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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913988/prevalence-of-respiratory-viral-infections-in-korean-adult-asthmatics-with-acute-exacerbations-comparison-with-those-with-stable-state
#1
Ki Hyun Seo, Da Jeong Bae, Ji Na Kim, Ho Sung Lee, Yong Hoon Kim, Jong Sook Park, Myung Shin Kim, Hun Soo Chang, Ji Hye Son, Dong Gyu Baek, Jun Suk Lee, Choon Sik Park
PURPOSE: Viral infections are involved in ~50% of exacerbations among Caucasian adult asthmatics. However, there have been few reports on the causative virus of exacerbations in Korean adult asthmatics. Thus, we compared frequencies and types of viruses between lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) with exacerbations (exacerbated LRTIs) and those without exacerbations (stable LRTIs) to evaluate contribution of respiratory viruses to exacerbations. METHODS: Viral RNA was extracted from sputum using the Viral Gene-spin™ Kit...
November 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905531/elucidation-of-bacterial-pneumonia-causing-pathogens-in-patients-with-respiratory-viral-infection
#2
Hwa Sik Jung, Byung Ju Kang, Seung Won Ra, Kwang Won Seo, Yangjin Jegal, Jae Bum Jun, Jiwon Jung, Joseph Jeong, Hee Jeong Jeon, Jae Sung Ahn, Taehoon Lee, Jong Joon Ahn
BACKGROUND: Bacterial pneumonia occurring after respiratory viral infection is common. However, the predominant bacterial species causing pneumonia secondary to respiratory viral infections other than influenza remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to know whether the pathogens causing post-viral bacterial pneumonia vary according to the type of respiratory virus. METHODS: Study subjects were 5,298 patients, who underwent multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of respiratory viruses, among who visited the emergency department or outpatient clinic with respiratory symptoms at Ulsan University Hospital between April 2013 and March 2016...
September 1, 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893615/molecular-epidemiology-and-environmental-contamination-during-an-outbreak-of-parainfluenza-virus-3-in-a-hematology-ward
#3
Taeeun Kim, Choong Eun Jin, Heungsup Sung, Bonhan Koo, Joungha Park, Sun-Mi Kim, Ji Yeun Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Jung-Hee Lee, Je-Hwan Lee, Kyoo-Hyung Lee, Yong Shin, Sung-Han Kim
BACKGROUND: Although fomites or contaminated surfaces have been considered as transmission routes, the role of environmental contamination by human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV-3) in healthcare settings is not established. AIM: To describe an hPIV-3 nosocomial outbreak and the results of environmental sampling to elucidate the source of nosocomial transmission and the role of environmental contamination. METHODS: During an hPIV-3 outbreak between May and June 2016, we swabbed environmental surfaces in contact with clustered patients and used respiratory specimens from infected patients and epidemiologically unlinked controls...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885709/prenylation-of-viral-proteins-by-enzymes-of-the-host-virus-driven-rationale-for-therapy-with-statins-and-ft-ggt1-inhibitors
#4
REVIEW
Ekaterina S Marakasova, Birgit Eisenhaber, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh, Frank Eisenhaber, Ancha Baranova
Intracellular bacteria were recently shown to employ eukaryotic prenylation system for modifying activity and ensuring proper intracellular localization of their own proteins. Following the same logic, the proteins of viruses may also serve as prenylation substrates. Using extensively validated high-confidence prenylation predictions by PrePS with a cut-off for experimentally confirmed farnesylation of hepatitis delta virus antigen, we compiled in silico evidence for several new prenylation candidates, including IRL9 (CMV) and few other proteins encoded by Herpesviridae, Nef (HIV-1), E1A (human adenovirus 1), NS5A (HCV), PB2 (influenza), HN (human parainfluenza virus 3), L83L (African swine fever), MC155R (molluscum contagiosum virus), other Poxviridae proteins, and some bacteriophages of human associated bacteria...
September 8, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884293/human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-polymerase-complex-recognizes-leader-promoters-of-other-species-belonging-to-the-genus-rubulavirus
#5
Yusuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Ohta, Machiko Nishio
Leader sequence, located at the 3' terminus of paramyxovirus genomes, determines the degree of viral transcription and replication. The essential nucleotides in the leader sequence that influence viral propagation, however, have not been investigated in detail. In the present study, we show that polymerase complex of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) uses a luciferase-encoding hPIV2 mini-genome possessing the leader sequence from other closely related viruses as a template. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although hPIV2 polymerase complex can recognize the leader sequence of hPIV4B, mumps virus (MuV) and PIV5 as well as Newcastle disease virus (NDV), it cannot recognize measles virus, hPIV1, Sendai virus (SeV) or hPIV3...
September 7, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881886/monitoring-sputum-culture-in-resected-esophageal-cancer-patients-with-preoperative-treatment
#6
K Kosumi, Y Baba, K Yamashita, T Ishimoto, K Nakamura, M Ohuchi, Y Kiyozumi, D Izumi, R Tokunaga, K Harada, H Shigaki, J Kurashige, M Iwatsuki, Y Sakamoto, N Yoshida, M Watanabe, H Baba
Pneumonia is a major cause of postesophagectomy mortality and worsens the long-term survival in resected esophageal cancer patients. Moreover, preoperative treatments such as chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (which have recently been applied worldwide) might affect the bacterial flora of the sputum. To investigate the association among preoperative treatments, the bacterial flora of sputum, and the clinical and pathological features in resected esophageal cancer patients, this study newly investigates the effect of preoperative treatments on the bacterial flora of sputum...
December 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876460/viral-etiology-of-sporadic-cases-of-parotitis-among-children-in-korea-during-2013-2014
#7
Hae Ji Kang, Sun Hee Kim, Jae Keun Chung, Soon Won Lee, Seung Bong Choi, Hye Eun Eom, Ok Park, Kisoon Kim, Sung Soon Kim
Recent years have seen a high incidence of mumps, which is generally diagnosed based on clinical features, especially parotitis, without laboratory confirmation in Korea. To better understand the epidemiology of mumps in Korean children, we investigated sporadic suspected mumps cases with parotitis. In total, 237 buccal swabs or throat swabs collected from children with parotitis who had been clinically diagnosed with mumps were tested using real-time PCR for the detection of six viruses (Epstein-Barr virus, Human herpesvirus 6, Mumps virus, Human parainfluenza virus-1, -2, -3, Human adenovirus, Human bocavirus)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875948/the-tongue-microbiome-in-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-intra-oral-halitosis
#8
Kavitha Seerangaiyan, Arie Jan van Winkelhoff, Hermie J M Harmsen, John W A Rossen, Edwin G Winkel
Intra-oral halitosis (IOH) is an unpleasant odor emanating from the oral cavity. It is thought that the microbiota of the dorsal tongue coating plays a crucial role in this condition. The aim of the study was to investigate the composition of the tongue microbiome in subjects with and without IOH. A total of 26 subjects, 16 IOH patients and 10 healthy subjects were recruited based on their organoleptic score and volatile sulfur compound (VSC) measurements. The composition of the tongue microbiome was studied using the 16s amplicon sequencing of the V3-V4 hyper variable region with an Illumina MiSeq...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842134/reciprocal-complementation-of-bovine-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-lacking-either-the-membrane-or-fusion-gene
#9
Marina Takada, Ryosuke Matsuura, Takehiro Kokuho, Takamitsu Tsuboi, Ken-Ichiro Kameyama, Kaoru Takeuchi
Two defective bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) strains were generated, one lacking the membrane (M) protein gene and expressing EGFP (ΔM-EGFP) and the other lacking the fusion (F) protein gene and expressing mStrawberry (ΔF-mSB), by supplying deficient proteins in trans. When Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells were co-infected with ΔM-EGFP and ΔF-mSB at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1, complemented viruses were easily obtained. Complemented viruses grew as efficiently as wild-type BPIV3 and could be passaged in MDBK cell cultures even at an MOI of 0...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835504/attenuated-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-1-hpiv1-expressing-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-fusion-f-glycoprotein-from-an-added-gene-effects-of-pre-fusion-stabilization-and-packaging-of-rsv-f
#10
Xiang Liu, Bo Liang, Joan Ngwuta, Xueqiao Liu, Sonja Surman, Matthias Lingemann, Peter D Kwong, Barney S Graham, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most prevalent worldwide cause of severe respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) also causes severe pediatric respiratory illness, especially croup. Both viruses lack vaccines. Here, we describe the preclinical development of a bivalent RSV/HPIV1 vaccine based on a recombinant HPIV1 vector, attenuated by a stabilized mutation, that expresses RSV F protein modified for increased stability in the pre-fusion (pre-F) conformation by previously-described disulfide bond (DS) and hydrophobic cavity-filling (Cav1) mutations...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822432/-clinical-analysis-of-children-with-pertussis-and-significance-of-respiratory-virus-detection-in-the-combined-diagnosis
#11
H Huang, L Deng, F Xiao, J Fu, J Deng, F Wang, J Yang
Objective: To analyze the clinical data of children with pertussis and explore the necessity of respiratory virus detection in the combined diagnosis so as to improve the clinician's understanding and standardize the diagnosis and treatment of pertussis in children. Method: Clinical data and laboratory examination of 195 suspected pertussis children between Jan. 2015 and Dec. 2016 in Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatric were analyzed retrospectively. Result: The nasopharyngeal secretions were collected from 195 suspected pertussis children, PCR was employed to detect the nucleic acid of Bordetella pertussis...
August 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818896/genome-sequences-of-three-novel-isolates-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-2-associated-with-acute-respiratory-infection
#12
J L Kennedy, J C Kincaid, K C Schwalm, A N Stoner, T J Abramo, T M Thompson, O Hardin, C Putt, D L Dinwiddie
Using target capture of viral nucleic acid and next-generation sequencing, we generated the genome sequences of three novel human parainfluenza virus 2 isolates. Isolates ACRI_0185 (GenBank accession number MF077311), ACRI_0230 (MF077312), and ACRI_0248 (MF077313) were collected in October 2016, February 2017, and March 2017, respectively, from pediatric patients with acute respiratory infection in Arkansas.
August 17, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810858/rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-canine-distemper-virus-by-real-time-reverse-transcription-recombinase-polymerase-amplification
#13
Jianchang Wang, Jinfeng Wang, Ruiwen Li, Libing Liu, Wanzhe Yuan
BACKGROUND: Canine distemper, caused by Canine distemper virus (CDV), is a highly contagious and fatal systemic disease in free-living and captive carnivores worldwide. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), as an isothermal gene amplification technique, has been explored for the molecular detection of diverse pathogens. METHODS: A real-time reverse transcription RPA (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of canine distemper virus (CDV) using primers and exo probe targeting the CDV nucleocapsid protein gene was developed...
August 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808938/advances-in-vaccines-to-prevent-viral-respiratory-illnesses-in-children
#14
Aleisha J Anderson, Tom L Snelling, Hannah C Moore, Christopher C Blyth
Childhood vaccination has played a critical role in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, including specific respiratory pathogens. Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) of both bacterial and viral aetiology continues to impact global child health. Key bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza type b are specifically targeted with current vaccination programmes, while at present there are less effective strategies for the prevention of viral disease...
August 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791948/-vaccinovigilance-reports-of-adverse-reactions-in-the-year-2016
#15
N Albrecht, H Ottiger
In the year 2016, 107 reports of adverse reactions following the application of various authorized vaccines were received and evaluated by the IVI (Institute of Virology and Immunology). The notifications were submitted primarily by marketing authorization holders (81) or veterinarians and private persons (26). The aim of the Vigilance System is the identification of rare events to assess the individual risks of the vaccine application. During the last year, the correlation between reaction and vaccination was considered probable in 34% of the cases...
August 2017: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772168/prevalence-and-seasonality-of-six-respiratory-viruses-during-five-consecutive-epidemic-seasons-in-belgium
#16
Kaat Ramaekers, Els Keyaerts, Annabel Rector, Annie Borremans, Kurt Beuselinck, Katrien Lagrou, Marc Van Ranst
BACKGROUND: Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs) are a major health problem, especially in young children and the elderly. OBJECTIVES: Insights into the seasonality of respiratory viruses can help us understand when the burden on society is highest and which age groups are most vulnerable. STUDY DESIGN: We monitored six respiratory viruses during five consecutive seasons (2011-2016) in Belgium. Patient specimens (n=22876), tested for one or more of the following respiratory viruses, were included in this analysis: Influenza viruses (IAV & IBV), Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), Adenovirus (ADV) and Human parainfluenza virus (hPIV)...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763071/prevalence-of-respiratory-viruses-in-wheezing-children-not-older-than-24-months-of-age
#17
Martín Bedolla-Barajas, Hilda Montero, Jaime Morales-Romero, Adriana Landa-Cardeña, Jahaziel Díaz, Netzahualpilli Delgado-Figueroa, Luis Gustavo Orozco-Alatorre
INTRODUCTION: Wheezing in children not older than 24 months of age is a frequent event, and viruses are usually the causative agents. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of respiratory viruses in wheezing children who were not older than 24 months of age and who had no history of asthma. METHODS: Fifty-five Mexican children were included in an analytical cross-sectional study. Nasal secretions were obtained by using sterile rayon-tipped applicators to identify the virus by polymerase chain reaction or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction: adenovirus, bocavirus, human rhinovirus, influenza virus type A, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus...
May 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757139/clinical-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-infections-of-children-in-southern-taiwan
#18
Kai-Wen Wu, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Fen Shen, Tzong-Shiann Ho, Jen-Ren Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) 1-4 had been analyzed as being one of the most frequent causes of hospitalizations for young children with respiratory tract illnesses. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed from children virologically confirmed as HPIV infection through throat swab or nasopharyngeal aspirates at a tertiary care university hospital, between January 2012 and December 2014. HPIV4 was not checked and analyzed, due to not include in the commercial kit...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750327/cholesterol-is-required-for-stability-and-infectivity-of-influenza-a-and-respiratory-syncytial-viruses
#19
Shringkhala Bajimaya, Tünde Frankl, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Toru Takimoto
Cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains in the plasma membrane are considered to play a major role in the enveloped virus lifecycle. However, the functional role of cholesterol in assembly, infectivity and stability of respiratory RNA viruses is not fully understood. We previously reported that depletion of cellular cholesterol by cholesterol-reducing agents decreased production of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) particles by inhibiting virus assembly. In this study, we analyzed the role of cholesterol on influenza A virus (IAV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) production...
October 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747497/the-genetic-stability-of-piv5-vectored-rsv-vaccine-candidates-after-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-passage
#20
Shannon I Phan, Carolyn M Adam, Zhenhai Chen, Michael Citron, Xiaoping Liang, Amy S Espeseth, Dai Wang, Biao He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading etiologic agent of lower respiratory tract infections in children, but no licensed vaccine exists. Previously, our laboratory developed two parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-based RSV vaccine candidates that protect mice against RSV challenge. PIV5 was engineered to express either the RSV fusion protein (F) or the RSV major attachment glycoprotein (G) between the HN and L genes of the PIV5 genome [PIV5-RSV-F (HN-L) or PIV5-RSV-G (HN-L)]. To investigate the stability of the vaccine candidates in vitro, they were passaged in Vero cells at high and low multiplicities of infection (MOI) for eleven generations and the genome sequences, growth kinetics, and protein expression of the resulting viruses were compared with those of the parent viruses...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
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