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Peicheng Liao, Changjing Bao, Arne Kordts, Maxim Karpov, Martin H P Pfeiffer, Lin Zhang, Yinwen Cao, Ahmed Almaiman, Amirhossein Mohajerin-Ariaei, Moshe Tur, Martin M Fejer, Tobias J Kippenberg, Alan E Willner
We experimentally demonstrate pump-linewidth-tolerant wavelength multicasting using microresonator-based soliton Kerr frequency combs. When Kerr comb lines serve as coherent pumps in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide, the linewidth of the multicast signal almost remains that of the original signal at different linewidths of Kerr combs, ranging from 100 kHz to 1 MHz. However, in conventional multicasting where free-running (FR) pumps are used, the linewidth of the converted signal significantly increases...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Can Wang, Kang Li, Guoyuan Liang, Haoyao Chen, Sheng Huang, Xinyu Wu
The indoor environment has brought new challenges for micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in terms of their being able to execute tasks with high positioning accuracy. Conventional positioning methods based on GPS are unreliable, although certain circumstances of limited space make it possible to apply new technologies. In this paper, we propose a novel indoor self-positioning system of UAV based on a heterogeneous sensing system, which integrates data from a structured light scanner, ultra-wideband (UWB), and an inertial navigation system (INS)...
August 10, 2017: Sensors
Ali Wadi, Mamoun Abdel-Hafez, Ghaleb A Husseini
This paper estimates the acoustic drug release from micelles after accurately identifying the underlying statistical noise characteristics in experimental data. The drug release is measured as a change in fluorescence as ultrasound is applied. First, the noise structure affecting the process dynamics and the measurement process is identified in terms of statistical covariance of the aforementioned quantities. Then, the identified covariance magnitudes are utilized to estimate the dynamics of drug release. The performance of different filters is investigated...
August 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Michael Solarski, Fabio Rotondo, Luis V Syro, Michael D Cusimano, Kalman Kovacs
Pituitary adenomas may be classified as either functioning or non-functioning, depending on whether excess hormone secretion can be clinically identified. Of the six hormones produced in the anterior pituitary, TSH, FSH and LH are known as glycoproteins and contain two subunits (α and β). While α-subunit is identical within all of them, each β-subunit is unique and biologically specific. Independently, the α- and β-subunits are inactive and only induce a hormonal response when they are non-covalently associated...
July 16, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
Dawei Fan, Luis Lopez Ruiz, Jiaqi Gong, John Lach
Energy harvesting is a promising solution to the limited battery lifetimes of body sensor nodes. Self-powered sensor systems capable of quasi-perpetual operation enable the possibility of truly continuous monitoring of patients beyond the clinic. However the discontinuous and dynamic characteristics of harvesting in real-world scenarios - and their implications for the design and operation of self-powered systems - are not yet well understood. This paper presents a mobile Energy Harvesting and Data Collection (EHDC) platform designed to provide a deeper understanding of energy harvesting dynamics...
July 31, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Luciano L Menegaldo
State-space control of myoelectric devices and real-time visualization of muscle forces in virtual rehabilitation require measuring or estimating muscle dynamic states: neuromuscular activation, tendon force and muscle length. This paper investigates whether regular (KF) and extended Kalman filters (eKF), derived directly from Hill-type muscle mechanics equations, can be used as real-time muscle state estimators for isometric contractions using raw electromyography signals (EMG) as the only available measurement...
August 1, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
Jonathan M Kalman, Prashanthan Sanders, Raphael Rosso, Hugh Calkins
Since the original description of atrial fibrillation ablation, numerous studies have demonstrated the superiority of catheter ablation over pharmacological therapy for maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with both paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation. However, to date, no randomized studies have been powered to demonstrate a mortality or stroke reduction benefit of rhythm control with catheter ablation over a rate control strategy. The results of such ongoing studies are not expected until 2018 or 2019...
August 1, 2017: Circulation
John Palmer, Adam Keane, Pulin Gong
Recent neural ensemble recordings have established a link between goal-directed spatial decision making and internally generated neural sequences in the hippocampus of rats. To elucidate the synaptic mechanisms of these sequences underlying spatial decision making processes, we develop and investigate a spiking neural circuit model endowed with a combination of two synaptic plasticity mechanisms including spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) and synaptic scaling. In this model, the interplay of the combined synaptic plasticity mechanisms and network dynamics gives rise to neural sequences which propagate ahead of the animals' decision point to reach goal locations...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Kwok Ng, Dagmar Sigmundová, Erik Sigmund, Jan Pavelka, Zdeněk Hamřík, Michal Molcho, Michal Kalman
OBJECTIVE: Due to the importance of surveillance of injuries and accidents in the Czech Republic, the purpose of this study was to report the temporal trends of injuries of Czech adolescents between 2002 and 2014. METHODS: Adolescents (N=20,038) from the Czech Republic, that took part in the 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014 HBSC study, reported the frequency of medically attended injuries in the past 12 months. Repeated binary logistic regressions with different years as reference categories were performed...
July 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Jana Vašíčková, Tomáš Hollein, Dagmar Sigmundová, Sisko Honkala, Jan Pavelka, Michal Kalman
OBJECTIVE: Brushing one's teeth twice a day is the main self-care method to prevent the most prevalent non-communicable diseases. The aim of the study is to describe the trends in brushing teeth in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Czech children between 1994 and 2014. METHODS: One question about oral health from the HBSC study protocol was used in the six surveys (1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014). Altogether, 21,170 answers from boys and girls were analyzed using statistical description and binominal logistic regression...
July 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Lenka Hodačová, Eva Hlaváčková, Dagmar Sigmundová, Michal Kalman, Jaroslava Kopčáková
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to examine cross-sectional time trends of life satisfaction and self-rated health in a representative sample of Czech children aged 11, 13 and 15 years using the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study data from the Czech Republic. METHODS: Data from survey years 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014 was used. The sample consisted of 16,357 participants (48.5% of boys). Life satisfaction (LS) was measured by Cantril's ladder; self-rated health was measured through the simple item "Would you say your health is: excellent, good, fair, poor"...
July 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Ladislav Kážmér, Ladislav Csémy, Ingrid Ružbarská, Jan Pavelka, Zdeněk Hamřík, Michal Kalman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine trends in the prevalence of lifetime cannabis use among the Czech 15-year old students. METHODS: Data from the nationally representative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey, conducted in the Czech Republic in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014, were used. Trends in cannabis use among both boys and girls were modelled through binary logistic regression with period as a predictor of the lifetime cannabis use. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime cannabis use has significantly decreased among young Czechs, particularly among boys...
July 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Mária Sarková, Dagmar Sigmundová, Michal Kalman
OBJECTIVE: Bullying in school is a public health concern which continues to be a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine trends in bullying behaviour among school-aged children in the Czech Republic. METHODS: Data were obtained from cross-sectional self-report surveys in the years 1994-2014 as a part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) from a representative sample of 11-, 13-, and 15-year olds...
July 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Jan Pavelka, Dagmar Sigmundová, Zdeněk Hamřík, Michal Kalman, Erik Sigmund, Frida Mathisen
OBJECTIVE: Active commuting (AC) is an important factor in increasing the total daily physical activity (PA) in children, which is significant for their health and positive physical behaviour in adulthood. The objective of the study was to describe trends in active commuting to school among Czech girls and boys aged 11-15 years from 2006 to 2014, using data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. METHODS: To investigate trends in AC among Czech children of school age data obtained from the HBSC surveys carried out in 2006, 2010, and 2014 was used...
July 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Dagmar Sigmundová, Erik Sigmund, Jens Bucksch, Petr Baďura, Michal Kalman, Zdeněk Hamřík
OBJECTIVE: Screen-based behaviours such as watching television or computer use are among the most prevalent sedentary behaviours adolescents spend time on. There is a lack of recent estimates on prevalence and changes in the amount of time spent on screen-based behaviour across Central and Eastern Europe. The main aim is to assess the trends in the prevalence of current recommendations for the screen time (≤2 hours per day) of school-aged children in the Czech Republic between 2002 and 2014...
July 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Zdeněk Hamřík, Dagmar Sigmundová, Jan Pavelka, Michal Kalman, Erik Sigmund
OBJECTIVE: Overweight and obesity in adolescents is associated with many health risks and considerable direct and indirect healthcare costs. The purpose of this study is to examine trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 11-, 13- and 15-year-old adolescents in the Czech Republic from 1998 to 2014. METHODS: Data from five self-reported survey rounds (1998, 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014) of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (HBSC) were used to assess trends in overweight and obesity among Czech adolescents...
July 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Erik Sigmund, Petr Baďura, Dagmar Sigmundová, Ladislav Csémy, Michal Kalman
The aim of the study is to present the theoretical background of trend studies in general, to characterize the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study and to describe its methodology and changes of the Czech HBSC study between 1994 and 2014. The first part describes various types of trend research studies including their advantages and disadvantages. The second part summarizes the history of the HBSC study in an international context and particularly in the Czech Republic. The final part presents the basic methodological data from six surveys conducted in the Czech Republic between 1994 and 2014...
July 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Michal Kalman
The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study is now in its 34th year. It continues to grow not only as a source of reliable and valid data on the health behaviours of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds, but also regarding its membership - 46 countries and regions across Europe and North America are now included. The HBSC study is a cohort cross-sectional questionnaire-based study focusing on health and health-related behaviours in adolescents in the context of their social environment. This age was selected because of the significant cognitive, psychological, and biological processes taking place in this period of the lifespan, as well as because of the fact that health-related behaviours adopted at this age are known to persist into adulthood...
July 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Stefan A Hoffmann, Christian Wohltat, Kristian M Müller, Katja M Arndt
For various experimental applications, microbial cultures at defined, constant densities are highly advantageous over simple batch cultures. Due to high costs, however, devices for continuous culture at freely defined densities still experience limited use. We have developed a small-scale turbidostat for research purposes, which is manufactured from inexpensive components and 3D printed parts. A high degree of spatial system integration and a graphical user interface provide user-friendly operability. The used optical density feedback control allows for constant continuous culture at a wide range of densities and offers to vary culture volume and dilution rates without additional parametrization...
2017: PloS One
Kálmán Tapolczai, Agnès Bouchez, Csilla Stenger-Kovács, Judit Padisák, Frédéric Rimet
Diatom-based ecological quality assessment methods have been implemented and used regularly in the Water Framework Directive. These indices use the species' abundance profiles along a specific environmental gradient, which they aim to assess. However, this approach has several problematic issues including the unstable and fast-changing diatom taxonomy. The use of traits can be a solution if their responses to the environmental pressure are well-defined. Here, we developed taxonomy-based and trait-based diatom assemblage indices to assess the ecological status of riverine sites on a tropical island...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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