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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919205/adaptive-evolution-leads-to-cross-species-incompatibility-in-the-pirna-transposon-silencing-machinery
#1
Swapnil S Parhad, Shikui Tu, Zhiping Weng, William E Theurkauf
Reproductive isolation defines species divergence and is linked to adaptive evolution of hybrid incompatibility genes. Hybrids between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans are sterile, and phenocopy mutations in the PIWI interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, which silences transposons and shows pervasive adaptive evolution, and Drosophila rhino and deadlock encode rapidly evolving components of a complex that binds to piRNA clusters. We show that Rhino and Deadlock interact and co-localize in simulans and melanogaster, but simulans Rhino does not bind melanogaster Deadlock, due to substitutions in the rapidly evolving Shadow domain...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903896/the-regulatory-functions-of-pirna-piwi-in-spermatogenesis
#2
Zhi-Heng Yuan, Yan-Mei Zhao
A class of 24-32 nt PIWI-binding small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) termed as PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have been identified in animal germline. Recent studies suggest that piRNA/PIWI pathway plays a critical role in both silencing of transposons and posttranscriptional regulation of mRNAs in animal germline. A study from Dr. Mofang Liu's lab in Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, reveals the physiological and pathological importance of PIWI metabolism (mouse PIWI as known as MIWI; human PIWI as HIWI) in mammalian spermatogenesis...
August 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890535/chromatin-probing-a-pirna-paradox
#3
Darren J Burgess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884822/rna-binding-protein-musashi-2-regulates-piwil1-and-tbx1-in-mouse-spermatogenesis
#4
Jessie M Sutherland, Alexander P Sobinoff, Barbara A Fraser, Kate A Redgrove, Nicole A Siddall, Peter Koopman, Gary R Hime, Eileen A McLaughlin
RNA-binding proteins (RBP) are important facilitators of post-transcriptional gene regulation. We have previously established that nuclear overexpression of the RBP Musashi-2 (MSI2) during male germ cell maturation is detrimental to sperm cell development and fertility. Herein we determine the genes and pathways impacted by the upregulation of Msi2. Microarray analysis and qPCR confirmed differential gene expression in factors fundamental to the cell cycle, cellular proliferation, and cell death. Similarly, comparative protein expression analysis via iTRAQ, immunoblot, and immunolocalisation, identified differential expression and localisation of important regulators of transcription, translation, RNA processing, and spermatogenesis...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882222/role-of-the-trna-derived-small-rnas-in-cancer-new-potential-biomarkers-and-target-for-therapy
#5
Veronica Balatti, Yuri Pekarsky, Carlo M Croce
Noncoding RNAs are untranslated RNA molecules that can be divided into two main types: infrastructural, including transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and regulatory, including long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and small ncRNAs (sRNA). Among small ncRNA, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in cancer is well documented. Recently, other small ncRNAs have been described. In particular, tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNA) have been found to be frequently dysregulated in cancer. Since tsRNAs can be considered unique sequences and are able to bind both Argonaute proteins (like miRNAs) and Piwi proteins (like piRNAs), their dysregulation could play a critical role in cancer by interfering with gene expression regulation at different levels...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854624/transposable-element-misregulation-is-linked-to-the-divergence-between-parental-pirna-pathways-in-drosophila-hybrids
#6
Valèria Romero-Soriano, Laurent Modolo, Hélène Lopez-Maestre, Bruno Mugat, Eugénie Pessia, Séverine Chambeyron, Cristina Vieira, Maria Pilar Garcia Guerreiro
Interspecific hybridization is a genomic stress condition that leads to the activation of transposable elements (TEs) in both animals and plants. In hybrids between Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae, mobilization of at least 28 TEs has been described. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this TE release remain poorly understood. To give insight on the causes of this TE activation, we performed a TE transcriptomic analysis in ovaries (notorious for playing a major role in TE silencing) of parental species and their F1 and backcrossed (BC) hybrids...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847004/a-heterochromatin-dependent-transcription-machinery-drives-pirna-expression
#7
Peter Refsing Andersen, Laszlo Tirian, Milica Vunjak, Julius Brennecke
Nuclear small RNA pathways safeguard genome integrity by establishing transcription-repressing heterochromatin at transposable elements. This inevitably also targets the transposon-rich source loci of the small RNAs themselves. How small RNA source loci are efficiently transcribed while transposon promoters are potently silenced is not understood. Here we show that, in Drosophila, transcription of PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) clusters-small RNA source loci in animal gonads-is enforced through RNA polymerase II pre-initiation complex formation within repressive heterochromatin...
September 7, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844648/drosophila-paf1-modulates-piwi-pirna-silencing-capacity
#8
Josef P Clark, Reazur Rahman, Nachen Yang, Linda H Yang, Nelson C Lau
To test the directness of factors in initiating PIWI-directed gene silencing, we employed a Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA)-targeted reporter assay in Drosophila ovary somatic sheet (OSS) cells [1]. This assay confirmed direct silencing roles for piRNA biogenesis factors and PIWI-associated factors [2-12] but suggested that chromatin-modifying proteins may act downstream of the initial silencing event. Our data also revealed that RNA-polymerase-II-associated proteins like PAF1 and RTF1 antagonize PIWI-directed silencing...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842508/two-modes-of-targeting-transposable-elements-by-pirna-pathway-in-human-testis
#9
Ildar Gainetdinov, Yulia Skvortsova, Sofia Kondratieva, Sergey Funikov, Tatyana Azhikina
PIWI proteins and their partner small RNAs, termed piRNAs, are known to control transposable elements (TEs) in the germline. Here, we provide evidence that in humans this control is exerted in two different modes. On the one hand, production of piRNAs specifically targeting evolutionarily youngest TEs (L1HS, L1PA2-L1PA6, LTR12C, SVA) is present both at prenatal and postnatal stages of spermatogenesis and is performed without involvement of piRNA clusters. On the other hand, at postnatal stages, piRNAs deriving from pachytene clusters target "older" TEs and thus complement cluster-independent piRNA production to achieve relevant targeting of virtually all TEs expressed in postnatal testis...
August 25, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840253/interaction-and-cross-talk-between-non-coding-rnas
#10
REVIEW
Soichiro Yamamura, Mitsuho Imai-Sumida, Yuichiro Tanaka, Rajvir Dahiya
Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) has been shown to regulate diverse cellular processes and functions through controlling gene expression. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) act as a competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) where microRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs regulate each other through their biding sites. Interactions of miRNAs and lncRNAs have been reported to trigger decay of the targeted lncRNAs and have important roles in target gene regulation. These interactions form complicated and intertwined networks. Certain lncRNAs encode miRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and may regulate expression of these small RNAs as precursors...
August 24, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827804/recruitment-of-armitage-and-yb-to-a-transcript-triggers-its-phased-processing-into-primary-pirnas-in-drosophila-ovaries
#11
Radha Raman Pandey, David Homolka, Kuan-Ming Chen, Ravi Sachidanandam, Marie-Odile Fauvarque, Ramesh S Pillai
Small RNAs called PIWI -interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are essential for transposon control and fertility in animals. Primary processing is the small RNA biogenesis pathway that uses long single-stranded RNA precursors to generate millions of individual piRNAs, but the molecular mechanisms that identify a transcript as a precursor are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that artificial tethering of the piRNA biogenesis factor, Armi, to a transcript is sufficient to direct it into primary processing in Drosophila ovaries and in an ovarian cell culture model...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826361/spermatozoa-expression-of-pir-31704-pir-39888-and-pir-40349-and-their-correlation-to-sperm-concentration-and-fertilization-rate-after-icsi
#12
Long Cui, Li Fang, Biwei Shi, Sunquan Qiu, Yinghui Ye
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between spermatozoa PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) levels and semen parameters and to evaluate the role of expression of piRNAs on fertilization and embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-six patients with idiopathic male infertility who had undergone first ICSI cycles were enrolled in our study. The levels of piRNAs in spermatozoa were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819099/the-genetic-basis-of-natural-variation-in-a-phoretic-behavior
#13
Daehan Lee, Heeseung Yang, Jun Kim, Shannon Brady, Stefan Zdraljevic, Mostafa Zamanian, Heekyeong Kim, Young-Ki Paik, Leonid Kruglyak, Erik C Andersen, Junho Lee
Phoresy is a widespread form of commensalism that facilitates dispersal of one species through an association with a more mobile second species. Dauer larvae of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibit a phoretic behavior called nictation, which could enable interactions with animals such as isopods or snails. Here, we show that natural C. elegans isolates differ in nictation. We use quantitative behavioral assays and linkage mapping to identify a genetic locus (nict-1) that mediates the phoretic interaction with terrestrial isopods...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817650/snorna-and-pirna-expression-levels-modified-by-tobacco-use-in-women-with-lung-adenocarcinoma
#14
Natasha Andressa Nogueira Jorge, Gabriel Wajnberg, Carlos Gil Ferreira, Benilton de Sa Carvalho, Fabio Passetti
Lung cancer is one of the most frequent types of cancer worldwide. Most patients are diagnosed at advanced stage and thus have poor prognosis. Smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer, however most smokers do not develop lung cancer while 20% of women with lung adenocarcinoma are non-smokers. Therefore, it is possible that these two groups present differences besides the smoking status, including differences in their gene expression signature. The altered expression patterns of non-coding RNAs in complex diseases make them potential biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816603/analysis-of-the-small-non-protein-coding-rna-profile-of-mouse-spermatozoa-reveals-specific-enrichment-of-pirnas-within-mature-spermatozoa
#15
Kate Hutcheon, Eileen A McLaughlin, Simone J Stanger, Ilana R Bernstein, Matthew D Dun, Andrew L Eamens, Brett Nixon
Post-testicular sperm maturation and storage within the epididymis is a key determinant of gamete quality and fertilization competence. Here we demonstrate that mouse spermatozoa possess a complex small non-protein-coding RNA (sRNA) profile, the composition of which is markedly influenced by their epididymal transit. Thus, although miRNAs are highly represented in the spermatozoa of the proximal epididymis, this sRNA class is largely diminished in mature spermatozoa of the distal epididymis. Coincident with this, a substantial enrichment in Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) abundance in cauda spermatozoa was detected...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783426/characterization-of-the-pirna-pathway-during-development-of-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#16
Daniela Praher, Bob Zimmermann, Grigory Genikhovich, Yaara Columbus-Shenkar, Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Reuven Aharoni, Yehu Moran, Ulrich Technau
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and associated proteins comprise a conserved pathway for silencing transposons in metazoan germlines. piRNA pathway components are also expressed in multipotent somatic stem cells in various organisms. piRNA functions have been extensively explored in bilaterian model systems, however, comprehensive studies in non-bilaterian phyla remain limited. Here we investigate the piRNA pathway during the development of Nematostella vectensis, a well-established model system belonging to Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria...
August 7, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770390/genome-wide-significant-replicated-and-functional-risk-variants-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Xiaoyun Guo, Wenying Qiu, Rolando Garcia-Milian, Xiandong Lin, Yong Zhang, Yuping Cao, Yunlong Tan, Zhiren Wang, Jing Shi, Jijun Wang, Dengtang Liu, Lisheng Song, Yifeng Xu, Xiaoping Wang, Na Liu, Tao Sun, Jianming Zheng, Justine Luo, Huihao Zhang, Jianying Xu, Longli Kang, Chao Ma, Kesheng Wang, Xingguang Luo
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have reported numerous associations between risk variants and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, these associations do not necessarily indicate a causal relationship. If the risk variants can be demonstrated to be biologically functional, the possibility of a causal relationship would be increased. In this article, we reviewed all of the published GWASs to extract the genome-wide significant (p < 5×10(-8)) and replicated associations between risk variants and AD or AD-biomarkers...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749988/switching-of-dominant-retrotransposon-silencing-strategies-from-posttranscriptional-to-transcriptional-mechanisms-during-male-germ-cell-development-in-mice
#18
Kota Inoue, Kenji Ichiyanagi, Kei Fukuda, Michael Glinka, Hiroyuki Sasaki
Mammalian genomes harbor millions of retrotransposon copies, some of which are transpositionally active. In mouse prospermatogonia, PIWI-interacting small RNAs (piRNAs) combat retrotransposon activity to maintain the genomic integrity. The piRNA system destroys retrotransposon-derived RNAs and guides de novo DNA methylation at some retrotransposon promoters. However, it remains unclear whether DNA methylation contributes to retrotransposon silencing in prospermatogonia. We have performed comprehensive studies of DNA methylation and polyA(+) RNAs (transcriptome) in developing male germ cells from Pld6/Mitopld and Dnmt3l knockout mice, which are defective in piRNA biogenesis and de novo DNA methylation, respectively...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746365/cbp80-is-needed-for-the-expression-of-pirna-components-and-pirnas
#19
Ravish Rashpa, Paula Vazquez-Pianzola, Martino Colombo, Greco Hernandez, Dirk Beuchle, Fabienne Berger, Stephan Peischl, Rémy Bruggmann, Beat Suter
Cap binding protein 80 (Cbp80) is the larger subunit of the nuclear cap-binding complex (nCBC), which is known to play important roles in nuclear mRNA processing, export, stability and quality control events. Reducing Cbp80 mRNA levels in the female germline revealed that Cbp80 is also involved in defending the germline against transposable elements. Combining such knockdown experiments with large scale sequencing of small RNAs further showed that Cbp80 is involved in the initial biogenesis of piRNAs as well as in the secondary biogenesis pathway, the ping-pong amplification cycle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733293/androgen-responsive-non-coding-small-rnas-extend-the-potential-use-of-hcg-stimulation-as-a-bioassay-of-androgen-sufficiency
#20
Martina Rodie, Manikhandan Av Mudaliar, Pawel Herzyk, M McMillan, Massoud Boroujerdi, Sandra Chudleigh, Edward S Tobias, S Faisal Ahmed
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether a short-term change in circulating androgens is associated with changes in the transcriptome of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). AIMS & METHODS: To explore the effect of hCG-stimulation on the PBMC-transcriptome, 12 boys with a median age (range) of 0.7yrs (0.3, 11.2) who received intramuscular hCG 1500u on 3 consecutive days as part of their investigations underwent transcriptomic array analysis on RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after hCG stimulation...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
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