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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331479/molecular-characterization-and-expression-of-piwil1-and-piwil2-during-gonadal-development-and-treatment-with-hcg-and-lhrh-a2-in-odontobutis-potamophila
#1
Cheng Zhao, Wenxu Zhu, Shaowu Yin, Quanquan Cao, Hongye Zhang, Xin Wen, Guosong Zhang, Wanli Xie, Shuqiao Chen
Piwi proteins play an important regulatory role in germ cell division during gametogenesis and gonad development. In order to understand the function of Piwi genes in the reproductive process of the dark sleeper, we identified and characterized Piwil1 and Piwil2 from gonad tissue. The tissue distribution demonstrated that Piwils were highly expressed in the gonad of the dark sleeper. During gonad development, higher expression was observed in stage I of both the testes and ovaries than in subsequent stages at mRNA and protein levels...
January 10, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329439/conserved-proteins-of-the-rna-interference-system-in-the-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-rhizoglomus-irregulare-provide-new-insight-into-the-evolutionary-history-of-glomeromycota
#2
Soon-Jae Lee, Mengxuan Kong, Paul Harrison, Mohamed Hijri
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important mechanism in the evolution of many living organisms particularly in Prokaryotes where genes are frequently dispersed between taxa. Although, HGT has been reported in Eukaryotes, its accumulative effect and its frequency has been questioned. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are an early diverged fungal lineage belonging to phylum Glomeromycota, whose phylogenetic position is still under debate. The history of AMF and land plant symbiosis dates back to at least 460 million years ago...
January 10, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320577/genome-wide-profiling-of-the-piwi-interacting-rna-mrna-regulatory-networks-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancers
#3
Garima Singh, Jyoti Roy, Pratiti Rout, Bibekanand Mallick
PIWI-interacting (piRNAs), ~23-36 nucleotide-long small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs), earlier believed to be germline-specific, have now been identified in somatic cells, including cancer cells. These sncRNAs impact critical biological processes by fine-tuning gene expression at post-transcriptional and epigenetic levels. The expression of piRNAs in ovarian cancer, the most lethal gynecologic cancer is largely uncharted. In this study, we investigated the expression of PIWILs by qRT-PCR and western blotting and then identified piRNA transcriptomes in tissues of normal ovary and two most prevalent epithelial ovarian cancer subtypes, serous and endometrioid by small RNA sequencing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317756/non-coding-rnas-predict-recurrence-free-survival-of-patients-with-hypoxic-tumours
#4
Victor D Martinez, Natalie S Firmino, Erin A Marshall, Kevin W Ng, Brennan J Wadsworth, Christine Anderson, Wan L Lam, Kevin L Bennewith
Hypoxia promotes tumour aggressiveness and reduces patient survival. A spectrum of poor outcome among patients with hypoxic tumours suggests that additional factors modulate how tumours respond to hypoxia. PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with a pivotal role in genomic stability and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We reported that cancer type-specific piRNA signatures vary among patients. However, remarkably homogenous piRNA profiles are detected across patients with renal cell carcinoma, a cancer characterized by constitutive upregulation of hypoxia-related signaling induced by common mutation or loss of von Hippel-Lindau factor (VHL)...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317647/investigation-of-piwi-interacting-rna-pathway-genes-role-in-idiopathic-non-obstructive-azoospermia
#5
Zeeba Kamaliyan, Sara Pouriamanesh, Mohsen Soosanabadi, Milad Gholami, Reza Mirfakhraie
Genes involved in piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) pathway have an essential role in spermatogenesis. HIWI and TDRD proteins are critical for piRNA biogenesis and function. Therefore, Mutations and polymorphisms in HIWI and TDRD genes may play role in male infertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of HIWI2 rs508485 (T>C) and HIWI3 rs11703684 (C>T) polymorphisms and mutational analysis of TDRD5 gene in idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia in a case-control study including 226 non-obstructive azoospermia patients and 200 fertile males...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301509/assessment-of-pirna-biogenesis-and-function-in-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-and-their-precursor-germ-cell-neoplasia-in-situ
#6
Ildar V Gainetdinov, Yulia V Skvortsova, Sofia A Kondratieva, Alexey Klimov, Alexey A Tryakin, Tatyana L Azhikina
BACKGROUND: Aberrant overexpression of PIWI/piRNA pathway proteins is shown for many types of tumors. Interestingly, these proteins are downregulated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) compared to normal testis tissues. Here, we used germline and TGCT markers to assess the piRNA biogenesis and function in TGCTs and their precursor germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS). METHODS: We used small RNA deep sequencing, qRT-PCR, and mining public RNAseq/small RNA-seq datasets to examine PIWI/piRNA gene expression and piRNA biogenesis at four stages of TGCT development: (i) germ cells in healthy testis tissues, (ii) germ cells in testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs, (iii) GCNIS cells and (iv) TGCT cells...
January 4, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297285/effective-computational-detection-of-pirnas-using-n-gram-models-and-support-vector-machine
#7
Chun-Chi Chen, Xiaoning Qian, Byung-Jun Yoon
BACKGROUND: Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a new class of small non-coding RNAs that are known to be associated with RNA silencing. The piRNAs play an important role in protecting the genome from invasive transposons in the germline. Recent studies have shown that piRNAs are linked to the genome stability and a variety of human cancers. Due to their clinical importance, there is a pressing need for effective computational methods that can be used for computational identification of piRNAs...
December 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286006/altered-piwi-like-1-and-piwi-like-2-mrna-expression-in-ejaculated-spermatozoa-of-men-with-impaired-sperm-characteristics
#8
Maria Giebler, Thomas Greither, Lisa Müller, Carina Mösinger, Hermann M Behre
In about half the cases of involuntary childlessness, a male infertility factor is involved. The PIWI-LIKE genes, a subclade of the Argonaute protein family, are involved in RNA silencing and transposon control in the germline. Knockout of murine Piwi-like 1 and 2 homologs results in complete infertility in males. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the mRNA expression of human PIWI-LIKE 1-4 genes is altered in ejaculated spermatozoa of men with impaired sperm characteristics. Ninety male participants were included in the study, among which 47 were with normozoospermia, 36 with impaired semen characteristics according to the World Health Organization (WHO) manual, 5th edition, and 7 with azoospermia serving as negative control for the PIWI-LIKE 1-4 mRNA expression in somatic cells in the ejaculate...
December 26, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281264/piwi-interacting-rna-in-drosophila-biogenesis-transposon-regulation-and-beyond
#9
Haruna Yamashiro, Mikiko C Siomi
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are germline-enriched small RNAs that control transposons to maintain genome integrity. To achieve this, upon being processed from piRNA precursors, most of which are transcripts of intergenic piRNA clusters, piRNAs bind PIWI proteins, germline-specific Argonaute proteins, to form effector complexes. The mechanism of this piRNA-mediated transposon silencing pathway is fundamentally similar to that of siRNA/miRNA-dependent gene silencing in that a small RNA guides its partner Argonaute protein to target gene transcripts for repression via RNA-RNA base pairing...
December 27, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236253/iclip-of-the-piwi-protein-aubergine-in-drosophila-embryos
#10
Bridlin Barckmann, Jérémy Dufourt, Martine Simonelig
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs bound to specific Argonaute proteins, the PIWI proteins. piRNAs target mRNAs by complementarity to silence them; they play an important role in the repression of transposable elements in the germ line of many species. piRNAs and PIWI proteins are also involved in diverse biological processes through their role in the regulation of cellular mRNAs. In the Drosophila embryo, they contribute to the maternal mRNA decay occurring during the maternal-to-zygotic transition...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219730/a-comprehensive-profile-of-circulating-rnas-in-human-serum
#11
Sinan Uğur Umu, Hilde Langseth, Cecilie Bucher-Johannessen, Bastian Fromm, Andreas Keller, Eckart Meese, Marianne Lauritzen, Magnus Leithaug, Robert Lyle, Trine B Rounge
Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules have fundamental roles in cells and many are also stable in body fluids as extracellular RNAs. In this study, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate the profile of small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) in human serum. We analyzed 10 billion Illumina reads from 477 serum samples, included in the Norwegian population-based Janus Serum Bank (JSB). We found that the core serum RNA repertoire includes 258 micro RNAs (miRNA), 441 piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA), 411 transfer RNAs (tRNA), 24 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA), 125 small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) and 123 miscellaneous RNAs (misc-RNA)...
December 8, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211718/pirna-mediated-regulation-of-transposon-alternative-splicing-in-the-soma-and-germ-line
#12
Felipe Karam Teixeira, Martyna Okuniewska, Colin D Malone, Rémi-Xavier Coux, Donald C Rio, Ruth Lehmann
Transposable elements can drive genome evolution, but their enhanced activity is detrimental to the host and therefore must be tightly regulated. The Piwi-interacting small RNA (piRNA) pathway is vital for the regulation of transposable elements, by inducing transcriptional silencing or post-transcriptional decay of mRNAs. Here we show that piRNAs and piRNA biogenesis components regulate precursor mRNA splicing of P-transposable element transcripts in vivo, leading to the production of the non-transposase-encoding mature mRNA isoform in Drosophila germ cells...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206165/current-research-on-non-coding-ribonucleic-acid-rna
#13
REVIEW
Jing Wang, David C Samuels, Shilin Zhao, Yu Xiang, Ying-Yong Zhao, Yan Guo
Non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) has without a doubt captured the interest of biomedical researchers. The ability to screen the entire human genome with high-throughput sequencing technology has greatly enhanced the identification, annotation and prediction of the functionality of non-coding RNAs. In this review, we discuss the current landscape of non-coding RNA research and quantitative analysis. Non-coding RNA will be categorized into two major groups by size: long non-coding RNAs and small RNAs. In long non-coding RNA, we discuss regular long non-coding RNA, pseudogenes and circular RNA...
December 5, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203920/pan-arthropod-analysis-reveals-somatic-pirnas-as-an-ancestral-defence-against-transposable-elements
#14
Samuel H Lewis, Kaycee A Quarles, Yujing Yang, Melanie Tanguy, Lise Frézal, Stephen A Smith, Prashant P Sharma, Richard Cordaux, Clément Gilbert, Isabelle Giraud, David H Collins, Phillip D Zamore, Eric A Miska, Peter Sarkies, Francis M Jiggins
In animals, small RNA molecules termed PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposable elements (TEs), protecting the germline from genomic instability and mutation. piRNAs have been detected in the soma in a few animals, but these are believed to be specific adaptations of individual species. Here, we report that somatic piRNAs were probably present in the ancestral arthropod more than 500 million years ago. Analysis of 20 species across the arthropod phylum suggests that somatic piRNAs targeting TEs and messenger RNAs are common among arthropods...
January 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168346/cancer-testis-gene-piwil1-promotes-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#15
Kaipeng Xie, Kai Zhang, Jing Kong, Cheng Wang, Yayun Gu, Cheng Liang, Tingting Jiang, Na Qin, Jibin Liu, Xuejiang Guo, Ran Huo, Mingxi Liu, Hongxia Ma, Juncheng Dai, Zhibin Hu
Piwi-like RNA-mediated gene silencing 1 (PIWIL1) has been identified as a novel extremely highly expressed cancer-testis (CT) gene in lung adenocarcinoma. However, the exact function and mechanism of PIWIL1 in lung adenocarcinoma remains unclear. Herein, we sought to investigate the role of PIWIL1 in the occurrence and development of lung adenocarcinoma. We examined the expression pattern of PIWIL1 in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) lung adenocarcinoma samples, and validated it by Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) in additional 21 paired lung adenocarcinoma tissues and 16 normal tissues...
November 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164638/the-piwi-interacting-rna-molecular-pathway-insights-from-cultured-silkworm-germline-cells
#16
Kazuhiro Sakakibara, Mikiko C Siomi
The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, one of the major eukaryotic small RNA silencing pathways, is a genome surveillance system that silences selfish genes in animal gonads. piRNAs guide PIWI protein to target genes through Watson-Crick RNA-RNA base-parings. Loss of piRNA function causes genome instability, inducing failure in gametogenesis and infertility. Studies using fruit flies and mice as key experimental models have resulted in tremendous progress in understanding the mechanism underlying the piRNA pathway...
November 22, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158107/a-functional-role-for-the-epigenetic-regulator-ing1-in-activity-induced-gene-expression-in-primary-cortical-neurons
#17
Laura J Leighton, Qiongyi Zhao, Xiang Li, Chuanyang Dai, Paul R Marshall, Sha Liu, Yi Wang, Esmi L Zajaczkowski, Nitin Khandelwal, Arvind Kumar, Timothy W Bredy, Wei Wei
Epigenetic regulation of activity-induced gene expression involves multiple levels of molecular interaction, including histone and DNA modifications, as well as mechanisms of DNA repair. Here we demonstrate that the genome-wide deposition of Inhibitor of growth family member 1 (ING1), which is a central epigenetic regulatory protein, is dynamically regulated in response to activity in primary cortical neurons. ING1 knockdown leads to decreased expression of genes related to synaptic plasticity, including the regulatory subunit of calcineurin, Ppp3r1...
November 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130960/piwi-proteins-and-piwi-interacting-rna-emerging-roles-in-cancer
#18
Yi-Neng Han, Yuan Li, Sheng-Qiang Xia, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Jun-Hua Zheng, Wei Li
P-Element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a type of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and interact with PIWI proteins. piRNAs were primarily described in the germline, but emerging evidence revealed that piRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner among multiple human somatic tissue types as well and play important roles in transposon silencing, epigenetic regulation, gene and protein regulation, genome rearrangement, spermatogenesis and germ stem-cell maintenance. PIWI proteins were first discovered in Drosophila and they play roles in spermatogenesis, germline stem-cell maintenance, self-renewal, retrotransposons silencing and the male germline mobility control...
November 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129531/the-diversity-structure-and-function-of-heritable-adaptive-immunity-sequences-in-the-aedes-aegypti-genome
#19
Zachary J Whitfield, Patrick T Dolan, Mark Kunitomi, Michel Tassetto, Matthew G Seetin, Steve Oh, Cheryl Heiner, Ellen Paxinos, Raul Andino
The Aedes aegypti mosquito transmits arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus. Understanding the mechanisms underlying mosquito immunity could provide new tools to control arbovirus spread. Insects exploit two different RNAi pathways to combat viral and transposon infection: short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) [1, 2]. Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are sequences from non-retroviral viruses that are inserted into the mosquito genome and can act as templates for the production of piRNAs [3, 4]...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127279/the-emergence-of-pirnas-against-transposon-invasion-to-preserve-mammalian-genome-integrity
#20
REVIEW
Christina Ernst, Duncan T Odom, Claudia Kutter
Transposable elements (TEs) contribute to the large amount of repetitive sequences in mammalian genomes and have been linked to species-specific genome innovations by rewiring regulatory circuitries. However, organisms need to restrict TE activity to ensure genome integrity, especially in germline cells to protect the transmission of genetic information to the next generation. This review features our current understandings of mammalian PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and their role in TE regulation in spermatogenesis...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
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