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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918159/identification-of-circular-rna-in-the-bombyx-mori-silk-gland
#1
Huaiyan Gan, Tieshan Feng, Yuqian Wu, Chun Liu, Qingyou Xia, Tingcai Cheng
Bombyx mori is an economically important holometabolous lepidopteran insect. In B. mori endogenous noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs play crucial biological functions in metamorphosis and sex determination. In addition, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently identified as noncoding RNAs in most common model organisms and show potential as gene regulators. However, to date, there have been few studies on the circRNAs present in the B. mori genome conducted to date. Here, we identified 3916 circRNAs by deep circular transcriptome sequencing using the silk gland of B...
September 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903896/the-regulatory-functions-of-pirna-piwi-in-spermatogenesis
#2
Zhi-Heng Yuan, Yan-Mei Zhao
A class of 24-32 nt PIWI-binding small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) termed as PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have been identified in animal germline. Recent studies suggest that piRNA/PIWI pathway plays a critical role in both silencing of transposons and posttranscriptional regulation of mRNAs in animal germline. A study from Dr. Mofang Liu's lab in Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, reveals the physiological and pathological importance of PIWI metabolism (mouse PIWI as known as MIWI; human PIWI as HIWI) in mammalian spermatogenesis...
August 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903034/piwi-is-required-to-limit-exhaustion-of-aging-somatic-stem-cells
#3
Pedro Sousa-Victor, Arshad Ayyaz, Rippei Hayashi, Yanyan Qi, David T Madden, Victoria V Lunyak, Heinrich Jasper
Sophisticated mechanisms that preserve genome integrity are critical to ensure the maintenance of regenerative capacity while preventing transformation of somatic stem cells (SCs), yet little is known about mechanisms regulating genome maintenance in these cells. Here, we show that intestinal stem cells (ISCs) induce the Argonaute family protein Piwi in response to JAK/STAT signaling during acute proliferative episodes. Piwi function is critical to ensure heterochromatin maintenance, suppress retrotransposon activation, and prevent DNA damage in homeostasis and under regenerative pressure...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893179/conservation-and-diversification-of-small-rna-pathways-within-flatworms
#4
Santiago Fontenla, Gabriel Rinaldi, Pablo Smircich, Jose F Tort
BACKGROUND: Small non-coding RNAs, including miRNAs, and gene silencing mediated by RNA interference have been described in free-living and parasitic lineages of flatworms, but only few key factors of the small RNA pathways have been exhaustively investigated in a limited number of species. The availability of flatworm draft genomes and predicted proteomes allowed us to perform an extended survey of the genes involved in small non-coding RNA pathways in this phylum. RESULTS: Overall, findings show that the small non-coding RNA pathways are conserved in all the analyzed flatworm linages; however notable peculiarities were identified...
September 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882222/role-of-the-trna-derived-small-rnas-in-cancer-new-potential-biomarkers-and-target-for-therapy
#5
Veronica Balatti, Yuri Pekarsky, Carlo M Croce
Noncoding RNAs are untranslated RNA molecules that can be divided into two main types: infrastructural, including transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and regulatory, including long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and small ncRNAs (sRNA). Among small ncRNA, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in cancer is well documented. Recently, other small ncRNAs have been described. In particular, tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNA) have been found to be frequently dysregulated in cancer. Since tsRNAs can be considered unique sequences and are able to bind both Argonaute proteins (like miRNAs) and Piwi proteins (like piRNAs), their dysregulation could play a critical role in cancer by interfering with gene expression regulation at different levels...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861107/piwi-like-protein-hiwi2-is-aberrantly-expressed-in-retinoblastoma-cells-and-affects-cell-cycle-potentially-through-otx2
#6
Suganya Sivagurunathan, Jayamuruga Pandian Arunachalam, Subbulakshmi Chidambaram
Retinoblastoma (RB), a childhood cancer, is caused by biallelic mutation of the RB1 gene, but its development is not clearly understood. Furthermore, the presence of a cancer stem cell subpopulation in RB might impact its treatment. PIWI protein, known for its role in stem cell self-renewal, is aberrantly expressed in cancers. We examined the role of the PIWI-like protein HIWI2 in RB and its effect on the stem cell markers in cells of the RB line, Y79. The expression of HIWI2 is significantly increased in Y79 compared with its level in HeLa and ARPE19 cells...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854624/transposable-element-misregulation-is-linked-to-the-divergence-between-parental-pirna-pathways-in-drosophila-hybrids
#7
Valèria Romero-Soriano, Laurent Modolo, Hélène Lopez-Maestre, Bruno Mugat, Eugénie Pessia, Séverine Chambeyron, Cristina Vieira, Maria Pilar Garcia Guerreiro
Interspecific hybridization is a genomic stress condition that leads to the activation of transposable elements (TEs) in both animals and plants. In hybrids between Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae, mobilization of at least 28 TEs has been described. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this TE release remain poorly understood. To give insight on the causes of this TE activation, we performed a TE transcriptomic analysis in ovaries (notorious for playing a major role in TE silencing) of parental species and their F1 and backcrossed (BC) hybrids...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847004/a-heterochromatin-dependent-transcription-machinery-drives-pirna-expression
#8
Peter Refsing Andersen, Laszlo Tirian, Milica Vunjak, Julius Brennecke
Nuclear small RNA pathways safeguard genome integrity by establishing transcription-repressing heterochromatin at transposable elements. This inevitably also targets the transposon-rich source loci of the small RNAs themselves. How small RNA source loci are efficiently transcribed while transposon promoters are potently silenced is not understood. Here we show that, in Drosophila, transcription of PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) clusters-small RNA source loci in animal gonads-is enforced through RNA polymerase II pre-initiation complex formation within repressive heterochromatin...
September 7, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844648/drosophila-paf1-modulates-piwi-pirna-silencing-capacity
#9
Josef P Clark, Reazur Rahman, Nachen Yang, Linda H Yang, Nelson C Lau
To test the directness of factors in initiating PIWI-directed gene silencing, we employed a Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA)-targeted reporter assay in Drosophila ovary somatic sheet (OSS) cells [1]. This assay confirmed direct silencing roles for piRNA biogenesis factors and PIWI-associated factors [2-12] but suggested that chromatin-modifying proteins may act downstream of the initial silencing event. Our data also revealed that RNA-polymerase-II-associated proteins like PAF1 and RTF1 antagonize PIWI-directed silencing...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842508/two-modes-of-targeting-transposable-elements-by-pirna-pathway-in-human-testis
#10
Ildar Gainetdinov, Yulia Skvortsova, Sofia Kondratieva, Sergey Funikov, Tatyana Azhikina
PIWI proteins and their partner small RNAs, termed piRNAs, are known to control transposable elements (TEs) in the germline. Here, we provide evidence that in humans this control is exerted in two different modes. On the one hand, production of piRNAs specifically targeting evolutionarily youngest TEs (L1HS, L1PA2-L1PA6, LTR12C, SVA) is present both at prenatal and postnatal stages of spermatogenesis and is performed without involvement of piRNA clusters. On the other hand, at postnatal stages, piRNAs deriving from pachytene clusters target "older" TEs and thus complement cluster-independent piRNA production to achieve relevant targeting of virtually all TEs expressed in postnatal testis...
August 25, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842123/mirna-154-5p-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-metastasis-by-targeting-piwil1-in-glioblastoma
#11
Xiuyu Wang, Shupeng Sun, Xiaoguang Tong, Quanfeng Ma, Hui Di, Tao Fu, Zhen Sun, Ying Cai, Weijia Fan, Qiaoli Wu, Yidi Li, Qiong Wang, Jinhuan Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in glioblastoma initiation and progression. PIWIL1, a human homolog of the PIWI family, has a critical effect on glioblastoma progression. In present study, we found that the expression of miR-154-5p was significantly lower in glioblastoma. Our results suggested that the overexpression of miR-154-5p suppressed proliferation and metastasis, induced apoptosis, whereas inhibiting the expression of miR-154-5p significantly promoted proliferation and metastasis of glioblastoma...
August 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840253/interaction-and-cross-talk-between-non-coding-rnas
#12
REVIEW
Soichiro Yamamura, Mitsuho Imai-Sumida, Yuichiro Tanaka, Rajvir Dahiya
Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) has been shown to regulate diverse cellular processes and functions through controlling gene expression. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) act as a competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) where microRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs regulate each other through their biding sites. Interactions of miRNAs and lncRNAs have been reported to trigger decay of the targeted lncRNAs and have important roles in target gene regulation. These interactions form complicated and intertwined networks. Certain lncRNAs encode miRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and may regulate expression of these small RNAs as precursors...
August 24, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835645/the-evolution-of-animal-argonautes-evidence-for-the-absence-of-antiviral-ago-argonautes-in-vertebrates
#13
Niels Wynant, Dulce Santos, Jozef Vanden Broeck
In addition to mediating regulation of endogenous gene expression, RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and invertebrates plays a crucial role in defense against viruses via virus-specific siRNAs. Different studies have demonstrated that the functional diversity of RNAi in animals is linked to the diversification of the Argonaute superfamily, central components of RISCs (RNA induced silencing complexes). The animal Argonaute superfamily is traditionally grouped into AGO and PIWI Argonautes. Yet, by performing phylogenetic analyses and determining the selective evolutionary pressure in the metazoan Argonaute superfamily, we provide evidence for the existence of three conserved Argonaute lineages between basal metazoans and protostomes, namely siRNA-class AGO, miRNA-class AGO and PIWI Argonautes...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827804/recruitment-of-armitage-and-yb-to-a-transcript-triggers-its-phased-processing-into-primary-pirnas-in-drosophila-ovaries
#14
Radha Raman Pandey, David Homolka, Kuan-Ming Chen, Ravi Sachidanandam, Marie-Odile Fauvarque, Ramesh S Pillai
Small RNAs called PIWI -interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are essential for transposon control and fertility in animals. Primary processing is the small RNA biogenesis pathway that uses long single-stranded RNA precursors to generate millions of individual piRNAs, but the molecular mechanisms that identify a transcript as a precursor are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that artificial tethering of the piRNA biogenesis factor, Armi, to a transcript is sufficient to direct it into primary processing in Drosophila ovaries and in an ovarian cell culture model...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826361/spermatozoa-expression-of-pir-31704-pir-39888-and-pir-40349-and-their-correlation-to-sperm-concentration-and-fertilization-rate-after-icsi
#15
Long Cui, Li Fang, Biwei Shi, Sunquan Qiu, Yinghui Ye
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between spermatozoa PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) levels and semen parameters and to evaluate the role of expression of piRNAs on fertilization and embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-six patients with idiopathic male infertility who had undergone first ICSI cycles were enrolled in our study. The levels of piRNAs in spermatozoa were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819099/the-genetic-basis-of-natural-variation-in-a-phoretic-behavior
#16
Daehan Lee, Heeseung Yang, Jun Kim, Shannon Brady, Stefan Zdraljevic, Mostafa Zamanian, Heekyeong Kim, Young-Ki Paik, Leonid Kruglyak, Erik C Andersen, Junho Lee
Phoresy is a widespread form of commensalism that facilitates dispersal of one species through an association with a more mobile second species. Dauer larvae of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibit a phoretic behavior called nictation, which could enable interactions with animals such as isopods or snails. Here, we show that natural C. elegans isolates differ in nictation. We use quantitative behavioral assays and linkage mapping to identify a genetic locus (nict-1) that mediates the phoretic interaction with terrestrial isopods...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817650/snorna-and-pirna-expression-levels-modified-by-tobacco-use-in-women-with-lung-adenocarcinoma
#17
Natasha Andressa Nogueira Jorge, Gabriel Wajnberg, Carlos Gil Ferreira, Benilton de Sa Carvalho, Fabio Passetti
Lung cancer is one of the most frequent types of cancer worldwide. Most patients are diagnosed at advanced stage and thus have poor prognosis. Smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer, however most smokers do not develop lung cancer while 20% of women with lung adenocarcinoma are non-smokers. Therefore, it is possible that these two groups present differences besides the smoking status, including differences in their gene expression signature. The altered expression patterns of non-coding RNAs in complex diseases make them potential biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816603/analysis-of-the-small-non-protein-coding-rna-profile-of-mouse-spermatozoa-reveals-specific-enrichment-of-pirnas-within-mature-spermatozoa
#18
Kate Hutcheon, Eileen A McLaughlin, Simone J Stanger, Ilana R Bernstein, Matthew D Dun, Andrew L Eamens, Brett Nixon
Post-testicular sperm maturation and storage within the epididymis is a key determinant of gamete quality and fertilization competence. Here we demonstrate that mouse spermatozoa possess a complex small non-protein-coding RNA (sRNA) profile, the composition of which is markedly influenced by their epididymal transit. Thus, although miRNAs are highly represented in the spermatozoa of the proximal epididymis, this sRNA class is largely diminished in mature spermatozoa of the distal epididymis. Coincident with this, a substantial enrichment in Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) abundance in cauda spermatozoa was detected...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801861/human-piwi-hiwi-is-an-azoospermia-factor
#19
Hidetoshi Hasuwa, Kyoko Ishino, Haruhiko Siomi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783426/characterization-of-the-pirna-pathway-during-development-of-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#20
Daniela Praher, Bob Zimmermann, Grigory Genikhovich, Yaara Columbus-Shenkar, Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Reuven Aharoni, Yehu Moran, Ulrich Technau
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and associated proteins comprise a conserved pathway for silencing transposons in metazoan germlines. piRNA pathway components are also expressed in multipotent somatic stem cells in various organisms. piRNA functions have been extensively explored in bilaterian model systems, however, comprehensive studies in non-bilaterian phyla remain limited. Here we investigate the piRNA pathway during the development of Nematostella vectensis, a well-established model system belonging to Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria...
August 7, 2017: RNA Biology
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