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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550725/geographical-variation-and-age-related-dietary-exposure-to-arsenic-in-rice-from-bangladesh
#1
Shofiqul Islam, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, M R Islam, Ravi Naidu
An extensive number (965) of rice samples collected by household survey from 73 upazilas (i.e. sub-districts) in Bangladesh was analyzed to determine regional variation, distribution and associated health risks from arsenic (As). No previous study had conducted a study examining such a large number of rice samples. The mean and median concentrations of total As were 126μg/kg and 107μg/kg, respectively, ranging from between 3 and 680μg/kg. Importantly, total As levels of aromatic rice were significantly lower (average 58μg/kg) than non-aromatic rice (average 150μg/kg) and also varied with rice grain size...
May 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550470/hormonal-and-morphological-changes-during-seed-development-of-cypripedium-japonicum
#2
Xiaona Yan, Min Tian, Fen Liu, Caixia Wang, Ying Zhang
With the goal of evaluating the factors that may be influencing the reproductive success of an endangered, terrestrial orchid Cypripedium japonicum Thunb., the anatomical and morphological characteristics of seed development were assessed, as were the levels of endogenous hormones to investigate the possible relationship between hormones and seed development. The results showed that morphological characteristics of seeds were changing from milky white and filiform to brown and fusiform. The development of ovule that initiated on the fertile valves only began after pollination, and a mature embryo sac was produced at 40 days after pollination (DAP)...
May 27, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550436/short-periods-of-high-temperature-during-meiosis-prevent-normal-meiotic-progression-and-reduce-grain-number-in-hexaploid-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#3
Tracie Draeger, Graham Moore
Exposure of wheat to high temperatures during male meiosis prevents normal meiotic progression and reduces grain number. We define a temperature-sensitive period and link heat tolerance to chromosome 5D. This study assesses the effects of heat on meiotic progression and grain number in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Chinese Spring), defines a heat-sensitive stage and evaluates the role of chromosome 5D in heat tolerance. Plants were exposed to high temperatures (30 or 35 °C) in a controlled environment room for 20-h periods during meiosis and the premeiotic interphase just prior to meiosis...
May 26, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550312/dependence-of-solidification-for-bi2te3-xsex-alloys-on-their-liquid-states
#4
Yuan Yu, Zhan Wu, Oana Cojocaru-Mirédin, Bin Zhu, Xiao-Yu Wang, Na Gao, Zhong-Yue Huang, Fang-Qiu Zu
The resistivity versus temperature (ρ-T) behaviours of liquid n-type Bi2Te3-x Se x (x = 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6) alloys are explored up to 1050 °C. A clear hump is observed on all ρ-T curves of the three studied Bi2Te3-x Se x melts during the heating process, which suggests that a temperature-induced liquid-liquid structural transition takes place in the melts. Based on this information, the solidification behaviours and microstructures of the alloys with different liquid states are investigated. The samples that experienced liquid structural transition show that the nucleation and growth undercooling degrees are conspicuously enlarged and the solidification time is shortened...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550063/an-environment-friendly-engineered-azotobacter-can-replace-substantial-amount-of-urea-fertilizer-and-yet-sustain-same-wheat-yield
#5
Umesh K Bageshwar, Madhulika Srivastava, Pedisetty Pardha-Saradhi, Sangeeta Paul, Sellamuthu Gothandapani, Ranjeet S Jaat, Prabha Shankar, Rajbir Yadav, Dipak R Biswas, Polumetla A Kumar, Jasdeep C Padaria, Pranab K Mandal, Kannepalli Annapurna, Hirendra K Das
In our endeavor to improve upon nitrogen fixation efficiency of a soil diazotroph that would be unaffected by synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers, we have deleted a part of the negative regulatory gene nifL and constitutively expressed the positive regulatory gene nifA in the chromosome of Azotobacter chroococcum CBD15, a strain isolated from the local field soil. No antibiotic resistance gene or other foreign gene was there in the chromosome of the engineered strain. Wheat seeds inoculated with this engineered strain, which we have named Azotobacter chroococcum HKD15, were tested for three years in pots and one year in the field...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549615/surface-sediment-properties-and-heavy-metal-pollution-assessment-in-the-shallow-sea-wetland-of-the-liaodong-bay-china
#6
Jin Wang, Siyuan Ye, Edward A Laws, Hongming Yuan, Xigui Ding, Guangming Zhao
Liaodong Bay, a semi-enclosed bay located in northeastern China, is impacted by the discharges of five rivers. We analyzed 100 surface sediment samples from the Shallow Sea Wetland of Liaodong Bay for grain size and concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and heavy metals. The ranges of the heavy metal concentrations were 2.32-17μg/g (As), 0.025-1.03μg/g (Cd), 18.9-131μg/g (Cr), 4.6-36.1μg/g (Cu), 0.012-0.29μg/g (Hg), 13.7-33.9μg/g (Pb), and 17.4-159μg/g (Zn). Pollution assessments revealed that some stations were moderately to highly polluted with As, Cd, and Hg...
May 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549209/genotypic-correlation-and-path-analysis-in-early-and-super-early-maize-genotypes
#7
B M Alves, A Cargnelutti Filho
The aims of this study were to assess the linear relationships between agronomic and nutritional traits and to identify promising traits for indirect selection in early and super-early maturing maize genotypes. Two trials were run in the 2009/2010 agricultural year, each consisting of a randomized block design with three replications. One trial was run on 36 early maturing maize genotypes and the other on 22 super-early maturing genotypes. Six agronomic traits, 11 protein-nutritional traits, and four energetic-nutritional traits were measured...
May 25, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549098/high-protein-foods-and-physical-activity-protect-against-age-related-muscle-loss-and-functional-decline
#8
M Loring Bradlee, Jabed Mustafa, Martha R Singer, Lynn L Moore
Background: Some clinical trials suggest that protein supplementation enhances the effects of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle mass (SMM); fewer studies examine the effects of diets rich in protein-source foods on SMM and functional status among community-dwelling adults. Methods: Data from the Framingham Offspring study including diet (three-day records, exams 3 and 5), physical activity (exams 2 and 4), percent SMM (%SMM) (exams 6 and 7), and functional performance (exams 5 through 8) were used to evaluate independent and combined effects of physical activity and high-protein foods on adjusted mean %SMM (using analysis of covariance) and risk of functional decline (using Cox proportional hazard's models)...
May 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548836/inter-granular-cracking-as-a-major-cause-of-long-term-capacity-fading-of-layered-cathodes
#9
Hao Liu, Mark Wolf, Khim Karki, Young-Sang Yu, Eric A Stach, Jordi Cabana, Karena W Chapman, Peter J Chupas
Capacity fading has limited commercial layered Li-ion battery electrodes to <70% of their theoretical capacity. Higher capacities can be achieved initially by charging to higher voltages, however, these gains are eroded by a faster fade in capacity. Increasing lifetimes and reversible capacity are contingent on identifying the origin of this capacity fade to inform electrode design and synthesis. We used operando X-ray diffraction, to observe how the lithiation-delithiation reactions within a LiNi0.8Co0...
May 26, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548627/combined-single-molecule-experimental-and-computational-approaches-for-understanding-the-unfolding-pathway-of-a-viral-translation-enhancer-that-participates-in-a-conformational-switch
#10
My-Tra Le, Wojciech K Kasprzak, Bruce A Shapiro, Anne E Simon
How plus-strand [+]RNA virus genomes transition from translation templates to replication templates is a matter of much speculation. We have previously proposed that, for Turnip crinkle virus, binding of the encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) to the 3'UTR of the [+]RNA template promotes a regional wide-spread conformational switch to an alternative structure that disassembles the cap-independent translation element (CITE) in the 3'UTR. The active 3'CITE folds into a tRNA-like T-shaped structure (TSS) that binds to 80S ribosomes and 60S subunits in the P-site...
May 26, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548293/local-photocurrent-mapping-and-cell-performance-behaviour-on-a-nanometre-scale-for-monolithically-interconnected-cu-in-ga-se2-solar-cells
#11
M Haggui, B Reinhold, P Andrae, D Greiner, M Schmid, P Fumagalli
The local efficiency of lamellar shaped Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells has been investigated using scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Topographic and photocurrent measurements have been performed simultaneously with a 100 nm tip aperture. The lamellar shaped solar cell with monolithic interconnects (P scribe) has been investigated on a nanometre scale for the first time at different regions using SNOM. It was found that, the cell region between P1 and P2 significantly contributes to the solar cells overall photocurrent generation...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548182/structural-and-electronic-properties-of-defects-at-grain-boundaries-in-cuinse2
#12
R Saniz, J Bekaert, B Partoens, D Lamoen
We report on a first-principles study of the structural and electronic properties of a Σ3 (112) grain boundary model in CuInSe2. The study focuses on a coherent, stoichiometry preserving, cation-Se terminated grain boundary, addressing the properties of the grain boundary as such, as well as the effect of well known defects in CuInSe2. We show that in spite of its apparent simplicity, such a grain boundary exhibits a very rich phenomenology, providing an explanation for several of the experimentally observed properties of grain boundaries in CuInSe2 thin films...
May 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548166/biomass-involved-synthesis-of-n-substituted-benzofuro-2-3-d-pyrimidine-4-amines-and-biological-evaluation-as-novel-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#13
Jianfei Sheng, Zhihong Liu, Ming Yan, Xuejing Zhang, Dejian Wang, Jun Xu, Ensheng Zhang, Yong Zou
Shikimic acid (1) is a renewable biomass which could be obtained sustainably through natural product isolation or metabolic engineering. Owing to its great potential in chemical conversion, the value-added utilization of this non-grain biomass has received much attention in recent years. Based on the established transformation route from shikimic acid (1) to methyl 3-dehydroshikimate (3-MDHS, 2) and to the multi-functionalized methyl 2-amino-3-cyanobenzofuran-5-carboxylate (3), we disclose a facile and transition metal-free method to access a series of N-substituted benzofuro[2,3-d]pyrimidine-4-amines in 63%-90% yields...
May 26, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548084/perirhinal-firing-patterns-are-sustained-across-large-spatial-segments-of-the-task-environment
#14
Jeroen J Bos, Martin Vinck, Laura A van Mourik-Donga, Jadin C Jackson, Menno P Witter, Cyriel M A Pennartz
Spatial navigation and memory depend on the neural coding of an organism's location. Fine-grained coding of location is thought to depend on the hippocampus. Likewise, animals benefit from knowledge parsing their environment into larger spatial segments, which are relevant for task performance. Here we investigate how such knowledge may be coded, and whether this occurs in structures in the temporal lobe, supplying cortical inputs to the hippocampus. We found that neurons in the perirhinal cortex of rats generate sustained firing patterns that discriminate large segments of the task environment...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547884/lack-of-transgene-and-glyphosate-effects-on-yield-and-mineral-and-amino-acid-content-of-glyphosate-resistant-soybean
#15
Stephen O Duke, Agnes M Rimando, Krishna N Reddy, James V Cizdziel, Nacer Bellaloui, David R Shaw, Martin M Williams, Jude E Maul
BACKGROUND: There has been controversy as to whether the glyphosate resistance gene and/or glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean affect the content of cationic minerals (especially Mg, Mn, and Fe), yield and amino acid content of GR soybean. A two-year field study (2013 and 2014) examined these questions at sites in Mississippi, USA. RESULTS: There were no effects of glyphosate, the GR transgene, or field crop history (for a field with both no history of glyphosate use versus one with a long history of glyphosate use) on grain yield...
May 25, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547737/08sg2-osbak1-regulates-grain-size-and-number-and-functions-differently-in-indica-and-japonica-backgrounds-in-rice
#16
Hua Yuan, Shijun Fan, Juan Huang, Shijie Zhan, Shifu Wang, Peng Gao, Weilan Chen, Bin Tu, Bingtian Ma, Yuping Wang, Peng Qin, Shigui Li
BACKGROUND: Both grain size and grain number are significant for rice yield. In the past decade, a number of genes related to grain size and grain number have been documented, however, the regulatory mechanisms underlying them remains ambiguous. RESULTS: We identified a rice small grain (sg2) mutant in an EMS mutant library generated from an indica variety, Shuhui498. Using the MutMap gene mapping strategy, we identified two linkage regions on chromosome 7 and 8, respectively, consistent with the segregation ratios in the F2 population...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546900/response-to-kruse-plass-et-al-2017-regarding-the-risk-to-non-target-lepidopteran-larvae-exposed-to-pollen-from-one-or-more-of-three-bt-maize-events-mon810-bt11-and-1507
#17
Joe N Perry, Paolo Barberi, Detlef Bartsch, A N E Birch, Achim Gathmann, Jozsef Kiss, Barbara Manachini, Marco Nuti, Stefan Rauschen, Joachim Schiemann, Mechthild Schuppener, Jeremy Sweet, Christoph C Tebbe, Fabio Veronesi
We respond to the paper of Kruse-Plass et al. (Environ Sci Eur 29:12, 2017), published in this journal, regarding the risk to non-target lepidopteran larvae exposed to pollen from one or more of three Bt maize events (MON810, Bt11 and 1507). We emphasise that what is important for environmental risk assessment is not the number of pollen grains per se, but the degree of exposure of a NT lepidopteran larva to Bt protein contained in maize pollen. The main text of this response deals with general issues which Kruse-Plass et al...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546542/low-cesium-rice-mutation-in-ossos2-reduces-radiocesium-in-rice-grains
#18
Satoru Ishikawa, Shimpei Hayashi, Tadashi Abe, Masato Igura, Masato Kuramata, Hachidai Tanikawa, Manaka Iino, Takashi Saito, Yuji Ono, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Shigeto Fujimura, Akitoshi Goto, Hiroki Takagi
In Japan, radiocesium contamination in foods has become of great concern and it is a primary issue to reduce grain radiocesium concentration in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here, we report a low-cesium rice mutant 1 (lcs1) with the radiocesium concentration in grain about half that in the wild-type cultivar. Genetic analyses revealed that a mutation in OsSOS2, which encodes a serine/threonine-protein kinase required for the salt overly sensitive (SOS) pathway in plants, is responsible for the decreased cesium (Cs) concentrations in lcs1...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545607/dynamically-weighted-evolutionary-ordinal-neural-network-for-solving-an-imbalanced-liver-transplantation-problem
#19
Manuel Dorado-Moreno, María Pérez-Ortiz, Pedro A Gutiérrez, Rubén Ciria, Javier Briceño, César Hervás-Martínez
OBJECTIVE: Create an efficient decision-support model to assist medical experts in the process of organ allocation in liver transplantation. The mathematical model proposed here uses different sources of information to predict the probability of organ survival at different thresholds for each donor-recipient pair considered. Currently, this decision is mainly based on the Model for End-stage Liver Disease, which depends only on the severity of the recipient and obviates donor-recipient compatibility...
March 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545144/quantitative-descriptions-of-rice-plant-architecture-and-their-application
#20
Xumeng Li, Xiaohui Wang, Yulin Peng, Hailin Wei, Xinguang Zhu, Shuoqi Chang, Ming Li, Tao Li, Huang Huang
Plant architecture is an important agronomic trait, and improving plant architecture has attracted the attention of scientists for decades, particularly studies to create desirable plant architecture for high grain yields through breeding and culture practices. However, many important structural phenotypic traits still lack quantitative description and modeling on structural-functional relativity. This study defined new architecture indices (AIs) derived from the digitalized plant architecture using the virtual blade method...
2017: PloS One
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