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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330069/conformation-and-trimer-association-of-the-transmembrane-domain-of-the-parainfluenza-virus-fusion-protein-in-lipid-bilayers-from-solid-state-nmr-insights-into-the-sequence-determinants-of-trimer-structure-and-fusion-activity
#1
Myungwoon Lee, Hongwei Yao, Byungsu Kwon, Alan J Waring, Peter Ruchala, Chandan Singh, Mei Hong
Enveloped viruses enter cells by using their fusion proteins to merge the virus lipid envelope and the cell membrane. While crystal structures of the water-soluble ectodomains of many viral fusion proteins have been determined, the structure and assembly of the C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) remains poorly understood. Here we use solid-state NMR to determine the backbone conformation and oligomeric structure of the TMD of the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) fusion protein. 13C chemical shifts indicate that the central leucine-rich segment of the TMD is α-helical in POPC/cholesterol membranes and POPE membranes, while the Ile- and Val-rich termini shift to the β-strand conformation in the POPE membrane...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324996/laboratory-confirmed-respiratory-infections-as-predictors-of-hospital-admission-for-myocardial-infarction-and-stroke-time-series-analysis-of-english-data-for-2004-2015
#2
R M Blackburn, H Zhao, R Pebody, A C Hayward, C Warren-Gash
Background: Acute respiratory infections are associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, however, the role of different organisms is poorly characterised. Methods: We undertook a time-series analysis of English hospital admissions for MI and stroke (age-stratified: 45-64, 65-74, 75+ years), laboratory-confirmed viral respiratory infections and environmental data for 2004-2015. Weekly counts of admissions were modelled using multivariable Poisson regression with weekly counts of respiratory viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus or human meta-pneumovirus (HMPV)) investigated as predictors...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323621/vaccines-for-the-paramyxoviruses-and-pneumoviruses-successes-candidates-and-hurdles
#3
Charles J Russell, Eric A F Simões, Julia L Hurwitz
Human parainfluenza viruses (family Paramyxoviridae), human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (family Pneumoviridae) infect most infants and children within the first few years of life and are the etiologic agents for many serious acute respiratory illnesses. These virus infections are also associated with long-term diseases that impact quality of life, including asthma. Despite over a half-century of vaccine research, development, and clinical trials, no vaccine has been licensed to date for the paramyxoviruses or pneumoviruses for the youngest infants...
January 11, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321315/paramyxovirus-v-proteins-interact-with-the-rig-i-trim25-regulatory-complex-and-inhibit-rig-i-signaling
#4
Maria T Sanchez-Aparicio, Leighland J Feinman, Adolfo García-Sastre, Megan L Shaw
Paramyxovirus V proteins are known antagonists of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated interferon induction pathway, interacting with and inhibiting the RLR MDA5. We report interactions between the Nipah virus V protein and both the RIG-I regulatory protein, TRIM25, and RIG-I. We also observed interactions between these host proteins and the V proteins of measles virus, Sendai virus and parainfluenza virus. These interactions are mediated by the conserved C-terminal domain of the V protein, which binds to the tandem CARDs of RIG-I (the region of TRIM25-ubiquitination) and to the SPRY domain of TRIM25, which mediates TRIM25 interaction with the RIG-I CARDs...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316047/parainfluenza-virus-5-vectored-vaccines-against-human-and-animal-infectious-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Zhenhai Chen
Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), known as canine parainfluenza virus in the veterinary field, is a negative-sense, nonsegmented, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. Parainfluenza virus 5 is an excellent viral vector and has been used as a live vaccine for kennel cough for many years in dogs without any safety concern. It can grow to high titers in many cell types, and its genome is stable even in the presence of foreign gene insertions. So far, PIV5 has been used to develop vaccines against influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rabies virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, demonstrating its ability to elicit robust and protective immune responses in preclinical animal models...
January 5, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302815/long-lasting-cough-in-an-adult-german-population-incidence-symptoms-and-related-pathogens
#6
Raphael Weinberger, Marion Riffelmann, Nicole Kennerknecht, Christel Hülße, Martina Littmann, Judith O'Brien, Rüdiger von Kries, Carl Heinz Wirsing von König
Studies of the incidence of pertussis in adults have shown that it accounts for only 5-15% cases of prolonged coughing. We assessed the burden of suffering related to prolonged coughing and tried to identify further causative agents. Based on a sentinel study with 35 general practitioners in two German cities (Krefeld, Rostock), with 3,946 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, we estimated the incidence of prolonged coughing in adults. In 975 of these outpatients, PCR and/or serology for adenovirus, Bordetella pertussis and B...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300926/asymptomatic-summertime-shedding-of-respiratory-viruses
#7
Jeffrey Shaman, Haruka Morita, Ruthie Birger, Mary Boyle, Devon Comito, Benjamin Lane, Chanel Ligon, Hannah Smith, Rob Desalle, Paul Planet
To determine rates of both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection among ambulatory adults, we collected nasopharyngeal swabs, demographics, and survey information from 1477 adult visitors to a New York City tourist attraction during April-July 2016. Multiplex PCR was used to identify specimens positive for common respiratory viruses. 7.2% of samples tested positive; 71.0% of positive samples detected rhinovirus and 21.5% detected coronavirus. Influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza were also detected...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288049/development-of-a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-combined-with-lateral-flow-dipstick-assay-for-detection-of-bovine-ephemeral-fever-virus
#8
Peili Hou, Guimin Zhao, Hongmei Wang, Chengqiang He, Yanjun Huan, Hongbin He
Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), identified as the causative pathogen of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), is responsible for increasing numbers of epidemics/outbreaks and has a significant harmful effect on the livestock industry. Therefore, a rapid detection assay is imperative for BEFV diagnosis. In this study, we described the development of lateral-flow dipstick isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (LFD-RPA) assays for detection of BEFV. RPA primers and LF probes were designed by targeting the specific G gene, and the amplification product can be visualized on a simple lateral flow dipstick with the naked eyes...
December 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279454/human-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-infections-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-patients-the-mode-of-nosocomial-infections-and-the-prognosis
#9
Satsuki Kakiuchi, Masanori Tsuji, Hidekazu Nishimura, Lixing Wang, Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito, Hitomi Kinoshita, Chang-Kweng Lim, Shuichi Taniguchi, Akira Oka, Masashi Mizuguchi, Masayuki Saijo
  There have been few prospective and comprehensive surveillance studies on the respiratory viral infections (RVI) among patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A 2-year prospective cohort surveillance study of symptomatic and asymptomatic RVIs in hospitalized HSCT patients was performed. Oropharyngeal (OP) swab samples were serially collected each week from 1 week before and up to 100 days after HSCT and were tested for virus isolation with cell culture-based viral isolation (CC-based VI) and a multiplexed PCR (MPCR)...
December 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274915/differences-in-fecal-microbial-metabolites-and-microbiota-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#10
Dae-Wook Kang, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Nancy G Isern, David W Hoyt, Daniel P Howsmon, Michael Shaffer, Catherine A Lozupone, Juergen Hahn, James B Adams, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
Evidence supporting that gut problems are linked to ASD symptoms has been accumulating both in humans and animal models of ASD. Gut microbes and their metabolites may be linked not only to GI problems but also to ASD behavior symptoms. Despite this high interest, most previous studies have looked mainly at microbial structure, and studies on fecal metabolites are rare in the context of ASD. Thus, we aimed to detect fecal metabolites that may be present at significantly different concentrations between 21 children with ASD and 23 neurotypical children and to investigate its possible link to human gut microbiome...
December 21, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260527/-detection-and-analysis-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-infection-in-hospitalized-adults-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infections
#11
Xing-Qiao Li, Xue-Wei Liu, Tao Zhou, Xiao-Fang Pei
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and gene characteristics of different groups of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection in hospitalized adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI). METHODS: RT-PCR was used to detect HPIV hemagglutinin (HA) DNA,which was extracted from sputum samples of 1 039 adult patients with ARI from March,2014 to June,2016. The HA gene amplified from randomly selected positive samples were sequenced to analyze the homology and variation...
November 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246199/possible-interference-between-seasonal-epidemics-of-influenza-and-other-respiratory-viruses-in-hong-kong-2014-2017
#12
Xueying Zheng, Zhengyu Song, Yapeng Li, Juanjuan Zhang, Xi-Ling Wang
BACKGROUND: Unlike influenza viruses, little is known about the prevalence and seasonality of other respiratory viruses because laboratory surveillance for non-influenza respiratory viruses is not well developed or supported in China and other resource-limited countries. We studied the interference between seasonal epidemics of influenza viruses and five other common viruses that cause respiratory illnesses in Hong Kong from 2014 to 2017. METHODS: The weekly laboratory-confirmed positive rates of each virus were analyzed from 2014 to 2017 in Hong Kong to describe the epidemiological trends and interference between influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), adenovirus, enterovirus and rhinovirus...
December 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237836/structure-of-the-paramyxovirus-piv5-nucleoprotein-in-complex-with-an-amino-terminal-peptide-of-the-phosphoprotein
#13
Megha Aggarwal, George P Leser, Christopher A Kors, Robert A Lamb
Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae, which consists of enveloped viruses with a non-segmented negative strand RNA genome encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N). Paramyxovirus replication is regulated by the phosphoprotein (P) through protein-protein interactions with N and the RNA polymerase (L). The chaperone activity of P is essential to maintain the unassembled RNA-free form of N in order to prevent non-specific RNA binding and premature N oligomerization. Here, we determined the crystal structure of unassembled PIV5 N in complex with a P peptide (N0P) derived from the N-terminus of P (P50) at 2...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231283/new-potent-inhibitors-against-newcastle-disease-virus-haemagglutinin-neuraminidase
#14
Paola Rota, Paolo La Rocca, Marco Piccoli, Marco Montefiori, Federica Cirillo, Lars Olsen, Marica Orioli, Pietro Allevi, Luigi Anastasia
Neuraminidase activity is essential for the infection and propagation of Paramyxoviruses, including human parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs) and the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). Thus, many inhibitors have been developed based on the 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid inhibitor (DANA) backbone. Along this line, we report here a series of neuraminidase inhibitors, having C-4 (ptoluensulfonamide and azido substituents) and C-5 (N-perfluorinated chains) modifications to the DANA backbone, that resulted 5- to 15-folds more potent than the current most active compound, the Ntrifluoroacetyl derivative of DANA (FANA), on the NDV haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (NDV-HN)...
December 12, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224300/-etiological-analysis-and-establishment-of-a-discriminant-model-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hospitalized-patients
#15
Y S Chen, X H Lin, H R Li, Z D Hua, M Q Lin, W S Huang, T Yu, H Y Lyu, W P Mao, Y Q Liang, X R Peng, S J Chen, H Zheng, S Q Lian, X L Hu, X Q Yao
Objective: To analyze the pathogens of lower respiratory tract infection(LRTI) including bacterial, viral and mixed infection, and to establish a discriminant model based on clinical features in order to predict the pathogens. Methods: A total of 243 hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections were enrolled in Fujian Provincial Hospital from April 2012 to September 2015. The clinical data and airway (sputum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage) samples were collected. Microbes were identified by traditional culture (for bacteria), loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) and gene sequencing (for bacteria and atypical pathogen), or Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR)for viruses...
December 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223400/a-new-comprehensive-method-for-detection-of-livestock-related-pathogenic-viruses-using-a-target-enrichment-system
#16
Mami Oba, Shinobu Tsuchiaka, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Konosuke Otomaru, Teppei Hirata, Hiroshi Aoki, Yoshiteru Murata, Shinji Makino, Makoto Nagai, Tetsuya Mizutani
We tested usefulness of a target enrichment system SureSelect, a comprehensive viral nucleic acid detection method, for rapid identification of viral pathogens in feces samples of cattle, pigs and goats. This system enriches nucleic acids of target viruses in clinical/field samples by using a library of biotinylated RNAs with sequences complementary to the target viruses. The enriched nucleic acids are amplified by PCR and subjected to next generation sequencing to identify the target viruses. In many samples, SureSelect target enrichment method increased efficiencies for detection of the viruses listed in the biotinylated RNA library...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217788/complete-genome-sequences-of-two-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-isolates-collected-in-brazil
#17
Nicholas Di Paola, Marielton Dos Passos Cunha, Giuliana Stravinskas Durigon, Eitan Naaman Berezin, Edison Durigon, Danielle Bruna Leal de Oliveira, Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto
Here, we present the complete genome sequences of two human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3) isolates collected from hospitalized infants suffering from acute respiratory disease. These are the first complete genome sequences of HPIV-3 originating from Brazil.
December 7, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215584/a-positive-control-for-detection-of-functional-cd4-t-cells-in-pbmc-the-cpi-pool
#18
Annemarie Schiller, Ting Zhang, Ruliang Li, Andrea Duechting, Srividya Sundararaman, Anna Przybyla, Stefanie Kuerten, Paul V Lehmann
Testing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for immune monitoring purposes requires verification of their functionality. This is of particular concern when the PBMC have been shipped or stored for prolonged periods of time. While the CEF (Cytomegalo-, Epstein-Barr and Flu-virus) peptide pool has become the gold standard for testing CD8 cell functionality, a positive control for CD4 cells is so far lacking. The latter ideally consists of proteins so as to control for the functionality of the antigen processing and presentation compartments, as well...
December 7, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212701/multicenter-evaluation-of-the-eplex%C3%A2-respiratory-pathogen-panel-for-the-detection-of-viral-and-bacterial-respiratory-tract-pathogens-in-nasopharyngeal-swabs
#19
N Esther Babady, Matthew R England, Kristen L Jurcic Smith, Taojun He, Dona Saumya Wijetunge, Yi-Wei Tang, Robin R Chamberland, Marilyn Menegus, Ella M Swierkosz, Robert C Jerris, Wallace Greene
Background: The performance of the new ePlex® Respiratory Pathogen (RP) Panel (GenMark Diagnostics) for the simultaneous detection of 19 viruses (influenza A, influenza A H1, influenza A 2009 H1, influenza A H3, influenza B, adenovirus, coronaviruses [HKU1, OC43, NL63, 229E], human rhinovirus/enterovirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3 and 4, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) [RSVA and RSV B]) and two bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae) was evaluated.Methods: Prospectively and retrospectively collected nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens (n =2,908) were evaluated using the ePlex RP Panel with the bioMérieux/BioFire FilmArray® Respiratory Panel (BF RP) as the comparator method...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212531/etiology-of-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-community-and-clinic-in-ilorin-nigeria
#20
Olatunji Kolawole, Michael Oguntoye, Tina Dam, Rumi Chunara
OBJECTIVE: Recognizing increasing interest in community disease surveillance globally, the goal of this study was to investigate whether respiratory viruses circulating in the community may be represented through clinical (hospital) surveillance in Nigeria. RESULTS: Children were selected via convenience sampling from communities and a tertiary care center (n = 91) during spring 2017 in Ilorin, Nigeria. Nasal swabs were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction...
December 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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