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Charrise M Ramkissoon, Pau Herrero, Jorge Bondia, Josep Vehi
The artificial pancreas (AP) system is designed to regulate blood glucose in subjects with type 1 diabetes using a continuous glucose monitor informed controller that adjusts insulin infusion via an insulin pump. However, current AP developments are mainly hybrid closed-loop systems that include feed-forward actions triggered by the announcement of meals or exercise. The first step to fully closing the loop in the AP requires removing meal announcement, which is currently the most effective way to alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia due to the delay in insulin action...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Xu Zhao, Lihua Dou, Zhong Su, Ning Liu
A snake robot is a type of highly redundant mobile robot that significantly differs from a tracked robot, wheeled robot and legged robot. To address the issue of a snake robot performing self-localization in the application environment without assistant orientation, an autonomous navigation method is proposed based on the snake robot's motion characteristic constraints. The method realized the autonomous navigation of the snake robot with non-nodes and an external assistant using its own Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU)...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Mengli Xiao, Yongbo Zhang, Huimin Fu, Zhihua Wang
High-precision navigation algorithm is essential for the future Mars pinpoint landing mission. The unknown inputs caused by large uncertainties of atmospheric density and aerodynamic coefficients as well as unknown measurement biases may cause large estimation errors of conventional Kalman filters. This paper proposes a derivative-free version of nonlinear unbiased minimum variance filter for Mars entry navigation. This filter has been designed to solve this problem by estimating the state and unknown measurement biases simultaneously with derivative-free character, leading to a high-precision algorithm for the Mars entry navigation...
March 12, 2018: ISA Transactions
Dominik Linz, R Doug McEvoy, Martin R Cowie, Virend K Somers, Stanley Nattel, Patrick Lévy, Jonathan M Kalman, Prashanthan Sanders
Importance: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common clinically significant breathing abnormality during sleep. It is highly prevalent among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and it promotes arrhythmogenesis and impairs treatment efficacy. Observations: The prevalence of OSA ranges from 3% to 49% in population-based studies and from 21% to 74% in patients with AF. Diagnosis and treatment of OSA in patients with AF requires a close interdisciplinary collaboration between electrophysiologists, cardiologists, and sleep specialists...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Mareike Roell, Kai Roecker, Dominic Gehring, Hubert Mahler, Albert Gollhofer
The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU) broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Luis V Syro, Fabio Rotondo, Leon D Ortiz, Kalman Kovacs
Temozolomide is an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent used in malignant neuroendocrine neoplasia, melanoma, brain metastases, and an essential component of adjuvant therapy in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma. Since 2006 it has been used for the treatment of pituitary carcinomas and aggressive pituitary adenomas. Here, we discuss the current indications and results of temozolomide therapy in pituitary tumors, as well as frequently asked questions regarding temozolomide treatment, duration of therapy, dosage, tumor recurrence, and resistance...
March 13, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Huixia Li, Xi Wen, Hang Guo, Min Yu
As indoor mobile navigation suffers from low positioning accuracy and accumulation error, we carried out research into an integrated location system for a robot based on Kinect and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). In this paper, the close-range stereo images are used to calculate the attitude information and the translation amount of the adjacent positions of the robot by means of the absolute orientation algorithm, for improving the calculation accuracy of the robot's movement. Relying on the Kinect visual measurement and the strap-down IMU devices, we also use Kalman filtering to obtain the errors of the position and attitude outputs, in order to seek the optimal estimation and correct the errors...
March 12, 2018: Sensors
Aleksandr Voskoboinik, Paul B Sparks, Joseph B Morton, Geoffrey Lee, Stephen A Joseph, Joshua J Hawson, Peter M Kistler, Jonathan M Kalman
BACKGROUND: Despite technological advances, studies continue to report high complication rates for atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. We sought to review complication rates for AF ablation at a high-volume centre over a 14-year period and identify predictors of complications. METHODS: We reviewed prospectively collected data from 2750 consecutive AF ablation procedures at our institution using radiofrequency energy (RF) between January 2004 and May 2017. All cases were performed under general anaesthetic with transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE), 3D-mapping and an irrigated ablation catheter...
February 3, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Paul J Hadwin, Timothy A Sipkens, Kevin A Thomson, Fengshan Liu, Kyle J Daun
Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) data can be used to infer spatially and temporally resolved volume fractions and primary particle size distributions of soot-laden aerosols, but these estimates are corrupted by measurement noise as well as uncertainties in the spectroscopic and heat transfer submodels used to interpret the data. Estimates of the temperature, concentration, and size distribution of soot primary particles within a sample aerosol are typically made by nonlinear regression of modeled spectral incandescence decay, or effective temperature decay, to experimental data...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Jagadesh Ramaiah, Pramod Rastogi, Gannavarpu Rajshekhar
This paper presents a method for extracting multiple phases from a single moire fringe pattern in digital holographic interferometry. The method relies on component separation using singular value decomposition and an extended Kalman filter for demodulating the moire fringes. The Kalman filter is applied by modeling the interference field locally as a multi-component polynomial phase signal and extracting the associated multiple polynomial coefficients using the state space approach. In addition to phase, the corresponding multiple phase derivatives can be simultaneously extracted using the proposed method...
March 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Binqi Zheng, Pengcheng Fu, Baoqing Li, Xiaobing Yuan
The Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) may suffer from performance degradation and even divergence while mismatch between the noise distribution assumed as a priori by users and the actual ones in a real nonlinear system. To resolve this problem, this paper proposes a robust adaptive UKF (RAUKF) to improve the accuracy and robustness of state estimation with uncertain noise covariance. More specifically, at each timestep, a standard UKF will be implemented first to obtain the state estimations using the new acquired measurement data...
March 7, 2018: Sensors
Sandeep Prabhu, Manish Kalla, Kah Y Peck, Aleksandr Voskoboinik, Alex Ja McLellan, Bupesh Pathik, Chrishan J Nalliah, Geoff R Wong, Hariharan Sugumar, Sonia M Azzopardi, Geoffrey Lee, Liang-Han Ling, Jonathan M Kalman, Peter M Kistler
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) remains the cornerstone of catheter ablation (CA) in persistent AF (PeAF) although less successful than for PAF. Whether rapid or fibrillatory (PVAF) PV firing may identify PeAF patients more likely to benefit from a PV based approach, is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between PV cycle length (PVCL) and PVAF outcome post CA. METHODS: Before ablation, the multipolar catheter was placed in each PV and the left atrial appendage (LAA) for 100 consecutive cycles...
March 1, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Chen Jiang, Shu-Bi Zhang
As an optimal estimation method, the Kalman filter is the most frequently-used data fusion strategy in the field of dynamic navigation and positioning. Nevertheless, the abnormal model errors seriously degrade performance of the conventional Kalman filter. The adaptive Kalman filter was put forward to control the influences of model errors. However, the adaptive Kalman filter based on the predicted residuals (innovation vector) requires reliable observation information, and its performance is significantly affected by outliers in the measurements...
February 26, 2018: Sensors
Zongkai Wu, Wei Wang
Micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) gyroscopes and magnetometers are usually integrated into a sensor module or chip and widely used in a variety of applications. In existing integrated gyroscope and magnetometer calibration methods, rotation in all possible orientations is a necessary condition for a good calibration result. However, rotation around two or more axes is difficult to attain, as it is limited by the range of movement of vehicles such as cars, ships, or planes. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an integrated magnetometer and gyroscope calibration method with level rotation...
March 1, 2018: Sensors
Tian Hao Zhu, Raagini Suresh, Benjamin Farahnik, Caleb Jeon, Erin Warshaw, Pamela Scheinman, Christen Mowad, Nina Botto, Bruce Brod, James S Taylor, Amber Reck Atwater, Kalman Watsky, Peter C Schalock, Brian C Machler, Stephen Helms, Sharon E Jacob, Jenny E Murase
BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) remains a significant burden of disease in the United States. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosing ACD, but its use may be limited by reimbursement challenges. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the current rate of patch test utilization among dermatologists in academic, group, or private practice settings to understand different patch testing business models that address these reimbursement challenges...
February 28, 2018: Dermatitis
Min-Ki Kim, Jeong-Woo Sohn, Bongsoo Lee, Sung-Phil Kim
BACKGROUND: Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) harness movement information by sensing neuronal activities using chronic microelectrode implants to restore lost functions to patients with paralysis. However, neuronal signals often vary over time, even within a day, forcing one to rebuild a BMI every time they operate it. The term "rebuild" means overall procedures for operating a BMI, such as decoder selection, decoder training, and decoder testing. It gives rise to a practical issue of what decoder should be built for a given neuronal ensemble...
February 27, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
D Panigrahy, P K Sahu
Generally, P and T waves in an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal are lower in amplitude compared to amplitude of QRS complex and contaminated with noises from various sources. Due to these problems and lack of universal delineation rule, the automated detection and delineation of T and P waves (on, off, and peak position of T and P wave) in the ECG signal are challenging task. The effectiveness for detection of on, off, and peak position of T and P wave by using differential evolution (DE) algorithm with the denoising technique has been verified in this manuscript...
February 26, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Jose L Contreras-Vidal, Magdo Bortole, Fangshi Zhu, Kevin Nathan, Anusha Venkatakrishnan, Gerard E Francisco, Rogelio Soto, Jose L Pons
OBJECTIVE: Advancements in robot-assisted gait rehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces (BMI) may enhance stroke physiotherapy by engaging patients while providing information about robot-induced cortical adaptations. We investigate the feasibility of decoding walking from brain activity in stroke survivors during therapy using a powered exoskeleton integrated with an electroencephalography (EEG)-based BMI. DESIGN: The H2 powered exoskeleton was designed for overground gait training with actuated hip, knee and ankle joints...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Attila Nemes, Kálmán Havasi, Nóra Ambrus, Mária Kohári, László Sághy, Tamás Forster
Left atrial appendage is a cardiac chamber in variable shapes and sizes. Its condition is associated with atrial arrhytmias and the presence of a thrombus. Due to its difficult visualisation, the present review aimed to demonstrate the role of different echocardiographic methods in its assessment. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(9): 335-345.
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Brian J Anderson, Christopher F Chesley, Miranda Theodore, Colin Christie, Ryan Tino, Alex Wysoczanski, Kristy Ramphal, Michelle Oyster, Laurel Kalman, Mary K Porteous, Christian A Bermudez, Edward Cantu, Dennis L Kolson, Jason D Christie, Joshua M Diamond
BACKGROUND: Delirium significantly affects post-operative outcomes, but the incidence, risk factors, and long-term impact of delirium in lung transplant recipients have not been well studied. METHODS: We analyzed 155 lung transplant recipients enrolled in the Lung Transplant Outcomes Group (LTOG) cohort at a single center. We determined delirium incidence by structured chart review, identified risk factors for delirium, determined whether plasma concentrations of 2 cerebral injury markers (neuron-specific enolase [NSE] and glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]) were associated with delirium, and determined the association of post-operative delirium with 1-year survival...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
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