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Adult astrocyte isolation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864570/isolation-propagation-and-differentiation-of-radial-glia-like-neural-progenitor-cells-in-adherent-cultures
#1
Balazs Varga, Andras Nagy
This protocol describes the isolation of radial glia-like neural progenitors (RGLs) from embryonic and adult mouse brain. Their propagation as an adherent monolayer is greatly supported by use of the AK-cyclo(RGDfC) adhesive peptide-conjugate that allows the application of fully defined culture conditions in which epidermal growth factor (EGF) represents the only growth factor supplement. RGL cells maintained that way can be efficiently differentiated into the three major CNS cell types: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes...
September 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782716/treatment-with-an-interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-mitigates-neuroinflammation-and-brain-damage-after-polytrauma
#2
Mujun Sun, Rhys D Brady, David K Wright, Hyun Ah Kim, Shenpeng R Zhang, Christopher G Sobey, Maddison R Johnstone, Terence J O'Brien, Bridgette D Semple, Stuart J McDonald, Sandy R Shultz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and long bone fracture are common in polytrauma. This injury combination in mice results in elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and exacerbated neuropathology when compared to isolated-TBI. Here we examined the effect of treatment with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in mice given a TBI and a concomitant tibial fracture (i.e., polytrauma). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were given sham-injuries or polytrauma and treated with saline-vehicle or IL-1ra (100 mg/kg)...
August 3, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734063/atp-and-astrocytes-play-a-prominent-role-in-the-control-of-the-respiratory-pattern-generator-in-the-lamprey
#3
Elenia Cinelli, Ludovica Iovino, Donatella Mutolo
The role of ATP and astrocytes in respiratory rhythm modulation has been recently investigated in neonatal rodents. However, no information on the role of ATP and astrocytes within the respiratory network of the lamprey is available, particularly within the paratrigeminal respiratory group (pTRG), the proposed respiratory central pattern generator. To address these issues, the present study was carried out on isolated brainstems of the adult lamprey. Bath application of ATP caused marked increases in respiratory frequency followed by decreases in the respiratory motor output, mediated by the ATP metabolite adenosine at the level of the pTRG...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705472/adolescent-social-isolation-affects-schizophrenia-like-behavior-and-astrocyte-biomarkers-in-the-pfc-of-adult-rats
#4
Lan Sun, Li Min, Hao Zhou, Man Li, Feng Shao, Weiwen Wang
Social isolation is regarded as a cause of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Animal models of schizophrenia are constructed by repeated early environment deprivation as an important paradigm to reveal its pathological mechanism. Male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to either social-rearing (SR) or isolated-rearing (IR) groups during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34. On PND 56, all rats underwent behavioral testing including locomotor activity, anxiety-related behaviors in an open field and prepulse inhibition (PPI)...
July 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521131/diverse-requirements-for-microglial-survival-specification-and-function-revealed-by-defined-medium-cultures
#5
Christopher J Bohlen, F Chris Bennett, Andrew F Tucker, Hannah Y Collins, Sara B Mulinyawe, Ben A Barres
Microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, engage in various CNS-specific functions that are critical for development and health. To better study microglia and the properties that distinguish them from other tissue macrophage populations, we have optimized serum-free culture conditions to permit robust survival of highly ramified adult microglia under defined-medium conditions. We find that astrocyte-derived factors prevent microglial death ex vivo and that this activity results from three primary components, CSF-1/IL-34, TGF-β2, and cholesterol...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382863/fenofibrate-increases-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-and-astrocyte-proliferation-while-limits-neuronal-injury-during-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#6
Yan Wang, Min Yu, Yue Ma, Ruoping Wang, Wei Liu, Wei Xia, Aili Guan, Conghui Xing, Fei Lu, Xiaoping Ji
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPARα) is a therapy target in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. However, anti-inflammatory effects of PPARα in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remain unknown. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of fenofibrate, a ligand of PPARα, in ICH rat model. We found that engagement of fenofibrate increased nissl body and astrocytes, and reduced the neuronal damage, which was observed in paraffin section of ICH rat brain. Fenofibrate also promoted the proliferation of astrocytes that were isolated from adult rat brain...
2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381236/microglia-activation-is-essential-for-bmp7-mediated-retinal-reactive-gliosis
#7
Subramanian Dharmarajan, Debra L Fisk, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani, Teri L Belecky-Adams
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have shown that BMP7 is able to trigger activation of retinal macroglia. However, these studies showed the responsiveness of Müller glial cells and retinal astrocytes in vitro was attenuated in comparison to those in vivo, indicating other retinal cell types may be mediating the response of the macroglial cells to BMP7. In this study, we test the hypothesis that BMP7-mediated gliosis is the result of inflammatory signaling from retinal microglia. METHODS: Adult mice were injected intravitreally with BMP7 and eyes harvested 1, 3, or 7 days postinjection...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373281/an-immunoaffinity-based-method-for-isolating-ultrapure-adult-astrocytes-based-on-atp1b2-targeting-by-the-acsa-2-antibody
#8
Mykhailo Y Batiuk, Filip de Vin, Sandra I Duqué, Chen Li, Takashi Saito, Takaomi Saido, Mark Fiers, T Grant Belgard, Matthew G Holt
Astrocytes are a major cell type in the mammalian CNS. Astrocytes are now known to play a number of essential roles in processes including synapse formation and function, as well as blood-brain barrier formation and control of cerebral blood flow. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying astrocyte development and function is still rudimentary. This lack of knowledge is at least partly due to the lack of tools currently available for astrocyte biology. ACSA-2 is a commercially available antibody originally developed for the isolation of astrocytes from young postnatal mouse brain, using magnetic cell-sorting methods, but its utility in isolating cells from adult tissue has not yet been published...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345587/derivation-of-functional-human-astrocytes-from-cerebral-organoids
#9
Rômulo Sperduto Dezonne, Rafaela Costa Sartore, Juliana Minardi Nascimento, Verônica M Saia-Cereda, Luciana Ferreira Romão, Soniza Vieira Alves-Leon, Jorge Marcondes de Souza, Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Stevens Kastrup Rehen, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara Gomes
Astrocytes play a critical role in the development and homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocyte dysfunction results in several neurological and degenerative diseases. However, a major challenge to our understanding of astrocyte physiology and pathology is the restriction of studies to animal models, human post-mortem brain tissues, or samples obtained from invasive surgical procedures. Here, we report a protocol to generate human functional astrocytes from cerebral organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317180/anti-acsa-2-defines-a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-for-prospective-isolation-of-living-neonatal-and-adult-astrocytes
#10
Christina G Kantzer, Camille Boutin, Ina D Herzig, Carolina Wittwer, Sandy Reiß, Marie Catherine Tiveron, Jan Drewes, Thomas D Rockel, Stefanie Ohlig, Jovica Ninkovic, Harold Cremer, Sandra Pennartz, Melanie Jungblut, Andreas Bosio
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type of the central nervous system and cover a broad range of functionalities. We report here the generation of a novel monoclonal antibody, anti-astrocyte cell surface antigen-2 (Anti-ACSA-2). Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry revealed that Anti-ACSA-2 reacted specifically with a not yet identified glycosylated surface molecule of murine astrocytes at all developmental stages. It did not show any labeling of non-astroglial cells such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, NG2(+) cells, microglia, endothelial cells, leukocytes, or erythrocytes...
June 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285822/astrocytes-control-circadian-timekeeping-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-via-glutamatergic-signaling
#11
Marco Brancaccio, Andrew P Patton, Johanna E Chesham, Elizabeth S Maywood, Michael H Hastings
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus orchestrates daily rhythms of physiology and behavior in mammals. Its circadian (∼24 hr) oscillations of gene expression and electrical activity are generated intrinsically and can persist indefinitely in temporal isolation. This robust and resilient timekeeping is generally regarded as a product of the intrinsic connectivity of its neurons. Here we show that neurons constitute only one "half" of the SCN clock, the one metabolically active during circadian daytime...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250752/neural-differentiation-of-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells-role-of-human-traumatic-cerebrospinal-fluid
#12
Elham Hashemi, Yousef Sadeghi, Abbas Aliaghaei, Afsoun Seddighi, Abbas Piryaei, Mehdi Eskandarian Broujeni, Fatemeh Shaerzadeh, Abdollah Amini, Ramin Pouriran
As the key producer of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the choroid plexus (CP) provides a unique protective system in the central nervous system. CSF components are not invariable and they can change based on the pathological conditions of the central nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of non-traumatic and traumatic CSF on the differentiation of multipotent stem-like cells of CP into the neural and/or glial cells. CP epithelial cells were isolated from adult male rats and treated with human non-traumatic and traumatic CSF...
January 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154169/cd44-transmembrane-receptor-and-hyaluronan-regulate-adult-hippocampal-neural-stem-cell-quiescence-and-differentiation
#13
Weiping Su, Scott C Foster, Rubing Xing, Kerstin Feistel, Reid H J Olsen, Summer F Acevedo, Jacob Raber, Larry S Sherman
Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) is involved in learning and memory throughout life but declines with aging. Mice lacking the CD44 transmembrane receptor for the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) demonstrate a number of neurological disturbances including hippocampal memory deficits, implicating CD44 in the processes underlying hippocampal memory encoding, storage, or retrieval. Here, we found that HA and CD44 play important roles in regulating adult neurogenesis, and we provide evidence that HA contributes to age-related reductions in neural stem cell (NSC) expansion and differentiation in the hippocampus...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100736/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-mbd1-regulates-neuronal-lineage-commitment-through-maintaining-adult-neural-stem-cell-identity
#14
Emily M Jobe, Yu Gao, Brian E Eisinger, Janessa K Mladucky, Charles C Giuliani, Laurel E Kelnhofer, Xinyu Zhao
Methyl-CpG-binding domain 1 (MBD1) belongs to a family of methyl-CpG-binding proteins that are epigenetic "readers" linking DNA methylation to transcriptional regulation. MBD1 is expressed in neural stem cells residing in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus (aNSCs) and MBD1 deficiency leads to reduced neuronal differentiation, impaired neurogenesis, learning deficits, and autism-like behaviors in mice; however, the precise function of MBD1 in aNSCs remains unexplored. Here, we show that MBD1 is important for maintaining the integrity and stemness of NSCs, which is critical for their ability to generate neurons...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095299/african-and-asian-zika-virus-strains-differentially-induce-early-antiviral-responses-in-primary-human-astrocytes
#15
Rodolphe Hamel, Pauline Ferraris, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Fodé Diop, Loïc Talignani, Julien Pompon, Déborah Garcia, Florian Liégeois, Amadou A Sall, Hans Yssel, Dorothée Missé
ZIKA virus (ZIKV) is a newly emerging arbovirus. Since its discovery 60years ago in Uganda, it has spread throughout the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, emphasizing the capacity of ZIKV to spread to non-endemic regions worldwide. Although infection with ZIKV often leads to mild disease, its recent emergence in the Americas has coincided with an increase in adults developing Guillain-Barré syndrome and neurological complications in new-borns, such as congenital microcephaly. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the complications caused by different primary isolates of ZIKV...
January 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060319/isolation-and-culture-of-adult-neural-stem-cells-from-the-mouse-subcallosal-zone
#16
Joo Yeon Kim, Ju-Hyun Lee, Woong Sun
Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) can be used for the regeneration of damaged brain tissue. NSCs have the potential for differentiation and proliferation into three types of cells: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Identifying aNSC-derived regions and characterizing the aNSC properties are critical for the potential use of aNSCs and for the elucidation of their role in neural regeneration. The subcallosal zone (SCZ), located between white matter and the hippocampus, has recently been reported to contain aNSCs and continuously give rise to neuroblasts...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018190/disruption-of-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-involving-astrocytes-in-an-animal-model-of-depression-for-males-and-females
#17
Virginie Rappeneau, Amanda Blaker, Jeff R Petro, Bryan K Yamamoto, Akiko Shimamoto
Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999773/in-vitro-evaluation-of-biocompatibility-of-uncoated-thermally-reduced-graphene-and-carbon-nanotube-loaded-pvdf-membranes-with-adult-neural-stem-cell-derived-neurons-and-glia
#18
Çağla Defteralı, Raquel Verdejo, Shahid Majeed, Adriana Boschetti-de-Fierro, Héctor R Méndez-Gómez, Eva Díaz-Guerra, Daniel Fierro, Kristian Buhr, Clarissa Abetz, Ricardo Martínez-Murillo, Daniela Vuluga, Michaël Alexandre, Jean-Michel Thomassin, Christophe Detrembleur, Christine Jérôme, Volker Abetz, Miguel Ángel López-Manchado, Carlos Vicario-Abejón
Graphene, graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being investigated as potential substrates for the growth of neural cells. However, in most in vitro studies, the cells were seeded on these materials coated with various proteins implying that the observed effects on the cells could not solely be attributed to the GBN and CNT properties. Here, we studied the biocompatibility of uncoated thermally reduced graphene (TRG) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes loaded with multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) using neural stem cells isolated from the adult mouse olfactory bulb (termed aOBSCs)...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987378/in-vitro-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-derived-from-human-olfactory-bulb-into-dopaminergic-like-neurons
#19
Rafieh Alizadeh, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Mansoureh Soleimani, Fatemeh Moradi, Shahram Mohammadpour, Jahangir Ghorbani, Ali Safavi, Maryam Sarbishegi, Vahid Pirhajati Mahabadi, Leila Alizadeh, Mahmoudreza Hadjighassem
This study describes a new accessible source of neuronal stem cells that can be used in Parkinson's disease cell transplant. The human olfactory bulb contains neural stem cells (NSCs) that are responsible for neurogenesis in the brain and the replacement of damaged cellular components throughout life. NSCs are capable of differentiating into neuronal and glial cells. We isolated NSCs from the olfactory bulb of brain-death donors and differentiated them into dopaminergic neurons. The olfactory bulb tissues obtained were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/nutrient mixture F12, B27 supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor...
December 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932954/neuronal-release-of-cytokine-il-3-triggered-by-mechanosensitive-autostimulation-of-the-p2x7-receptor-is-neuroprotective
#20
Jason C Lim, Wennan Lu, Jonathan M Beckel, Claire H Mitchell
Mechanical strain due to increased pressure or swelling activates inflammatory responses in many neural systems. As cytokines and chemokine messengers lead to both pro-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions, understanding the signaling patterns triggered by mechanical stress may help improve overall outcomes. While cytokine signaling in neural systems is often associated with glial cells like astrocytes and microglia, the contribution of neurons themselves to the cytokine response is underappreciated and has bearing on any balanced response...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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