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Hongjun Choi, Mingi Kim, Onseok Lee
Animal tracking is an important tool for observing behavior, which is useful in various research areas. Animal specimens can be tracked using dynamic models and observation models that require several types of data. Tracking mouse has several barriers due to the physical characteristics of the mouse, their unpredictable movement, and cluttered environments. Therefore, we propose a reliable method that uses a detection stage and a tracking stage to successfully track mouse. The detection stage detects the surface area of the mouse skin, and the tracking stage implements an extended Kalman filter to estimate the state variables of a nonlinear model...
May 19, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Richard Kalman, Andrew Stawarz, David Nunes, Di Zhang, Mart A Dela Cruz, Arpan Mohanty, Hariharan Subramanian, Vadim Backman, Hemant K Roy
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) results from chronic inflammation/cirrhosis. Unfortunately, despite use of radiological/serological screening techniques, HCC ranks as a leading cause of cancer deaths. Our group has used alterations in high order chromatin as a marker for field carcinogenesis and hence risk for a variety of cancers (including colon, lung, prostate, ovarian, esophageal). In this study we wanted to address whether these chromatin alterations occur in HCC and if it could be used for risk stratification...
2018: PloS One
Sungmin Han, Jun-Uk Chu, Jong Woong Park, Inchan Youn
Proprioceptive afferent activities recorded by a multichannel microelectrode have been used to decode limb movements to provide sensory feedback signals for closed-loop control in a functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. However, analyzing the high dimensionality of neural activity is one of the major challenges in real-time applications. This paper proposes a linear feature projection method for the real-time decoding of ankle and knee joint angles. Single-unit activity was extracted as a feature vector from proprioceptive afferent signals that were recorded from the L7 dorsal root ganglion during passive movements of ankle and knee joints...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
Bhupesh Pathik, Geoffrey Lee, Frédéric Sacher, Pierre Jaïs, Grégoire Massoullié, Nicolas Derval, Matthew G Bates, Jonathan Lipton, Stephen Joseph, Joseph Morton, Paul Sparks, Peter Kistler, Jonathan M Kalman
OBJECTIVES: Using high-resolution 3-dimensional (3D) mapping, the aim of this study was to further characterize right atrial macro-re-entrant tachycardias and answer unresolved questions in the understanding of this arrhythmia. BACKGROUND: Despite advances in understanding of the mechanisms of right atrial macro-re-entrant tachycardias, many questions lack definitive answers. The advent of high-resolution 3D mapping provides an opportunity to gain further insights into the nature of these common circuits...
September 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
Javier Valdes-Abellan, Yakov Pachepsky, Gonzalo Martinez
Data assimilation is becoming a promising technique in hydrologic modelling to update not only model states but also to infer model parameters, specifically to infer soil hydraulic properties in Richard-equation-based soil water models. The Ensemble Kalman Filter method is one of the most widely employed method among the different data assimilation alternatives. In this study the complete Matlab© code used to study soil data assimilation efficiency under different soil and climatic conditions is shown. The code shows the method how data assimilation through EnKF was implemented...
2018: MethodsX
Basile Pinsard, Arnaud Boutin, Julien Doyon, Habib Benali
Functional MRI acquisition is sensitive to subjects' motion that cannot be fully constrained. Therefore, signal corrections have to be applied a posteriori in order to mitigate the complex interactions between changing tissue localization and magnetic fields, gradients and readouts. To circumvent current preprocessing strategies limitations, we developed an integrated method that correct motion and spatial low-frequency intensity fluctuations at the level of each slice in order to better fit the acquisition processes...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Fangjun Qin, Lubin Chang, Sai Jiang, Feng Zha
In this paper, a sequential multiplicative extended Kalman filter (SMEKF) is proposed for attitude estimation using vector observations. In the proposed SMEKF, each of the vector observations is processed sequentially to update the attitude, which can make the measurement model linearization more accurate for the next vector observation. This is the main difference to Murrell’s variation of the MEKF, which does not update the attitude estimate during the sequential procedure. Meanwhile, the covariance is updated after all the vector observations have been processed, which is used to account for the special characteristics of the reset operation necessary for the attitude update...
May 3, 2018: Sensors
Mahmoud K Madi, Fadi N Karameh
Many physical models of biological processes including neural systems are characterized by parametric nonlinear dynamical relations between driving inputs, internal states, and measured outputs of the process. Fitting such models using experimental data (data assimilation) is a challenging task since the physical process often operates in a noisy, possibly non-stationary environment; moreover, conducting multiple experiments under controlled and repeatable conditions can be impractical, time consuming or costly...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Shun Gong, Fan Zhang, Isaiah Norton, Walid I Essayed, Prashin Unadkat, Laura Rigolo, Ofer Pasternak, Yogesh Rathi, Lijun Hou, Alexandra J Golby, Lauren J O'Donnell
PURPOSE: Peritumoral edema impedes the full delineation of fiber tracts due to partial volume effects in image voxels that contain a mixture of cerebral parenchyma and extracellular water. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of incorporating a free water (FW) model of edema for white matter tractography in the presence of edema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 26 consecutive brain tumor patients with diffusion MRI and T2-weighted images acquired presurgically...
2018: PloS One
Wei Wang, Bin Zheng, Binlin Chen, Yaoming An, Xiaoming Jiang, Zhangyong Li
In recent years, the pollution problem of particulate matter, especially PM2.5, is becoming more and more serious, which has attracted many people's attention from all over the world. In this paper, a Kalman prediction model combined with cubic spline interpolation is proposed, which is applied to predict the concentration of PM2.5 in the micro-regional environment of campus, and to realize interpolation simulation diagram of concentration of PM2.5 and simulate the spatial distribution of PM2.5. The experiment data are based on the environmental information monitoring system which has been set up by our laboratory...
February 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Rita Fontanella, Domenico Accardo, Rosario Schiano Lo Moriello, Leopoldo Angrisani, Domenico De Simone
This paper presents an innovative model for integrating thermal compensation of gyro bias error into an augmented state Kalman filter. The developed model is applied in the Zero Velocity Update filter for inertial units manufactured by exploiting Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) gyros. It is used to remove residual bias at startup. It is a more effective alternative to traditional approach that is realized by cascading bias thermal correction by calibration and traditional Kalman filtering for bias tracking...
May 7, 2018: Sensors
Yang Liu, Sihai Li, Qiangwen Fu, Zhenbo Liu
In the face of emerging Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) spoofing attacks, there is a need to give a comprehensive analysis on how the inertial navigation system (INS)/GNSS integrated navigation system responds to different kinds of spoofing attacks. A better understanding of the integrated navigation system’s behavior with spoofed GNSS measurements gives us valuable clues to develop effective spoofing defenses. This paper focuses on an impact assessment of GNSS spoofing attacks on the integrated navigation system Kalman filter’s error covariance, innovation sequence and inertial sensor bias estimation...
May 4, 2018: Sensors
Matt von Konrat, Thomas Campbell, Ben Carter, Matthew Greif, Mike Bryson, Juan Larraín, Laura Trouille, Steve Cohen, Eve Gaus, Ayesha Qazi, Eric Ribbens, Tatyana Livshultz, Taylor J Walker, Tomomi Suwa, Taylor Peterson, Yarency Rodriguez, Caitlin Vaughn, Christina Yang, Selma Aburahmeh, Brian Carstensen, Peter de Lange, Charlie Delavoi, Kalman Strauss, Justyna Drag, Blanka Aguero, Chris Snyder, Joann Martinec, Arfon Smith
Premise of the Study: Biological collections are uniquely poised to inform the stewardship of life on Earth in a time of cataclysmic biodiversity loss. Efforts to fully leverage collections are impeded by a lack of trained taxonomists and a lack of interest and engagement by the public. We provide a model of a crowd-sourced data collection project that produces quality taxonomic data sets and empowers citizen scientists through real contributions to science. Entitled MicroPlants, the project is a collaboration between taxonomists, citizen science experts, and teachers and students from universities and K-12...
February 2018: Applications in Plant Sciences
Jian Zhao, Sybrand J T Jonker, Denise N Meyer, Göran Schulz, C Duc Tran, Lars Eriksson, Kálmán J Szabó
Tri- and tetrasubstituted allenylboronic acids were prepared via a new versatile copper-catalyzed methodology. The densely functionalized allenylboronic acids readily undergo propargylboration reactions with ketones and imines without any additives. Catalytic asymmetric propargylborylation of ketones is demonstrated with high stereoselectivity allowing for the synthesis of highly enantioenriched tertiary homopropargyl alcohols. The reaction is suitable for kinetic resolution of racemic allenylboronic acids affording alkynes with adjacent quaternary stereocenters...
April 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Les Kalman, Quincy Izabela Sofowora
Indirect non-metal restorations restore the function and esthetics of severely carious or broken teeth. This report explores a novel approach for the impression, model fabrication and provisionalization of a pin reinforced-onlay (pinlay) preparation. A dentoform molar was prepared for a pinlay indirect restoration. An impression, model and a provisional were fabricated with the employed pins and determined to be clinically acceptable. The pinlay may offer the patient and clinician another treatment option for oral rehabilitation...
2018: Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
Myungsoo Bae, Sangmin Lee, Namkug Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a robust and cost-effective 3D respiratory monitoring system based on a Kinect device with a custom-made simple marker. METHODS: A 3D respiratory monitoring system comprising the simple marker and the Microsoft Kinect v2 device was developed. The marker was designed for simple and robust detection, and the tracking algorithm was developed using the depth, RGB, and infra-red images acquired from the Kinect sensor...
July 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Mohammad Alkhatib, Adel Hafiane, Omar Tahri, Pierre Vieyres, Alain Delbos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the last decade, Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia (UGRA) gained importance in surgical procedures and pain management, due to its ability to perform target delivery of local anesthetics under direct sonographic visualization. However, practicing UGRA can be challenging, since it requires high skilled and experienced operator. Among the difficult task that the operator can face, is the tracking of the nerve structure in ultrasound images. Tracking task in US images is very challenging due to the noise and other artifacts...
July 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Spyridon Patmanidis, Alexandros C Charalampidis, Ioannis Kordonis, Georgios D Mitsis, George P Papavassilopoulos
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: In this work, we focus on estimating the parameters of the widely used Gompertz tumor growth model, based on measurements of the tumor's volume. Being able to accurately describe the dynamics of tumor growth on an individual basis is very important both for growth prediction and designing personalized, optimal therapy schemes (e.g. when using model predictive control). METHODS: Our analysis aims to compute both the growth rate and the carrying capacity of the Gompertz function, along with the characteristics of the additive Gaussian process and measurement noise of the system...
July 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Md Tauhidul Islam, Anuj Chaudhry, Songyuan Tang, Ennio Tasciotti, Raffaella Righetti
Ultrasound poroelastography aims at assessing the poroelastic behavior of biological tissues via estimation of the local temporal axial strains and effective Poisson's ratios (EPR). Currently, reliable estimation of EPR using ultrasound is a challenging task due to the limited quality of lateral strain estimation. In this paper, we propose a new two-step EPR estimation technique based on dynamic programming elastography (DPE) and Horn-Schunck (HS) optical flow estimation. In the proposed method, DPE is used to estimate the integer axial and lateral displacements while HS is used to obtain subsample axial and lateral displacements from the motion-compensated pre-compressed and post-compressed radio frequency data...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Qigao Fan, Hai Zhang, Yan Sun, Yixin Zhu, Xiangpeng Zhuang, Jie Jia, Pengsong Zhang
Aimed at overcoming the problems of cumulative errors and low positioning accuracy in single Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), an Optimal Enhanced Kalman Filter (OEKF) is proposed in this paper to achieve accurate positioning of pedestrians within an enclosed environment. Firstly, the errors of the inertial sensors are analyzed, modeled, and reconstructed. Secondly, the cumulative errors in attitude and velocity are corrected using the attitude fusion filtering algorithm and Zero Velocity Update algorithm (ZUPT), respectively...
May 2, 2018: Sensors
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