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Adult astrocyte isolation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656361/characterization-of-the-mitochondrial-aerobic-metabolism-in-the-pre-and-perisynaptic-districts-of-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#1
Silvia Ravera, Tiziana Bonifacino, Martina Bartolucci, Marco Milanese, Elena Gallia, Francesca Provenzano, Katia Cortese, Isabella Panfoli, Giambattista Bonanno
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle wasting, weakness, and spasticity due to a progressive degeneration of cortical, brainstem, and spinal motor neurons. The etiopathological causes are still largely obscure, although astrocytes definitely play a role in neuronal damage. Several mechanisms have been proposed to concur to neurodegeneration in ALS, including mitochondrial dysfunction. We have previously shown profound modifications of glutamate release and presynaptic plasticity in the spinal cord of the SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626075/sulfotransferase-4a1-sult4a1-increases-its-expression-in-mouse-neurons-as-they-mature
#2
Takuyu Hashiguchi, Sawako Shindo, Shih-Heng Chen, Jau-Shyong Hong, Masahiko Negishi
Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) catalyze sulfation and play essential roles in detoxification of xenobiotics as well as inactivation of endo-biotics. Sulfotransferase 4A1 (SULT4A1) which was originally isolated as a brain-specific sulfotransferase, is the most highly conserved isoform among SULTs in vertebrates. Here, expression of SULT4A1 was examined neuron enriched and neuron-glia mixed cells derived from mouse embryo brains at day 14 gestation and mixed glia from 2 days-old neonate brains. Western blots showed an increase of SULT4A1 expression as neurons maturated...
April 6, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617759/regulation-of-gene-expression-by-thyroid-hormone-in-primary-astrocytes-factors-influencing-the-genomic-response
#3
Beatriz Morte, Pilar Gil-Ibáñez, Juan Bernal
Astrocytes mediate the action of thyroid hormone in the brain on other neural cells through the production of the active hormone triiodothyronine (T3) from its precursor thyroxine (T4). T3 has also many effects on the astrocytes in vivo and in culture, but whether these actions are directly mediated by transcriptional regulation is not clear. In this work we have analyzed the genomic response to T3 of cultured astrocytes isolated from the postnatal mouse cerebral cortex, using RNA sequencing. Cultured astrocytes express relevant genes of thyroid hormone metabolism and action encoding type 2 deiodinase (Dio2), Mct8 transporter (Slc16a2), T3 receptors (Thra1 and Thrb), and nuclear corepressor (Ncor1) and coactivator (Ncoa1)...
April 2, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568390/characterization-of-brain-tumor-initiating-cells-isolated-from-an-animal-model-of-cns-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumors
#4
Sergey Malchenko, Simone T Sredni, Jerusha Boyineni, Yingtao Bi, Naira V Margaryan, Maheedhara R Guda, Yulia Kostenko, Tadanori Tomita, Ramana V Davuluri, Kiran Velpula, Mary J C Hendrix, Marcelo B Soares
CNS Primitive Neuroectodermal tumors (CNS-PNETs) are members of the embryonal family of malignant childhood brain tumors, which remain refractory to current therapeutic treatments. Current paradigm of brain tumorigenesis implicates brain tumor-initiating cells (BTIC) in the onset of tumorigenesis and tumor maintenance. However, despite their significance, there is currently no comprehensive characterization of CNS-PNETs BTICs. Recently, we described an animal model of CNS-PNET generated by orthotopic transplantation of human Radial Glial (RG) cells - the progenitor cells for adult neural stem cells (NSC) - into NOD-SCID mice brain and proposed that BTICs may play a role in the maintenance of these tumors...
March 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464197/mecp2-deficiency-leads-to-loss-of-glial-kir4-1
#5
Uri Kahanovitch, Vishnu A Cuddapah, Natasha L Pacheco, Leanne M Holt, Daniel K Mulkey, Alan K Percy, Michelle L Olsen
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder usually caused by mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). RTT is typified by apparently normal development until 6-18 mo of age, when motor and communicative skills regress and hand stereotypies, autonomic symptoms, and seizures present. Restoration of MeCP2 function selectively to astrocytes reversed several deficits in a murine model of RTT, but the mechanism of this rescue is unknown. Astrocytes carry out many essential functions required for normal brain functioning, including extracellular K+ buffering...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407434/thyroid-hormone-stimulation-of-adult-brain-fatty-acid-oxidation
#6
Mikaela M Sifuentes, James D Lechleiter
Thyroid hormone is a critical modulator of brain metabolism, and it is highly controlled in the central nervous system. Recent research has uncovered an important role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO), an energetic process essential for neurodevelopment that continues to support brain metabolism during adulthood. Thyroid hormone stimulation of FAO has been shown to be protective in astrocytes and mouse models of brain injury, yet a clear mechanism of this relationship has not been elucidated...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335006/genetic-dissection-of-the-neuro-glio-vascular-machinery-in-the-adult-brain
#7
Gregory W Kirschen, Rachel Kéry, Hanxiao Liu, Afrinash Ahamad, Liang Chen, Wendy Akmentin, Ramya Kumar, Joel Levine, Qiaojie Xiong, Shaoyu Ge
The adult brain actively controls its metabolic homeostasis via the circulatory system at the blood brain barrier interface. The mechanisms underlying the functional coupling from neuron to vessel remain poorly understood. Here, we established a novel method to genetically isolate the individual components of this coupling machinery using a combination of viral vectors. We first discovered a surprising non-uniformity of the glio-vascular structure in different brain regions. We carried out a viral injection screen and found that intravenous Canine Adenovirus 2 (CAV2) preferentially targeted perivascular astrocytes throughout the adult brain, with sparing of the hippocampal hilus from infection...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246456/scavenger-receptor-a-deficiency-impairs-immune-response-of-microglia-and-astrocytes-potentiating-alzheimer-s-disease-pathophysiology
#8
Francisca Cornejo, Marianne Vruwink, Claudia Metz, Paola Muñoz, Nicole Salgado, Joaquín Poblete, María Estela Andrés, Jaime Eugenín, Rommy von Bernhardi
Late onset Alzheimer disease's (LOAD) main risk factor is aging. Although it is not well known which age-related factors are involved in its development, evidence points out to the involvement of an impaired amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance in the aged brain among possible causes. Glial cells are the main scavengers of the brain, where Scavenger Receptor class A (SR-A) emerges as a relevant player in AD because of its participation in Aβ uptake and in the modulation of glial cell inflammatory response. Here, we show that SR-A expression is reduced in the hippocampus of aged animals and APP/PS1 mice...
March 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131016/focal-transplantation-of-aberrant-glial-cells-carrying-the-sod1g93a-mutation-into-rat-spinal-cord-induces-extensive-gliosis
#9
Sofía Ibarburu, Emiliano Trias, Natalia Lago, Hugo Peluffo, Romina Barreto-Núñez, Valentina Varela, Joseph S Beckman, Luis Barbeito
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the potential of aberrant glial cells (AbAs) isolated from the spinal cord of adult SOD1G93A symptomatic rats to induce gliosis and neuronal damage following focal transplantation into the lumbar spinal cord of wild-type rats. METHODS: AbAs were obtained from the spinal cords of SOD1G93A symptomatic rats. One hundred thousand cells were injected using a glass micropipette into the lumbar spinal cords (L3-L5) of syngeneic wild-type adult rats...
2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081811/transplanted-adult-neural-stem-cells-express-sonic-hedgehog-in-vivo-and-suppress-white-matter-neuroinflammation-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Genevieve M Sullivan, Regina C Armstrong
Neural stem cells (NSCs) delivered intraventricularly may be therapeutic for diffuse white matter pathology after traumatic brain injury (TBI). To test this concept, NSCs isolated from adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ) were transplanted into the lateral ventricle of adult mice at two weeks post-TBI followed by analysis at four weeks post-TBI. We examined sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling as a candidate mechanism by which transplanted NSCs may regulate neuroregeneration and/or neuroinflammation responses of endogenous cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043065/cns-cell-type-localization-and-lps-response-of-tlr-signaling-pathways
#11
Gizelle M McCarthy, Courtney R Bridges, Yuri A Blednov, R Adron Harris
Background: Innate immune signaling in the brain has emerged as a contributor to many central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, including mood disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, and addiction. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a key component of the innate immune response, are particularly implicated in neuroimmune dysfunction. However, most of our understanding about TLR signaling comes from the peripheral immune response, and it is becoming clear that the CNS immune response is unique...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864570/isolation-propagation-and-differentiation-of-radial-glia-like-neural-progenitor-cells-in-adherent-cultures
#12
Balazs Varga, Andras Nagy
This protocol describes the isolation of radial glia-like neural progenitors (RGLs) from embryonic and adult mouse brain. Their propagation as an adherent monolayer is greatly supported by use of the AK-cyclo(RGDfC) adhesive peptide-conjugate that allows the application of fully defined culture conditions in which epidermal growth factor (EGF) represents the only growth factor supplement. RGL cells maintained that way can be efficiently differentiated into the three major CNS cell types: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes...
September 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782716/treatment-with-an-interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-mitigates-neuroinflammation-and-brain-damage-after-polytrauma
#13
Mujun Sun, Rhys D Brady, David K Wright, Hyun Ah Kim, Shenpeng R Zhang, Christopher G Sobey, Maddison R Johnstone, Terence J O'Brien, Bridgette D Semple, Stuart J McDonald, Sandy R Shultz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and long bone fracture are common in polytrauma. This injury combination in mice results in elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and exacerbated neuropathology when compared to isolated-TBI. Here we examined the effect of treatment with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in mice given a TBI and a concomitant tibial fracture (i.e., polytrauma). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were given sham-injuries or polytrauma and treated with saline-vehicle or IL-1ra (100mg/kg)...
August 3, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734063/atp-and-astrocytes-play-a-prominent-role-in-the-control-of-the-respiratory-pattern-generator-in-the-lamprey
#14
Elenia Cinelli, Ludovica Iovino, Donatella Mutolo
KEY POINTS: The paratrigeminal respiratory group (pTRG) is responsible for the respiratory pattern generation in the lamprey. The role of ATP and astrocytes, known to control respiratory activity in mammals, was investigated in the lamprey respiratory network. ATP microinjected into the pTRG induces a biphasic response consisting of marked increases in respiratory frequency mediated by P2X receptors followed by a decrease in the respiratory motor output due to the ATP metabolite adenosine...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705472/adolescent-social-isolation-affects-schizophrenia-like-behavior-and-astrocyte-biomarkers-in-the-pfc-of-adult-rats
#15
Lan Sun, Li Min, Hao Zhou, Man Li, Feng Shao, Weiwen Wang
Social isolation is regarded as a cause of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Animal models of schizophrenia are constructed by repeated early environment deprivation as an important paradigm to reveal its pathological mechanism. Male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to either social-rearing (SR) or isolated-rearing (IR) groups during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34. On PND 56, all rats underwent behavioral testing including locomotor activity, anxiety-related behaviors in an open field and prepulse inhibition (PPI)...
July 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521131/diverse-requirements-for-microglial-survival-specification-and-function-revealed-by-defined-medium-cultures
#16
Christopher J Bohlen, F Chris Bennett, Andrew F Tucker, Hannah Y Collins, Sara B Mulinyawe, Ben A Barres
Microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, engage in various CNS-specific functions that are critical for development and health. To better study microglia and the properties that distinguish them from other tissue macrophage populations, we have optimized serum-free culture conditions to permit robust survival of highly ramified adult microglia under defined-medium conditions. We find that astrocyte-derived factors prevent microglial death ex vivo and that this activity results from three primary components, CSF-1/IL-34, TGF-β2, and cholesterol...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382863/fenofibrate-increases-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-and-astrocyte-proliferation-while-limits-neuronal-injury-during-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#17
Yan Wang, Min Yu, Yue Ma, Ruoping Wang, Wei Liu, Wei Xia, Aili Guan, Conghui Xing, Fei Lu, Xiaoping Ji
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPARα) is a therapy target in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. However, anti-inflammatory effects of PPARα in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remain unknown. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of fenofibrate, a ligand of PPARα, in ICH rat model. We found that engagement of fenofibrate increased nissl body and astrocytes, and reduced the neuronal damage, which was observed in paraffin section of ICH rat brain. Fenofibrate also promoted the proliferation of astrocytes that were isolated from adult rat brain...
2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381236/microglia-activation-is-essential-for-bmp7-mediated-retinal-reactive-gliosis
#18
Subramanian Dharmarajan, Debra L Fisk, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani, Teri L Belecky-Adams
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have shown that BMP7 is able to trigger activation of retinal macroglia. However, these studies showed the responsiveness of Müller glial cells and retinal astrocytes in vitro was attenuated in comparison to those in vivo, indicating other retinal cell types may be mediating the response of the macroglial cells to BMP7. In this study, we test the hypothesis that BMP7-mediated gliosis is the result of inflammatory signaling from retinal microglia. METHODS: Adult mice were injected intravitreally with BMP7 and eyes harvested 1, 3, or 7 days postinjection...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373281/an-immunoaffinity-based-method-for-isolating-ultrapure-adult-astrocytes-based-on-atp1b2-targeting-by-the-acsa-2-antibody
#19
Mykhailo Y Batiuk, Filip de Vin, Sandra I Duqué, Chen Li, Takashi Saito, Takaomi Saido, Mark Fiers, T Grant Belgard, Matthew G Holt
Astrocytes are a major cell type in the mammalian CNS. Astrocytes are now known to play a number of essential roles in processes including synapse formation and function, as well as blood-brain barrier formation and control of cerebral blood flow. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying astrocyte development and function is still rudimentary. This lack of knowledge is at least partly due to the lack of tools currently available for astrocyte biology. ACSA-2 is a commercially available antibody originally developed for the isolation of astrocytes from young postnatal mouse brain, using magnetic cell-sorting methods, but its utility in isolating cells from adult tissue has not yet been published...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345587/derivation-of-functional-human-astrocytes-from-cerebral-organoids
#20
Rômulo Sperduto Dezonne, Rafaela Costa Sartore, Juliana Minardi Nascimento, Verônica M Saia-Cereda, Luciana Ferreira Romão, Soniza Vieira Alves-Leon, Jorge Marcondes de Souza, Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Stevens Kastrup Rehen, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara Gomes
Astrocytes play a critical role in the development and homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocyte dysfunction results in several neurological and degenerative diseases. However, a major challenge to our understanding of astrocyte physiology and pathology is the restriction of studies to animal models, human post-mortem brain tissues, or samples obtained from invasive surgical procedures. Here, we report a protocol to generate human functional astrocytes from cerebral organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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