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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424887/a-metagenomics-study-for-the-identification-of-respiratory-viruses-in-mixed-clinical-specimens-an-application-of-the-iterative-mapping-approach
#1
Yu-Nong Gong, Shu-Li Yang, Guang-Wu Chen, Yu-Wen Chen, Yhu-Chering Huang, Hsiao-Chen Ning, Kuo-Chien Tsao
Metagenomic approaches to detect viral genomes and variants in clinical samples have various challenges, including low viral titers and bacterial and human genome contamination. To address these limitations, we examined a next-generation sequencing (NGS) and iterative mapping approach for virus detection in clinical samples. We analyzed 40 clinical specimens from hospitalized children diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis, croup, or respiratory tract infections in which virus identification by viral culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was unsuccessful...
April 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418771/persistence-in-temporary-lung-niches-a-survival-strategy-of-lung-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells
#2
Shiki Takamura
Respiratory virus infections, such as those mediated by influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), rhinovirus, and adenovirus, are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in children and older adults. Furthermore, the potential emergence of highly pathogenic strains of influenza virus poses a significant public health threat. Thus, the development of vaccines capable of eliciting long-lasting protective immunity to those pathogens is a major public health priority...
April 18, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416404/genomic-and-antigenic-characterization-of-bovine-parainfluenza-3-viruses-in-the-united-states-including-modified-live-virus-vaccine-mlv-strains-and-field-strains-from-cattle
#3
R W Fulton, J D Neill, J T Saliki, C Landis, L J Burge, M E Payton
This study investigated the genetic and antigenic characterization of parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V) of cattle. Using molecular tests including real time PCR and viral genome sequencing, PI3V strains could be separated into PI3V types, including PI3V A, PI3V B, and PI3V C. Isolates from cattle with bovine respiratory disease clinical signs and commercial vaccines in the U.S. with MLV PI3V were typed using these molecular tests. All the MLV vaccine strains tested were PI3V A. In most cases PI3V field strains from calves receiving MLV vaccines were types heterologous to the vaccine type A...
April 14, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414992/airway-proteases-an-emerging-drug-target-for-influenza-and-other-respiratory-virus-infections
#4
REVIEW
Manon Laporte, Lieve Naesens
To enter into airway epithelial cells, influenza, parainfluenza- and coronaviruses rely on host cell proteases for activation of the viral protein involved in membrane fusion. One protease, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) was recently proven to be crucial for hemagglutinin cleavage of some human influenza viruses. Since the catalytic sites of the diverse serine proteases linked to influenza, parainfluenza- and coronavirus activation are structurally similar, active site inhibitors of these airway proteases could have broad therapeutic applicability against multiple respiratory viruses...
April 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414572/molecular-characterization-of-fluoroquinolone-resistant-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-clinical-isolates-in-spain
#5
Inmaculada López-Hernández, Jesús Machuca, Paula Díaz de Alba, Carolina Sarvisé, Frederic Gómez, José Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Alvaro Pascual
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to characterize a group of clinical isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant Haemophilus parainfluenzae collected in Northern Spain (March-December 2014). METHODS: Twelve clinical isolates of H. parainfluenzae were studied by performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the QRDR (quinolone resistance-determining region) of gyrA, parC, gyrB, and parE genes. Screening for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) was also studied...
April 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407488/the-matrix-protein-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-induces-mitophagy-that-suppresses-interferon-responses
#6
Binbin Ding, Linliang Zhang, Zhifei Li, Yi Zhong, Qiaopeng Tang, Yali Qin, Mingzhou Chen
Mitophagy is a form of autophagy that selectively removes damaged mitochondria. Impaired mitochondria can be tagged by the kinase PINK1, which triggers recruitment of the E3-ubiquitin ligase Parkin and subsequent mitochondrial sequestration within autophagosomes. We previously found that human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) infection induces autophagy, but the type and mechanisms of autophagy induction remain unknown. Here, we show that matrix protein (M) of HPIV3 translocates to mitochondria and interacts with Tu translation elongation factor mitochondrial (TUFM)...
April 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395629/a-clinical-companion-to-the-nice-guide-on-bronchiolitis
#7
Eleanor Rogers, Karen Greaves, Siba Prosad Paul
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) ( 2015 ) defines bronchiolitis as a lower respiratory tract infection affecting children under two years, peaking between three and six months. It affects about one in three infants in the first year of life, making it the most common respiratory infection in infants ( NICE 2015 , 2016 ). Of these infants, 2-3% will require admission to hospital ( NICE 2016 ). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common organism detected in the nasopharyngeal aspirate in hospitalised infants, although other viruses such as rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, influenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus are increasingly being recognised ( Paul et al 2016 )...
April 11, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395404/-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-respiratory-viral-infection-in-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
X B Du, X Ma, Y Gao, L F Wen, J Li, Z Z Wang, S Liu
Objective: To study the prevalence of respiratory viral infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) exacerbations and to find the factors associated with susceptibility to viral infections. Methods: Eighty patients with exacerbations of COPD and 50 stable COPD patients were recruited. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for a range of 18 different respiratory viruses using PCR. Results: Among the COPD exacerbations, viral infection was detected in 18 episodes (22.5%) . The most common virus was rhinovirus (33...
April 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393985/-importance-of-respiratory-virus-in-immunocompetent-adult-patients-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#9
Fernando Saldías Peñafiel, Marcos Ortega Gutiérrez, Gino Fuentes López, José Manuel Elola Aránguiz, Javier Uribe Monasterio, Arturo Morales Soto, Orlando Díaz Patiño
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a relevant worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality in adult population, however its etiology is often not identified and therapy is empirical. AIM: To assess the etiology of CAP in immunocompetent adult hospitalized patients using conventional and molecular diagnostic methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively studied 240 adult patients who were hospitalized for CAP to identify the microbial etiology...
December 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393840/antiviral-activity-of-chlorogenic-acid-against-influenza-a-h1n1-h3n2-virus-and-its-inhibition-of-neuraminidase
#10
Yue Ding, Zeyu Cao, Liang Cao, Gang Ding, Zhenzhong Wang, Wei Xiao
Lonicera japonica Thunb, rich in chlorogenic acid (CHA), is used for viral upper respiratory tract infection treatment caused by influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus, ect in China. It was reported that CHA reduced serum hepatitis B virus level and death rate of influenza virus-infected mice. However, the underlying mechanisms of CHA against the influenza A virus have not been fully elucidated. Here, the antiviral effects and potential mechanisms of CHA against influenza A virus were investigated...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368491/viral-pathogen-detection-by-metagenomics-and-pan-viral-group-pcr-in-children-with-pneumonia-lacking-identifiable-etiology
#11
Robert Schlaberg, Krista Queen, Keith Simmon, Keith Tardif, Chris Stockmann, Steven Flygare, Brett Kennedy, Karl Voelkerding, Anna Bramley, Jing Zhang, Karen Eilbeck, Mark Yandell, Seema Jain, Andrew T Pavia, Suxiang Tong, Krow Ampofo
Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of pediatric hospitalization. Pathogen identification fails in ~20% of children but is critical for optimal treatment and prevention of hospital-acquired infections. We used two broad-spectrum detection strategies to identify pathogens in test-negative children with CAP and asymptomatic controls. Methods: Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs from 70 children <5 years with CAP of unknown etiology and 90 asymptomatic controls were tested by next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) and pan viral group (PVG) PCR for 19 viral families...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367882/severe-acute-respiratory-infection-sari-surveillance-for-hospitalized-patients-in-northern-vietnam-2011-2014
#12
Hang Khanh Le Nguyen, Son Vu Nguyen, Anh Phuong Nguyen, Phuong Mai Vu Hoang, Thanh Thi Le, Thach Co Nguyen, Huong Thu Hoang, Cuong Duc Vuong, Loan Thi Thanh Tran, Le Quynh Mai
Worldwide Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) are leading causes of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality in children. The aim of this study was to identify viral pathogens responsible for SARI in northern Vietnam from 2011 to 2014. METHODS: Throat swabs and tracheal aspirates were collected from SARI patients according to WHO Guidelines. Thirteen different viral pathogens (Influenza A(H1N)pdm09; A/H3N2; A/H5; A/H7 and B; Para influenza 1,2,3; RSV; HMPV; Adeno; SARS-CoV and Rhino) were tested by conventional/ real-time RT-PCR...
March 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344321/broad-spectrum-antiviral-activity-for-paramyxoviruses-is-modulated-by-biophysical-properties-of-fusion-inhibitory-peptides
#13
Cyrille Mathieu, Marcelo T Augusto, Stefan Niewiesk, Branka Horvat, Laura M Palermo, Giuseppina Sanna, Silvia Madeddu, Devra Huey, Miguel A R B Castanho, Matteo Porotto, Nuno C Santos, Anne Moscona
Human paramyxoviruses include global causes of lower respiratory disease like the parainfluenza viruses, as well as agents of lethal encephalitis like Nipah virus. Infection is initiated by viral glycoprotein-mediated fusion between viral and host cell membranes. Paramyxovirus viral fusion proteins (F) insert into the target cell membrane, and form a transient intermediate that pulls the viral and cell membranes together as two heptad-repeat regions refold to form a six-helix bundle structure that can be specifically targeted by fusion-inhibitory peptides...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329354/clinical-significance-of-human-coronavirus-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-samples-from-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-recipients-and-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#14
Chikara Ogimi, Alpana A Waghmare, Jane M Kuypers, Hu Xie, Cecilia C Yeung, Wendy M Leisenring, Sachiko Seo, Su-Mi Choi, Keith R Jerome, Janet A Englund, Michael Boeckh
Background: The possible role of human coronaviruses (HCoV) in lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients and patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) has not been well studied. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of HCT/HM patients with HCoV detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). HCoV strains were identified in BAL samples using strain-specific PCR. Mortality rates were compared among HCT recipients with LRTD caused by HCoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza or parainfluenza virus (PIV) by multivariable Cox regression analysis...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304114/antiviral-and-cytostatic-evaluation-of-5-1-halo-2-sulfonylvinyl-and-5-2-furyl-uracil-nucleosides
#15
Zhiwei Wen, Sazzad H Suzol, Jufang Peng, Yong Liang, Robert Snoeck, Graciela Andrei, Sandra Liekens, Stanislaw F Wnuk
Transition metal-catalyzed halosulfonylation of 5-ethynyl uracil nucleosides provided (E)-5-(1-chloro-2-tosylvinyl)uridines. Tetrabutylammonium fluoride-mediated direct CH arylation of 5-iodouracil nucleosides with furan or 2-heptylfuran gave 5-furyl-substituted nucleosides without the necessity of using the organometallic substrates. These two classes of 5-substituted uracil nucleosides as well their corresponding ester derivatives were tested against a broad range of DNA and RNA viruses and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
March 17, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303845/diagnostic-value-of-nasopharyngeal-aspirates-in-children-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#16
Ai-Zhen Lu, Peng Shi, Li-Bo Wang, Li-Ling Qian, Xiao-Bo Zhang
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) specimens in detecting lower respiratory pathogens remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of aspirates (NPAs) specimen in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children. METHODS: The prospective study was designed to collect the data of paired NPAs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from children with acute LRTIs from January 2013 to December 2015...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298602/a-single-dose-recombinant-piv5-expressing-respiratory-syncytial-virus-f-and-g-proteins-protected-cotton-rats-and-african-green-monkeys-from-rsv-challenge
#17
Dai Wang, Shannon Phan, Daniel J DiStefano, Michael P Citron, Cheryl L Callahan, Lani Indrawati, Sheri A Dubey, Gwendolyn J Heidecker, Dhanasekaran Govindarajan, Xiaoping Liang, Biao He, Amy S Espeseth
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of severe respiratory disease among infants, immunocompromised individuals and the elderly. No licensed vaccine is currently available. In this study, we evaluated two parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-vectored vaccines expressing RSV F (PIV5/F) or G (PIV5/G) proteins in the cotton rat and African green monkey models for their replication, immunogenicity and efficacy of protection against RSV challenge. Following a single intranasal inoculation, both animal species shed the vaccine viruses for a limited time but without noticeable clinical symptoms...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283855/the-role-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-infections-in-the-immunopathology-of-the-respiratory-tract
#18
REVIEW
Malgorzata Pawełczyk, Marek Leszek Kowalski
Viral infections are leading causes of both upper and lower airway acute illness in all age groups of healthy persons, and have also been implicated in the acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disorders like asthma and COPD. Human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus and coronavirus have been considered as the most important respiratory pathogens and relatively little attention has been paid to the role of parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs). Human parainfluenza viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family that may evoke lower respiratory infections in infants, children and immunocompromised individuals...
March 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282443/the-bovine-paranasal-sinuses-bacterial-flora-epithelial-expression-of-nitric-oxide-and-potential-role-in-the-in-herd-persistence-of-respiratory-disease-pathogens
#19
Gerard M Murray, Rónan G O'Neill, Alison M Lee, Máire C McElroy, Simon J More, Aisling Monagle, Bernadette Earley, Joseph P Cassidy
The bovine paranasal sinuses are a group of complex cavernous air-filled spaces, lined by respiratory epithelium, the exact function of which is unclear. While lesions affecting these sinuses are occasionally reported in cattle, their microbial flora has not been defined. Furthermore, given that the various bacterial and viral pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) persist within herds, we speculated that the paranasal sinuses may serve as a refuge for such infectious agents. The paranasal sinuses of clinically normal cattle (n = 99) and of cattle submitted for post-mortem examination (PME: n = 34) were examined by microbial culture, PCR and serology to include bacterial and viral pathogens typically associated with BRD: Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (BPIV-3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266286/genetic-analyses-of-the-fusion-protein-genes-in-human-parainfluenza-virus-types-1-and-3-among-patients-with-acute-respiratory-infections-in-eastern-japan-from-2011-to-2015
#20
Rika Tsutsui, Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi, Koo Nagasawa, Masaki Takahashi, Yuki Matsushima, Akihide Ryo, Makoto Kuroda, Hideki Takami, Hirokazu Kimura
PURPOSE: To genetically explore the fusion protein gene (F) in human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) and type 3 (HPIV3) strains, we analysed them in patients with acute respiratory infections in Eastern Japan from 2011 to 2015. METHODOLOGY: We constructed phylogenetic trees based on the HPIV and HPIV3 F gene using the maximum likelihood method and conducted P-distance and selective pressure analyses. We also predicted the linear epitopes of the protein in the prototype strains...
February 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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