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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497119/aedes-aegypti-piwi4-is-a-noncanonical-piwi-protein-involved-in-antiviral-responses
#1
Margus Varjak, Kevin Maringer, Mick Watson, Vattipally B Sreenu, Anthony C Fredericks, Emilie Pondeville, Claire L Donald, Jelle Sterk, Joy Kean, Marie Vazeille, Anna-Bella Failloux, Alain Kohl, Esther Schnettler
The small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway is a major antiviral response in mosquitoes; however, another RNA interference pathway, the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, has been suggested to be antiviral in mosquitoes. Piwi4 has been reported to be a key mediator of this response in mosquitoes, but it is not involved in the production of virus-specific piRNAs. Here, we show that Piwi4 associates with members of the antiviral exogenous siRNA pathway (Ago2 and Dcr2), as well as with proteins of the piRNA pathway (Ago3, Piwi5, and Piwi6) in an Aedes aegypti-derived cell line, Aag2...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497117/rna-interference-restricts-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-multiple-insect-systems
#2
Isabelle Dietrich, Stephanie Jansen, Gamou Fall, Stephan Lorenzen, Martin Rudolf, Katrin Huber, Anna Heitmann, Sabine Schicht, El Hadji Ndiaye, Mick Watson, Ilaria Castelli, Benjamin Brennan, Richard M Elliott, Mawlouth Diallo, Amadou A Sall, Anna-Bella Failloux, Esther Schnettler, Alain Kohl, Stefanie C Becker
The emerging bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted to humans and livestock by a large number of mosquito species. RNA interference (RNAi) has been characterized as an important innate immune defense mechanism used by mosquitoes to limit replication of positive-sense RNA flaviviruses and togaviruses; however, little is known about its role against negative-strand RNA viruses such as RVFV. We show that virus-specific small RNAs are produced in infected mosquito cells, in Drosophila melanogaster cells, and, most importantly, also in RVFV vector mosquitoes...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486636/natural-variation-in-the-distribution-and-abundance-of-transposable-elements-across-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-species
#3
K M Laricchia, S Zdraljevic, D E Cook, E C Andersen
Transposons are mobile DNA elements that generate both adaptive and deleterious phenotypic variation thereby driving genome evolution. For these reasons, genomes have mechanisms to regulate transposable element (TE) activity. Approximately 12-16% of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome is composed of TEs, of which the majority are likely inactive. However, most studies of TE activity have been conducted in the laboratory strain N2, which limits our knowledge of the effects of these mobile elements across natural populations...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472469/piwi-interacts-with-chromatin-at-nuclear-pores-and-promiscuously-binds-nuclear-transcripts-in-drosophila-ovarian-somatic-cells
#4
Artem A Ilyin, Sergei S Ryazansky, Semen A Doronin, Oxana M Olenkina, Elena A Mikhaleva, Evgeny Y Yakushev, Yuri A Abramov, Stepan N Belyakin, Anton V Ivankin, Alexey V Pindyurin, Vladimir A Gvozdev, Mikhail S Klenov, Yuri Y Shevelyov
Piwi in a complex with Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) triggers transcriptional silencing of transposable elements (TEs) in Drosophila ovaries, thus ensuring genome stability. To do this, Piwi must scan the nascent transcripts of genes and TEs for complementarity to piRNAs. The mechanism of this scanning is currently unknown. Here we report the DamID-seq mapping of multiple Piwi-interacting chromosomal domains in somatic cells of Drosophila ovaries. These domains significantly overlap with genomic regions tethered to Nuclear Pore Complexes (NPCs)...
May 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472327/contrasting-sex-and-caste-dependent-pirna-profiles-in-the-transposon-depleted-haplodiploid-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#5
Wei-Wen Wang, Regan Ashby, Hua Ying, Ryszard Maleszka, Sylvain Forêt
Protecting genome integrity against transposable elements is achieved by intricate molecular mechanisms involving PIWI proteins, their associated small RNAs (piRNAs), and epigenetic modifiers such as DNA methylation. Eusocial bees, in particular the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, have one of the lowest contents of transposable elements in the animal kingdom, and, unlike other animals with a functional DNA methylation system, do not methylate their transposons. This raises the question of whether the PIWI machinery has been retained in this species...
May 4, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460486/small-rna-sequencing-reveals-metastasis-related-micrornas-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#6
Iben Daugaard, Morten T Venø, Yan Yan, Tina E Kjeldsen, Philippe Lamy, Henrik Hager, Jørgen Kjems, Lise Lotte Hansen
The majority of lung cancer deaths are caused by metastatic disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression and miRNA dysregulation can contribute to metastatic progression. Here, small RNA sequencing was used to profile the miRNA and piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) transcriptomes in relation to lung cancer metastasis. RNA-seq was performed using RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) lung adenocarcinomas (LAC) and brain metastases from 8 patients, and LACs from 8 patients without detectable metastatic disease...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459978/short-and-long-term-evolutionary-dynamics-of-subtelomeric-pirna-clusters-in-drosophila
#7
Amna Asif-Laidin, Valérie Delmarre, Jeanne Laurentie, Wolfgang J Miller, Stéphane Ronsseray, Laure Teysset
Two Telomeric Associated Sequences, TAS-R and TAS-L, form the principal subtelomeric repeat families identified in Drosophila melanogaster. They are PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) clusters involved in repression of Transposable Elements. In this study, we revisited TAS structural and functional dynamics in D. melanogaster and in related species. In silico analysis revealed that TAS-R family members are composed of previously uncharacterized domains. This analysis also showed that TAS-L repeats are composed of arrays of a region we have named "TAS-L like" (TLL) identified specifically in one TAS-R family member, X-TAS...
April 27, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457744/piwi-is-required-during-drosophila-embryogenesis-to-license-dual-strand-pirna-clusters-for-transposon-repression-in-adult-ovaries
#8
Abdou Akkouche, Bruno Mugat, Bridlin Barckmann, Carolina Varela-Chavez, Blaise Li, Raoul Raffel, Alain Pélisson, Séverine Chambeyron
Most piRNAs in the Drosophila female germline are transcribed from heterochromatic regions called dual-strand piRNA clusters. Histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) is required for licensing piRNA production by these clusters. However, it is unclear when and how they acquire this permissive heterochromatic state. Here, we show that transient Piwi depletion in Drosophila embryos results in H3K9me3 decrease at piRNA clusters in ovaries. This is accompanied by impaired biogenesis of ovarian piRNAs, accumulation of transposable element transcripts, and female sterility...
May 4, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448516/natural-variation-of-pirna-expression-affects-immunity-to-transposable-elements
#9
Sergei Ryazansky, Elizaveta Radion, Anastasia Mironova, Natalia Akulenko, Yuri Abramov, Valeriya Morgunova, Maria Y Kordyukova, Ivan Olovnikov, Alla Kalmykova
In the Drosophila germline, transposable elements (TEs) are silenced by PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) that originate from distinct genomic regions termed piRNA clusters and are processed by PIWI-subfamily Argonaute proteins. Here, we explore the variation in the ability to restrain an alien TE in different Drosophila strains. The I-element is a retrotransposon involved in the phenomenon of I-R hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genomes of R strains do not contain active I-elements, but harbour remnants of ancestral I-related elements...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445427/small-rna-pathways-that-protect-the-somatic-genome
#10
REVIEW
Seogang Hyun
Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA elements that can change their position within the genome, with the potential to create mutations and destabilize the genome. As such, special molecular systems have been adopted in animals to control TE activity in order to protect the genome. PIWI proteins, in collaboration with PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), are well known to play a critical role in silencing germline TEs. Although initially thought to be germline-specific, the role of PIWI-piRNA pathways in controlling TEs in somatic cells has recently begun to be explored in various organisms, together with the role of endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs)...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441530/aubergine-controls-germline-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-progeny-differentiation-via-distinct-mechanisms
#11
Xing Ma, Xiujuan Zhu, Yingying Han, Benjamin Story, Trieu Do, Xiaoqing Song, Su Wang, Ying Zhang, Marco Blanchette, Madelaine Gogol, Kate Hall, Allison Peak, Perera Anoja, Ting Xie
Piwi family protein Aubergine (Aub) maintains genome integrity in late germ cells of the Drosophila ovary through Piwi-associated RNA-mediated repression of transposon activities. Although it is highly expressed in germline stem cells (GSCs) and early progeny, it remains unclear whether it plays any roles in early GSC lineage development. Here we report that Aub promotes GSC self-renewal and GSC progeny differentiation. RNA-iCLIP results show that Aub binds the mRNAs encoding self-renewal and differentiation factors in cultured GSCs...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438683/identification-and-expression-of-piwil2-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-with-implications-of-the-involvement-in-embryonic-and-gonadal-development
#12
Huizhen Wang, Bo Wang, Xiaobing Liu, Yuezhong Liu, Xinxin Du, Quanqi Zhang, XuBo Wang
Piwil2, a member of the Argonaute family, is involved in the biogenesis of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and plays an important role in regulating gametogenesis. In the present study, we identified turbot Scophthalmus maximus piwil2 gene, named Smpiwil2, which contained a PAZ domain and a PIWI domain. Sequence comparison, genomic structure and phylogenetic analyses showed that Smpiwil2 is homologous to that of teleosts and tetrapods. The Smpiwil2 transcript showed higher expression in the ovary than in the testis, demonstrating a sexually dimorphic gene expression pattern...
April 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423657/identification-and-characterization-of-rassf1c-pirna-target-genes-in-lung-cancer-cells
#13
Mark E Reeves, Mathew Firek, Abdullaati Jliedi, Yousef G Amaar
RASSF1C up-regulates important genes involved in lung cancer cell growth, including a stem cell self-renewal gene, piwil1. In this article, we report the identification of small noncoding PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in lung cancer cells over-expressing RASSF1C. A piRNA microarray screen was performed using RNA isolated from the lung cancer cell line H1299 stably over-expressing RASSF1C and corresponding control. The piRNA microarray screen identified several piRNAs that are regulated by RASSF1C and we have validated the expression of two up-regulated piRNAs (piR-34871 and piR-52200) and two down-regulated piRNAs (piR-35127 and piR-46545) in lung cancer cells with silenced and over-expressed RASSF1C using RT-PCR...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423565/identification-and-characterization-of-l1-specific-endo-sirnas-essential-for-early-embryonic-development-in-pig
#14
Heng Zhang, Jilong Liu, Yurong Tai, Xiaolei Zhang, Jiaming Zhang, Shichao Liu, Jiawei Lv, Zhonghua Liu, Qingran Kong
Small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) play important roles in RNA interference (RNAi). In addition to microRNA (miRNA) and Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA), one key member of sncRNAs group is endogenous small interfering RNA (endo-siRNA). Some studies do show the role of endo-siRNAs in Dicer and/or Ago mutants, however, the biological functions of specific endo-siRNAs remains mostly unanswered. In the study, we have performed a comparative analysis of endo-siRNAs present in porcine sperms, oocytes and zygotes, identified by deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422722/the-clinical-value-regulatory-mechanisms-and-gene-network-of-the-cancer-testis-gene-stk31-in-pancreatic-cancer
#15
Kai Zhang, Zipeng Lu, Yi Zhu, Lei Tian, Jingjing Zhang, Chunhua Xi, Wentao Gao, Kuirong Jiang, Yi Miao
We aimed to identify STK31 as a cancer-testis (CT) gene and to explore its potential clinical value, regulatory mechanisms, and gene network in pancreatic cancer (PC). Gene expression data were generated from normal organ samples and pancreatic cancer samples from three public databases. STK31 expression patterns in normal and PC tissues were identified, and we explored its regulatory mechanisms. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analyses of STK31-related genes were performed and an STK31 protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420675/integrative-analysis-unveils-new-functions-for-the-drosophila-cutoff-protein-in-non-coding-rna-biogenesis-and-gene-regulation
#16
Yuri Pritykin, Tarcisio Brito, Trudi Schupbach, Mona Singh, Attilio Pane
Piwi-Interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are central components of the piRNA pathway, which directs transposon silencing and guarantees genome integrity in the germ cells of several metazoans. In Drosophila, piRNAs are produced from discrete regions of the genome termed piRNA clusters, whose expression relies on the RDC complex comprised of the core proteins Rhino, Deadlock and Cutoff. To date, the RDC complex has been exclusively implicated in the regulation of the piRNA loci. Here we further elucidate the function of Cutoff and the RDC complex by performing genome-wide ChIP-seq and RNA-seq assays in the Drosophila germline and analyzing these data together with other publicly available data sets...
April 18, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414124/roles-of-pirnas-in-microcystin-leucine-arginine-mc-lr-induced-reproductive-toxicity-in-testis-on-male-offspring
#17
Ling Zhang, Hui Zhang, Huan Zhang, Mikael Benson, Xiaodong Han, Dongmei Li
In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects on the testis of the male offspring of MC-LR exposure during fetal and lactational periods. Pregnant females were distributed into two experimental groups: control group and MC-LR group which were exposed to 0 and 10 μg/L of MC-LR, respectively, through drinking water separately during fetal and lactational periods. At the age of 30 days after birth, the male offspring were euthanized. The body weight, testis index, and histomorphology change were observed and the global changes of piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) expression were evaluated...
April 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399266/pirna-3312-a-putative-role-for-pyrethroid-resistance-in-culex-pipiens-pallens-diptera-culicidae
#18
Juxin Guo, Wenyun Ye, Xianmiao Liu, Xueli Sun, Qin Guo, Yun Huang, Lei Ma, Yan Sun, Bo Shen, Dan Zhou, Changliang Zhu
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a newly identified class of small noncoding RNAs. They are associated with chromatin organization, messenger RNA stability, and genome structure. Although the overexpression of piRNA-3312 in deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strain of Culex pipiens pallens (L.) was observed in our previous large-scale transcriptome data, the roles of piRNA in insecticide resistance have not been clearly defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate how piRNA-3312 is involved in insecticide resistance...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393858/hili-destabilizes-microtubules-by-suppressing-phosphorylation-and-gigaxonin-mediated-degradation-of-tbcb
#19
Hao Tan, Hua Liao, Lianfang Zhao, Yilu Lu, Siyuan Jiang, Dachang Tao, Yunqiang Liu, Yongxin Ma
Human PIWIL2, aka HILI, is a member of PIWI protein family and overexpresses in various tumors. However, the underlying mechanisms of HILI in tumorigenesis remain largely unknown. TBCB has a critical role in regulating microtubule dynamics and is overexpressed in many cancers. Here we report that HILI inhibits Gigaxonin-mediated TBCB ubiquitination and degradation by interacting with TBCB, promoting the binding between HSP90 and TBCB, and suppressing the interaction between Gigaxonin and TBCB. Meanwhile, HILI can also reduce phosphorylation level of TBCB induced by PAK1...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388001/exploring-the-rna-bound-and-rna-free-human-argonaute-2-by-molecular-dynamics-simulation-method
#20
Ren Kong, Lei Xu, Lianhua Piao, Dawei Zhang, Ting-Jun Hou, Shan Chang
Argonaute 2 (Ago2) protein is the major vehicle of MicroRNAs (miRNAs) guided gene repression and silencing processes. Although the crystal structure of human Ago2 (hAgo2) has recently been disclosed but the information of dynamically structural character of protein-RNA recognition is still lacking. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to systematically explore hAgo2 in the presence and absence of RNA duplex. Stable direct and water-mediated hydrogen bonds were observed between guide RNA backbone atoms and hAgo2, especially for nucleotides 2-7...
April 7, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
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