun-Yi Shen, Ta-Chun Lin, Pi-Tai Chou
In this study, we investigated the excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) reaction for 3-cyano-7-azaindole (3CAI) in aqueous solution and in ice. 3CAI undergoes water catalyzed ESPT in the aqueous solution, giving normal (355 nm) and proton transfer tautomer (~472 nm) emission bands. Detailed temperature dependent studies showed that the values of activation free energy (△G≠) were similar between N-H and N-D isotope. Therefore, water catalyzed ESPT involves a stepwise mechanism incorporating solvation equilibrium (Keq) to form a 1:1 (molar ratio) water: 3CAI cyclic hydrogen bonded complex as an intermediate, followed by perhaps proton tunneling reaction...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456546/genome-wide-association-studies-and-comparison-of-models-and-cross-validation-strategies-for-genomic-prediction-of-quality-traits-in-advanced-winter-wheat-breeding-lines
#3
Peter S Kristensen, Ahmed Jahoor, Jeppe R Andersen, Fabio Cericola, Jihad Orabi, Luc L Janss, Just Jensen
The aim of the this study was to identify SNP markers associated with five important wheat quality traits (grain protein content, Zeleny sedimentation, test weight, thousand-kernel weight, and falling number), and to investigate the predictive abilities of GBLUP and Bayesian Power Lasso models for genomic prediction of these traits. In total, 635 winter wheat lines from two breeding cycles in the Danish plant breeding company Nordic Seed A/S were phenotyped for the quality traits and genotyped for 10,802 SNPs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455757/federal-nutrition-program-revisions-impact-low-income-households-food-purchases
#4
Shu Wen Ng, Bridget A Hollingsworth, Emily A Busey, Julie L Wandell, Donna R Miles, Jennifer M Poti
INTRODUCTION: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) required major revisions to food packages in 2009; effects on nationwide low-income household purchases remain unexamined. METHODS: This study examines associations between WIC revisions and nutritional profiles of packaged food purchases from 2008 to 2014 among 4,537 low-income households with preschoolers in the U.S. (WIC participating versus nonparticipating) utilizing Nielsen Homescan Consumer Panel data...
March 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455744/neighbours-matter-a-nation-wide-small-area-assessment-of-environmental-inequality-in-germany
#5
Tobias Rüttenauer
This study investigates the presence of environmental inequality in Germany and analyses its spatial pattern on a very fine grained level. Using the 2011 German census and pollution measures of the E-PRTR, the study relies on nearly 100,000 one squared km census cells over Germany. SLX and community-fixed SLX models incorporate spatial spillover-effects into the analysis to account for the spatial distribution of socio-demographic characteristics. Results reveal that the share of minorities within a census cell indeed positively correlates with the exposure to industrial pollution...
February 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455038/mechanical-and-degradation-property-improvement-in-a-biocompatible-mg-ca-sr-alloy-by-thermomechanical-processing
#6
Hunter B Henderson, Vidhya Ramaswamy, Alexander E Wilson-Heid, Michael S Kesler, Josephine B Allen, Michele V Manuel
Magnesium-based alloys have attracted interest as a potential material to comprise biomedical implants that are simultaneously high-strength and temporary, able to provide stabilization before degrading safely and able to be excreted by the human body. Many alloy systems have been evaluated, but this work reports on improved properties through hot extrusion of one promising alloy: Mg-1.0 wt% Ca-0.5 wt%Sr. This alloy has previously demonstrated promising toxicity and degradation properties in the as-cast and rolled conditions...
February 3, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454991/toxicological-effect-of-underutilized-plant-cleistanthus-collinus-leaf-extracts-against-two-major-stored-grain-pests-the-rice-weevil-sitophilus-oryzae-and-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#7
Govindharaj Guru-Pirasanna-Pandi, Totan Adak, Basana Gowda, Naveenkumar Patil, Mahendiran Annamalai, Mayabini Jena
Toxicity and repellency activity of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) (CC) leaf extracts were evaluated against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) under laboratory condition. Five concentration(s) (1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 4%) with two controls (acetone and water) treatments along with deltamethrin were used for direct and contact residual toxicity. The insect that survived after CC exposure were transferred to an untreated feeding substrate and the population buildup of subsequent two generation were recorded after 30 (F1 ) and 60 days (F2 )...
February 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454891/a-new-procedure-for-processing-extracted-teeth-for-immediate-grafting-in-post-extraction-sockets-an-experimental-study-in-american-fox-hound-dogs
#8
José Luis Calvo Guirado, Pilar Cegarra Del Pino, Lari Sapoznikov, Rafael Arcesio Delgado Ruíz, Manuel Fernández Dominguez, Sérgio Alexandre Gehrke
OBJECTIVES: To investigate freshly extracted dental particulate used to graft post-extraction sockets in dogs, comparing new bone formation at experimental and control sites. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bilateral premolars P2, P3, P4 and first mandibular molars were extracted atraumatically from six American Fox Hound dogs. The teeth were ground immediately using a 'Smart Dentin Grinder.' The dentin particulate was sieved to ensure a grain size of 300-1200μm and immersed in an alcohol cleanser to dissolve organic debris and bacteria, followed by washing in sterile saline buffer solution...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454688/fermentation-and-aerobic-stability-of-rehydrated-corn-grain-silage-treated-with-different-doses-of-lactobacillus-buchneri-or-a-combination-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-and-pediococcus-acidilactici
#9
N C da Silva, C F Nascimento, F A Nascimento, F D de Resende, J L P Daniel, G R Siqueira
We investigated the effects of different types and doses of inoculants for ensiling rehydrated corn grain. Shelled corn was finely ground and rehydrated to 35% moisture. Treatments were as follows: (1) control (no additives); (2) Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici (LPPA) at a theoretical application rate of 1 × 105 cfu/g; (3) LPPA at 5 × 105 cfu/g; (4) LPPA at 1 × 106 cfu/g; (5) Lactobacillus buchneri (LB) at 1 × 105 cfu/g; (6) LB at 5 × 105 cfu/g; and (7) LB at 1 × 106 cfu/g. We detected no effect of inoculant dose...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454219/reading-skill-related-to-left-ventral-occipitotemporal-cortex-during-a-phonological-awareness-task-in-5-6-year-old-children
#10
Jin Wang, Marc F Joanisse, James R Booth
The left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) is important in visual word recognition. Studies have shown that the left vOT is generally observed to be involved in spoken language processing in skilled readers, suggesting automatic access to corresponding orthographic information. However, little is known about where and how the left vOT is involved in the spoken language processing of young children with emerging reading ability. In order to answer this question, we examined the relation of reading ability in 5-6-year-old kindergarteners to the activation of vOT during an auditory phonological awareness task...
February 14, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454169/farmyard-manure-alone-and-combined-with-immobilizing-amendments-reduced-cadmium-accumulation-in-wheat-and-rice-grains-grown-in-field-irrigated-with-raw-effluents
#11
Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman, Muhammad Rizwan, Hinnan Khalid, Shafaqat Ali, Asif Naeem, Balal Yousaf, Guijian Liu, Muhammad Sabir, Muhammad Farooq
Cadmium (Cd) stress is a serious concern in agricultural soils worldwide whereas little is known about the impact of farmyard manure (FYM) alone or combined with limestone, lignite and biochar on Cd concentrations in plants. Wheat was grown in Cd-contaminated field amended with control (T 1 ), FYM @ 0.1% (T 2 ), FYM + limestone @ 0.05% each (T 3 ), FYM + lignite @ 0.05% each (T 4 ), FYM + biochar @ 0.05% each (T 5 ) and subsequent rice was grown without additional use of amendments. Soil application of amendments increased straw and grain yield and thousand grain weight being maximum in FYM + limestone treatment...
February 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454154/age-related-functional-changes-in-domain-specific-medial-temporal-lobe-pathways
#12
David Berron, Katja Neumann, Anne Maass, Hartmut Schütze, Klaus Fliessbach, Verena Kiven, Frank Jessen, Magdalena Sauvage, Dharshan Kumaran, Emrah Düzel
There is now converging evidence from studies in animals and humans that the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) harbor anatomically distinct processing pathways for object and scene information. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans suggest that this domain-specific organization may be associated with a functional preference of the anterior-lateral part of the entorhinal cortex (alErC) for objects and the posterior-medial entorhinal cortex (pmErC) for scenes. As MTL subregions are differentially affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases, the question was raised whether aging may affect the 2 pathways differentially...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453525/correction-to-genetic-analysis-of-multi-environmental-spring-wheat-trials-identifies-genomic-regions-for-locus-specific-trade-offs-for-grain-weight-and-grain-number
#13
Sivakumar Sukumaran, Marta Lopes, Susanne Dreisigacker, Matthew Reynolds
Unfortunately, the Fig. 1 of this original article was incorrectly published. The corrected Fig. 1 is given below.
February 16, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453498/seed-priming-with-iron-and-zinc-in-bread-wheat-effects-in-germination-mitosis-and-grain-yield
#14
Sara Reis, Ivo Pavia, Ana Carvalho, José Moutinho-Pereira, Carlos Correia, José Lima-Brito
Currently, the biofortification of crops like wheat with micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is extremely important due to the deficiencies of these micronutrients in the human diet and in soils. Agronomic biofortification with Fe and Zn can be done through different exogenous strategies such as soil application, foliar spraying, and seed priming. However, the excess of these micronutrients can be detrimental to the plants. Therefore, in the last decade, a high number of studies focused on the evaluation of their phytotoxic effects to define the best strategies for biofortification of bread wheat...
February 16, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453245/early-vs-late-age-at-onset-frontotemporal-dementia-and-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#15
Sang Won Seo, Marie-Pierre Thibodeau, David C Perry, Alice Hua, Manu Sidhu, Isabel Sible, Jose Norberto S Vargas, Stephanie E Gaus, Gil D Rabinovici, Katherine D Rankin, Adam L Boxer, Joel H Kramer, Howard J Rosen, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Lea T Grinberg, Eric J Huang, Stephen J DeArmond, John Q Trojanowski, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley
OBJECTIVE: To examine clinicopathologic correlations in early vs late age at onset frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). METHODS: All patients were clinically evaluated and prospectively diagnosed at the UCSF Memory and Aging Center. Two consecutive series were included: (1) patients with a clinically diagnosed FTD syndrome who underwent autopsy (cohort 1) and (2) patients with a primary pathologic diagnosis of FTLD, regardless of the clinical syndrome (cohort 2)...
February 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453027/effects-of-microstructure-transformation-on-mechanical-properties-corrosion-behaviors-of-mg-zn-mn-ca-alloys-in-simulated-body-fluid
#16
Yuan Zhang, Jianxing Li, Jingyuan Li
Magnesium and its alloys have unique advantages to act as resorbable bone fixation materials, due to their moderate mechanical properties and biocompatibility, which are similar to those of human tissue. However, early resorption and insufficient mechanical strength are the main problems that hinder their application. Herein, the effects of microstructure transformation on the mechanical properties and corrosion performance of Mg-Zn-Mn-Ca were investigated with electrochemical and immersion measurements at 37 °C in a simulated body fluid (SBF)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451808/implications-of-recent-research-on-microstructure-modifications-through-heat-related-processing-and-trait-alteration-to-bio-functions-molecular-thermal-stability-and-mobility-metabolic-characteristics-and-nutrition-in-cool-climate-cereal-grains-and-other-types
#17
Yuguang Ying, Huihua Zhang, Peiqiang Yu
The cutting-edge synchrotron radiation based and globar-sourced vibrational infrared microspectroscopy have recently been developed. These novel techniques are able to reveal structure features at cellular and molecular levels with the tested tissues being intact. However, to date, the advanced techniques are unfamiliar or unknown to food and feed scientists and have not been used to study the molecular structure changes in cool-climate cereal grain seeds and other types of bio-oil and bioenergy seeds. This article aims to provide some recent research in cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds on molecular structures and metabolic characteristics of carbohydrate and protein, and implication of microstructure modification through heat-related processing and trait alteration to bio-functions, molecular thermal stability and mobility, and nutrition with advanced molecular techniques- synchrotron radiation based and globar-sourced vibrational infrared microspectroscopy in the areas of (1) Inherent microstructure of cereal grain seeds; (2) The nutritional values of cereal grains; (3) Impact and modification of heat-related processing to cereal grain; (4) Conventional nutrition evaluation methodology; (5) Synchrotron radiation-based and globar-sourced vibrational (micro)-spectroscopy for molecular structure study and molecular thermal stability and mobility, and (6) Recent molecular spectroscopic technique applications in research on raw, traits altered and processed cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451795/physisorption-of-h-2-on-fullerenes-and-the-solvation-of-c-60-by-hydrogen-clusters-at-finite-temperature-a-theoretical-assessment
#18
Florent Calvo, Ersin Yurtsever, Adem Tekin
The interaction between hydrogen and carbonaceous nanostructures is of fundamental interest in various areas of physical chemistry. In this contribution we have revisited the physisorption of hydrogen molecules and H2 clusters on fullerenes, following a first-principles approach in which the interaction is quantitatively evaluated for the C20 system using high-level electronic structure methods. Relative to coupled cluster data at the level of single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] taken as benchmark, the results for rotationally averaged physisorbed H2 show a good performance of MP2 variants and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT), but significant deviations and basis set convergence issues are found for dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451784/alteration-of-crop-yield-and-quality-of-wheat-upon-exposure-to-silver-nanoparticles-in-a-life-cycle-study
#19
Jie Yang, Fuping Jiang, Chuanxin Ma, Yu-Kui Rui, Mengmeng Rui, Adeel Muhammad, Weidong Cao, Baoshan Xing
Due to the rapid development of nanotechnology, metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) are inadvertently released into environment and may pose a potential threat to ecosystem. However, information for food quality and safety in NP treated crops is limited. In the present study, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in different concentrations of Ag NP amended soil (20, 200, and 2000 mg•kg-1) for four months. At harvest, physiological parameters, Ag and micronutrients (Fe, Cu, and Zn) content, as well as amino acid and protein contents were measured...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451773/surface-cation-segregation-and-chromium-deposition-on-the-double-perovskite-oxide-prbaco2o5-%C3%AE
#20
Bo Wei, Michael Schroeder, Manfred Martin
The surface chemistry and the Cr tolerance ability of oxygen electrodes play a vital role in the performance and long-term stability of solid oxide cells (SOCs). In this paper, the surface cation segregations on the double perovskite oxide PrBaCo2O5+δ (PBCO) and its relationship with Cr deposition are reported. During high temperature annealing in an O2 atmosphere, the elements Ba and Co diffuse out of the lattice and form many BaO and Co3O4 precipitates on the surface, mainly located at grain boundaries. In the presence of volatile Cr species, the observation of BaCrO4 but not CoCr2O4 on a segregated PBCO surface reveals that the Cr deposition preferentially takes place on segregated BaO rather than on Co3O4 precipitates...
February 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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