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Diffuse axonal injury

Abdurrahman Emir, Yıldıray Kalkan, Habib Bostan
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the histopathological effects of metamizole sodium (MS) on the sciatic nerve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed using 48 adult male Wistar albino rats. Ten groups were constituted with 6 rats in each group. MS injection into the sciatic nerve (group 1), MS injection into the muscle [group 3 (50 mg/kg, 0.4 ml) and group 5 (50 mg/kg, 0.8 ml)], MS injection into the muscle cavity in the vicinity of the sciatic nerve [group 2 (50 mg/kg, 0...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Richard Q Loi, Kelly M Leyden, Akshara Balachandra, Vedang Uttarwar, Donald J Hagler, Brianna M Paul, Anders M Dale, Nathan S White, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become a popular tool for delineating the location and extent of white matter injury in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, DTI yields nonspecific measures that are confounded by changes occurring within both the intracellular and extracellular environments. This study investigated whether an advanced diffusion method, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) could provide a more robust measure of white matter injury in TLE relative to DTI due to RSI's ability to separate intraaxonal diffusion (i...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsia
Yoshiki Takai, Tatsuro Misu, Shuhei Nishiyama, Hirohiko Ono, Hiroshi Kuroda, Ichiro Nakashima, Ryuta Saito, Masayuki Kanamori, Yukihiko Sonoda, Toshihiro Kumabe, Shunji Mugikura, Mika Watanabe, Masashi Aoki, Kazuo Fujihara
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the pathogenic factors and mechanisms underlying the development of concentric demyelinating lesions in Balo disease. METHODS: We conducted serial clinical, MRI, and histopathologic assessments of concentric lesion formation in a case of relapsing Balo disease. RESULTS: The patient experienced 2 attacks caused by left parietal and left frontal lesions in 5 years. In MRI findings from both episodes of expanding lesions, there were diffusion-restricted rings that antedated the appearance of gadolinium enhancement; subsequently, typical concentric T2 lesions appeared concurrently with the disappearance of this enhancement...
October 12, 2016: Neurology
Ling Zhao, Wei Wang, Jiwen Zhong, YaYun Li, YanZi Cheng, Zhenjiao Su, Wei Zheng, Xiang-Dong Guan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical effects of magnesium sulfate in the treatment of diffuse axonal injury (DAI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou and Zhuhai People's Hospital, Zhuhai, two trauma center hospitals. A total of 128 patients suffered from DAI, with initial Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores of 3-8. They were randomly divided into two groups: magnesium sulfate treatment (MST) group (n=64) and control group (n=64)...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Ana Luiza Zaninotto, Jessica Elias Vicentini, Davi Jorge Fontoura Solla, Tatiana Tateishi Silva, Vinicius Monteiro de Paula Guirado, Fabrício Feltrin, Mara Cristina Souza de Lucia, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Wellingson Silva Paiva
OBJECTIVE: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is prevalent in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and is often associated with poor outcomes and cognitive impairment, including memory deficits. Few studies have explored visual memory after TBI and its relationship to executive functioning. Executive functioning is crucial for remembering an object's location, operating devices, driving, and route finding. We compared visual memory performance via the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test 6 and 12 months after DAI...
October 11, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Catarina Guise, Margarida M Fernandes, Sudhir Pathak, Walter Schneider, Raul Fangueiro
Current brain imaging methods largely fail to provide detailed information about the location and severity of axonal injuries, and do not anticipate recovery of the patients with traumatic brain injury. High-Definition Fiber Tractography appears as a novel imaging modality based on water motion in the brain that allows for direct visualization and quantification of the degree of axons damage, thus predicting the functional deficits due to traumatic axonal injury and loss of cortical projections. This neuroimaging modality still faces major challenges because it lacks a "gold standard" for the technique validation and respective quality control...
October 10, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jonathan Lifshitz, Rachel K Rowe, Daniel R Griffiths, Megan N Evilsizor, Theresa C Thomas, P David Adelson, Tracy K McIntosh
BACKGROUND: After 30 years of characterisation and implementation, fluid percussion injury (FPI) is firmly recognised as one of the best-characterised reproducible and clinically relevant models of TBI, encompassing concussion through diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Depending on the specific injury parameters (e.g. injury site, mechanical force), FPI can model diffuse TBI with or without a focal component and may be designated as mild-to-severe according to the chosen mechanical forces and resulting acute neurological responses...
August 11, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Jianxia Cui, Laurel J Ng, Vladislav Volman
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) often results in neurobehavioral aberrations such as impaired attention and increased reaction time. Diffusion imaging and post mortem analysis studies suggest that mTBI primarily affects myelinated axons in white matter tracts. In particular, corpus callosum, mediating inter-hemispheric information exchange, has been shown to be affected in mTBI. Yet little is known about the mechanisms linking the injury of myelinated callosal axons to the neurobehavioral sequelae of mTBI...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Sungjae Lee, Hye Jin Baek, Hyun Kyung Jung, Jin Il Moon, Soo Buem Cho, Bo Hwa Choi, Kyungsoo Bae, Kyung Nyeo Jeon, Dae Seob Choi, Hwa Seon Shin, Dong Wook Kim
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of radiology residents' interpretations for diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in the emergency department at different levels of residency training. METHOD AND MATERIALS: A total of 160 patients who underwent DWI with acute neurologic symptoms were included in this retrospective study with an institutional review board approval. Four radiology residents with different training years and one attending neuroradiologist independently assessed the DWI results...
September 26, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
Harrison Kim, Tao Yu, Betul Cam-Etoz, Thomas van Groen, William J Hubbard, Irshad H Chaudry
OBJECTIVE 17α-ethynylestradiol-3-sulfate (EE-3-SO4) is a highly water-soluble synthetic estrogen that has an extended half-life (∼ 10 hours) over that of naturally occurring estrogen (∼ 10 minutes). In this study, EE-3-SO4 was evaluated in a lateral fluid percussion-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) model in rats. METHODS A total of 9 groups of Sprague-Dawley rats underwent craniectomy. Twenty-four hours later, lateral fluid percussion was applied to 6 groups of animals to induce TBI; the remaining 3 groups served as sham control groups...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo
BACKGROUND: We report on a patient who appeared to show recovery of an injured anterior cingulum via an aberrant neural tract between an injured cingulum and the basalis nucleus of Meynert following traumatic brain injury (TBI), which was demonstrated on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). METHODS: A 47-year-old male who had suffered a pedestrian traffic accident underwent conservative management for diffuse traumatic axonal injury. When starting rehabilitation at 6 weeks after onset, evaluation using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) could not be performed due to the severity of his cognitive dysfunction...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Melissa J McGinn, John T Povlishock
This article provides a concise overview, at the structural and functional level, of those changes evoked by traumatic brain injury across the spectrum of the disease. Using data derived from animals and humans, the pathogenesis of focal versus diffuse brain damage is presented for consideration of its overall implications for morbidity. Emphasis is placed on contusion and its potential expansion in concert with diffuse changes primarily assessed at the axonal level. Concomitant involvement of neuroexcitation and its role in global and focal metabolic changes is considered...
October 2016: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
George D Bittner, Christopher S Spaeth, Andrew D Poon, Zachary S Burgess, Christopher H McGill
The repair (sealing) of plasmalemmal damage, consisting of small holes to complete transections, is critical for cell survival, especially for neurons that rarely regenerate cell bodies. We first describe and evaluate different measures of cell sealing. Some measures, including morphological/ultra-structural observations, membrane potential, and input resistance, provide very ambiguous assessments of plasmalemmal sealing. In contrast, measures of ionic current flow and dye barriers can, if appropriately used, provide more accurate assessments...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Jin Fang, Shumei Li, Meng Li, Queenie Chan, Xiaofen Ma, Huanhuan Su, Tianyue Wang, Wenfeng Zhan, Jianhao Yan, Ming Xu, Yaxi Zhang, Luxian Zeng, Junzhang Tian, Guihua Jiang
The neural mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) are far from being completely understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate potential white matter (WM) microstructural changes and underlying causes for WM impairment in IBS using diffusion tensor imaging. The present prospective study involved 19 patients with IBS and 20 healthy controls. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to localize abnormal WM regions between the 2 groups...
September 14, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yaqing Shu, Ling Long, Siyuan Liao, Jiezheng Yang, Jianfang Li, Wei Qiu, Yu Yang, Jian Bao, Aiming Wu, Xueqiang Hu, Zhengqi Lu
BACKGROUND: Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cerebral white matter degeneration and caused by mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) gene. Involvement of the optic nerves in hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 30-year-old Chinese woman with HDLS, who carried a heterozygous c.2345 G > A (p...
2016: BMC Neurology
Kiran Talekar, Michael Poplawski, Rahul Hegde, Mougnyan Cox, Adam Flanders
We review the pathophysiology and imaging findings of acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and briefly review the much less common cord herniation as a unique cause of myelopathy. Acute traumatic SCI is devastating to the patient and the costs to society are staggering. There are currently no "cures" for SCI and the only accepted pharmacologic treatment regimen for traumatic SCI is currently being questioned. Evaluation and prognostication of SCI is a demanding area with significant deficiencies, including lack of biomarkers...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Debasis Sahoo, Cyril Robbe, Caroline Deck, Frank Meyer, Alexandre Papy, Remy Willinger
The main objective of this study is to develop a methodology to assess this risk based on experimental tests versus numerical predictive head injury simulations. A total of 16 non-lethal projectiles (NLP) impacts were conducted with rigid force plate at three different ranges of impact velocity (120, 72 and 55m/s) and the force/deformation-time data were used for the validation of finite element (FE) NLP. A good accordance between experimental and simulation data were obtained during validation of FE NLP with high correlation value (>0...
September 3, 2016: Injury
Floyd J Thompson, Jiamei Hou, Prodip K Bose
Successful therapy for TBI disabilities awaits refinement in the understanding of TBI neurobiology, quantitative measurement of treatment-induced incremental changes in recovery trajectories, and effective translation to human TBI using quantitative methods and protocols that were effective to monitor recovery in preclinical models. Details of the specific neurobiology that underlies these injuries and effective quantitation of treatment-induced changes are beginning to emerge utilizing a variety of preclinical and clinical models (for reviews see (Morales et al...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sarah C Hellewell, Jenna M Ziebell, Jonathan Lifshitz, M Cristina Morganti-Kossmann
The impact acceleration (I/A) model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was developed to reliably induce diffuse traumatic axonal injury in rats in the absence of skull fractures and parenchymal focal lesions. This model replicates a pathophysiology that is commonly observed in humans with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) caused by acceleration-deceleration forces. Such injuries are typical consequences of motor vehicle accidents and falls, which do not necessarily require a direct impact to the closed skull. There are several desirable characteristics of the I/A model, including the extensive axonal injury produced in the absence of a focal contusion, the suitability for secondary insult modeling, and the adaptability for mild/moderate injury through alteration of height and/or weight...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Brian T Kalish, Michael J Whalen
Weight drop models in rodents have been used for several decades to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Weight drop models have been used to replicate focal cerebral contusion as well as diffuse brain injury characterized by axonal damage. More recently, closed head injury models with free head rotation have been developed to model sports concussions, which feature functional disturbances in the absence of overt brain damage assessed by conventional imaging techniques...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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