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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783426/characterization-of-the-pirna-pathway-during-development-of-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#1
Daniela Praher, Bob Zimmermann, Grigory Genikhovich, Yaara Columbus-Shenkar, Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Reuven Aharoni, Yehu Moran, Ulrich Technau
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and associated proteins comprise a conserved pathway for silencing transposons in metazoan germlines. piRNA pathway components are also expressed in multipotent somatic stem cells in various organisms. piRNA functions have been extensively explored in bilaterian model systems, however, comprehensive studies in non-bilaterian phyla remain limited. Here we investigate the piRNA pathway during the development of Nematostella vectensis, a well-established model system belonging to Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria...
August 7, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770390/genome-wide-significant-replicated-and-functional-risk-variants-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Xiaoyun Guo, Wenying Qiu, Rolando Garcia-Milian, Xiandong Lin, Yong Zhang, Yuping Cao, Yunlong Tan, Zhiren Wang, Jing Shi, Jijun Wang, Dengtang Liu, Lisheng Song, Yifeng Xu, Xiaoping Wang, Na Liu, Tao Sun, Jianming Zheng, Justine Luo, Huihao Zhang, Jianying Xu, Longli Kang, Chao Ma, Kesheng Wang, Xingguang Luo
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have reported numerous associations between risk variants and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, these associations do not necessarily indicate a causal relationship. If the risk variants can be demonstrated to be biologically functional, the possibility of a causal relationship would be increased. In this article, we reviewed all of the published GWASs to extract the genome-wide significant (p < 5×10(-8)) and replicated associations between risk variants and AD or AD-biomarkers...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749988/switching-of-dominant-retrotransposon-silencing-strategies-from-posttranscriptional-to-transcriptional-mechanisms-during-male-germ-cell-development-in-mice
#3
Kota Inoue, Kenji Ichiyanagi, Kei Fukuda, Michael Glinka, Hiroyuki Sasaki
Mammalian genomes harbor millions of retrotransposon copies, some of which are transpositionally active. In mouse prospermatogonia, PIWI-interacting small RNAs (piRNAs) combat retrotransposon activity to maintain the genomic integrity. The piRNA system destroys retrotransposon-derived RNAs and guides de novo DNA methylation at some retrotransposon promoters. However, it remains unclear whether DNA methylation contributes to retrotransposon silencing in prospermatogonia. We have performed comprehensive studies of DNA methylation and polyA(+) RNAs (transcriptome) in developing male germ cells from Pld6/Mitopld and Dnmt3l knockout mice, which are defective in piRNA biogenesis and de novo DNA methylation, respectively...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746365/cbp80-is-needed-for-the-expression-of-pirna-components-and-pirnas
#4
Ravish Rashpa, Paula Vazquez-Pianzola, Martino Colombo, Greco Hernandez, Dirk Beuchle, Fabienne Berger, Stephan Peischl, Rémy Bruggmann, Beat Suter
Cap binding protein 80 (Cbp80) is the larger subunit of the nuclear cap-binding complex (nCBC), which is known to play important roles in nuclear mRNA processing, export, stability and quality control events. Reducing Cbp80 mRNA levels in the female germline revealed that Cbp80 is also involved in defending the germline against transposable elements. Combining such knockdown experiments with large scale sequencing of small RNAs further showed that Cbp80 is involved in the initial biogenesis of piRNAs as well as in the secondary biogenesis pathway, the ping-pong amplification cycle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733293/androgen-responsive-non-coding-small-rnas-extend-the-potential-use-of-hcg-stimulation-as-a-bioassay-of-androgen-sufficiency
#5
Martina Rodie, Manikhandan Av Mudaliar, Pawel Herzyk, M McMillan, Massoud Boroujerdi, Sandra Chudleigh, Edward S Tobias, S Faisal Ahmed
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether a short-term change in circulating androgens is associated with changes in the transcriptome of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). AIMS & METHODS: To explore the effect of hCG-stimulation on the PBMC-transcriptome, 12 boys with a median age (range) of 0.7yrs (0.3, 11.2) who received intramuscular hCG 1500u on 3 consecutive days as part of their investigations underwent transcriptomic array analysis on RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after hCG stimulation...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719649/differential-expression-of-small-rna-pathway-genes-associated-with-the-biomphalaria-glabrata-schistosoma-mansoni-interaction
#6
Fábio Ribeiro Queiroz, Luciana Maria Silva, Wander de Jesus Jeremias, Élio Hideo Babá, Roberta Lima Caldeira, Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho, Matheus de Souza Gomes
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 240 million people in 78 countries require treatment for schistosomiasis, an endemic disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. In Brazil, Schistosoma mansoni is the only species representative of the genus whose passage through an invertebrate host, snails of the genus Biomphalaria, is obligatory before infecting a mammalian host, including humans. The availability of the genome and transcriptome of B. glabrata makes studying the regulation of gene expression, particularly the regulation of miRNA and piRNA processing pathway genes, possible...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711973/piwi-interacting-rnas-as-novel-regulators-of-pancreatic-beta-cell-function
#7
Imène Sarah Henaoui, Cécile Jacovetti, Inês Guerra Mollet, Claudiane Guay, Jonathan Sobel, Lena Eliasson, Romano Regazzi
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: P-element induced Wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that interact with PIWI proteins and guide them to silence transposable elements. They are abundantly expressed in germline cells and play key roles in spermatogenesis. There is mounting evidence that piRNAs are also present in somatic cells, where they may accomplish additional regulatory tasks. The aim of this study was to identify the piRNAs expressed in pancreatic islets and to determine whether they are involved in the control of beta cell activities...
July 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700949/two-sets-of-piwi-proteins-are-involved-in-distinct-srna-pathways-leading-to-elimination-of-germline-specific-dna
#8
Dominique I Furrer, Estienne C Swart, Matthias F Kraft, Pamela Y Sandoval, Mariusz Nowacki
Piwi proteins and piRNAs protect eukaryotic germlines against the spread of transposons. During development in the ciliate Paramecium, two Piwi-dependent sRNA classes are involved in the elimination of transposons and transposon-derived DNA: scan RNAs (scnRNAs), associated with Ptiwi01 and Ptiwi09, and iesRNAs, whose binding partners we now identify as Ptiwi10 and Ptiwi11. scnRNAs derive from the maternal genome and initiate DNA elimination during development, whereas iesRNAs continue DNA targeting until the removal process is complete...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699365/activating-the-chromatin-by-noncoding-rnas
#9
Nihay Laham-Karam, Pia Laitinen, Tiia A Turunen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
SIGNIFICANCE: The extent and breadth of transcription have recently been uncovered and this has revealed an extensive array of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). The biological role and significance of these ncRNAs have been realized and to date it appears that ncRNAs may have many important regulatory functions. ncRNAs are multifaceted and they induce a complexity of different types of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation, including gene activation. Recent Advances: Association of ncRNAs with gene activation is an important finding...
August 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698948/pirna-3878-targets-p450-cpcyp307b1-to-regulate-pyrethroid-resistance-in-culex-pipiens-pallens
#10
Wenyun Ye, Xianmiao Liu, Juxin Guo, Xueli Sun, Yan Sun, Bo Shen, Dan Zhou, Changliang Zhu
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a novel class of noncoding single-strand RNAs. They play an important role in the germ cell maintenance, brain development, epigenetic regulation of cancer, and antiviral function. However, little is known about the relationship between the piRNAs and insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. In this study, we reported that piRNA-3878 was related with pyrethroid resistance in Culex pipiens pallens. The expression level of piRNA-3878 was lower in both laboratory and field-collected deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strains...
July 11, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697848/roles-of-rnase-p-and-its-subunits
#11
REVIEW
Nayef Jarrous
Recent studies show that nuclear RNase P is linked to chromatin structure and function. Thus, variants of this ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex bind to chromatin of small noncoding RNA genes; integrate into initiation complexes of RNA polymerase (Pol) III; repress histone H3.3 nucleosome deposition; control tRNA and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) gene clusters for genome defense; and respond to Werner syndrome helicase (WRN)-related replication stress and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Likewise, the related RNase MRP and RMRP-TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) are implicated in RNA-dependent RNA polymerization for chromatin silencing, whereas the telomerase carries out RNA-dependent DNA polymerization for telomere lengthening...
July 8, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696308/tsrna-signatures-in-cancer
#12
Veronica Balatti, Giovanni Nigita, Dario Veneziano, Alessandra Drusco, Gary S Stein, Terri L Messier, Nicholas H Farina, Jane B Lian, Luisa Tomasello, Chang-Gong Liu, Alexey Palamarchuk, Jonathan R Hart, Catherine Bell, Mariantonia Carosi, Edoardo Pescarmona, Letizia Perracchio, Maria Diodoro, Andrea Russo, Anna Antenucci, Paolo Visca, Antonio Ciardi, Curtis C Harris, Peter K Vogt, Yuri Pekarsky, Carlo M Croce
Small, noncoding RNAs are short untranslated RNA molecules, some of which have been associated with cancer development. Recently we showed that a class of small RNAs generated during the maturation process of tRNAs (tRNA-derived small RNAs, hereafter "tsRNAs") is dysregulated in cancer. Specifically, we uncovered tsRNA signatures in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lung cancer and demonstrated that the ts-4521/3676 cluster (now called "ts-101" and "ts-53," respectively), ts-46, and ts-47 are down-regulated in these malignancies...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683952/identification-and-profile-of-micrornas-in-xiang-pig-testes-in-four-different-ages-detected-by-solexa-sequencing
#13
Zhi-Yu Luo, Xin-Lan Dai, Xue-Qin Ran, Yong-Xiu Cen, Xi Niu, Shi-Hui Huang, Jia-Fu Wang
To further understand the role of microRNA (miRNA) during testicular development, we constructed four small RNA libraries from the testes of the Chinese indigenous Xiang pig at four different ages, which were sequenced using high-throughput Solexa deep sequencing methods. It yielded over 23 million high-quality reads and 1,342,579 unique sequences. At two and three months of age, the proportion which represented miRNAs was the most abundant class of small RNAs, but it was gradually replaced by the category that represented piRNAs in adult testes...
June 28, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676534/expression-patterns-of-henmt1-and-piwil1-in-human-testis-implications-for-transposon-expression
#14
Anna-Lena Hempfling, Shu Ly Lim, David Adelson, Jemma Evans, Anne E O'Connor, Zhipeng Qu, Sabine Kliesch, Wolfgang Weidner, M K O'Bryan, Martin Bergmann
This study aimed to define the expression patterns of HENMT1 and PIWI proteins in human testis and investigate their association with transposon expression, infertility sub-type or development of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT). Testis biopsies showing normal spermatogenesis were used to identify normal localization patterns of HENMT1 and PIWIL1 by immunolocalisation and RT-PCR after laser microdissection. 222 testis biopsies representing normal spermatogenesis, hypospermatogenesis, spermatogenic arrests, Sertoli cell-only (SCO) and testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) were analysed by RT-qPCR for expression of HENMT1/PIWIL1/PIWIL2/PIWIL3/PIWIL4 and LINE-1...
July 4, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676109/comparative-genomics-shows-that-viral-integrations-are-abundant-and-express-pirnas-in-the-arboviral-vectors-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus
#15
Umberto Palatini, Pascal Miesen, Rebeca Carballar-Lejarazu, Lino Ometto, Ettore Rizzo, Zhijian Tu, Ronald P van Rij, Mariangela Bonizzoni
BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) transmitted by mosquito vectors cause many important emerging or resurging infectious diseases in humans including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. Understanding the co-evolutionary processes among viruses and vectors is essential for the development of novel transmission-blocking strategies. Episomal viral DNA fragments are produced from arboviral RNA upon infection of mosquito cells and adults. Additionally, sequences from insect-specific viruses and arboviruses have been found integrated into mosquito genomes...
July 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671581/pleiotropic-roles-of-non-coding-rnas-in-tgf-%C3%AE-mediated-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-their-functions-in-tumor-progression
#16
REVIEW
Simon Grelet, Ariel McShane, Renaud Geslain, Philip H Howe
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a spatially- and temporally-regulated process involved in physiological and pathological transformations, such as embryonic development and tumor progression. While the role of TGF-β as an EMT-inducer has been extensively documented, the molecular mechanisms regulating this transition and their implications in tumor metastasis are still subjects of intensive debates and investigations. TGF-β regulates EMT through both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms, and recent advances underline the critical roles of non-coding RNAs in these processes...
July 1, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665301/comparative-proteomic-profiling-reveals-molecular-characteristics-associated-with-oogenesis-and-oocyte-maturation-during-ovarian-development-of-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#17
Dong Wei, Ran Li, Meng-Yi Zhang, Yu-Wei Liu, Zheng Zhang, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Time-dependent expression of proteins in ovary is important to understand oogenesis in insects. Here, we profiled the proteomes of developing ovaries from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to obtain information about ovarian development with particular emphasis on differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) involved in oogenesis. A total of 4838 proteins were identified with an average peptide number of 8.15 and sequence coverage of 20.79%. Quantitative proteomic analysis showed that a total of 612 and 196 proteins were differentially expressed in developing and mature ovaries, respectively...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654860/transcriptome-wide-pirna-profiling-in-human-brains-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Wenying Qiu, Xiaoyun Guo, Xiandong Lin, Qian Yang, Wanying Zhang, Yong Zhang, Lingjun Zuo, Yong Zhu, Chiang-Shan R Li, Chao Ma, Xingguang Luo
Discovered in the brains of multiple animal species, piRNAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric illnesses. The present study aimed to identify brain piRNAs across transcriptome that are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Prefrontal cortical tissues of 6 AD cases and 6 controls were examined for piRNA expression levels using an Arraystar HG19 piRNA array (containing 23,677 piRNAs) and genotyped for 17 genome-wide significant and replicated risk SNPs. We examined whether piRNAs are expressed differently between AD cases and controls and explored the potential regulatory effects of risk SNPs on piRNA expression levels...
September 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653810/the-piwi-pirna-pathway-road-to-immortality
#19
Ádám Sturm, András Perczel, Zoltán Ivics, Tibor Vellai
Despite its medical, social, and economic significance, understanding what primarily causes aging, that is, the mechanisms of the aging process, remains a fundamental and fascinating problem in biology. Accumulating evidence indicates that a small RNA-based gene regulatory machinery, the Piwi-piRNA pathway, represents a shared feature of nonaging (potentially immortal) biological systems, including the germline, somatic cancer stem cells, and certain 'lower' eukaryotic organisms like the planarian flatworm and freshwater hydra...
June 27, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651359/altered-mirna-and-pirna-profiles-in-cumulus-cells-from-patients-with-diminished-ovarian-reserve
#20
Dawei Chen, Zhiguo Zhang, Beili Chen, Dongmei Ji, Yan Hao, Ping Zhou, Zhaolian Wei, Yunxia Cao
Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is defined as decreased number or quality of follicles and oocytes in a woman at childbearing age. It is estimated that up to 10% of women in the general population may suffer from DOR. The present study aims to comprehensively characterize miRNA and piRNA expression profiles in cumulus cells of DOR patients. Cumulus cells were collected from 20 women of similar chronological age who received assisted reproductive technology treatment, 10 with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), 10 with normal ovarian reserve (NOR)...
June 23, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
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