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Diffuse axonal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548592/intracranial-pressure-monitoring-in-severe-blunt-head-trauma-does-the-type-of-monitoring-device-matter
#1
Alberto Aiolfi, Desmond Khor, Jayun Cho, Elizabeth Benjamin, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios Demetriades
OBJECTIVE Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has become the standard of care in the management of severe head trauma. Intraventricular devices (IVDs) and intraparenchymal devices (IPDs) are the 2 most commonly used techniques for ICP monitoring. Despite the widespread use of these devices, very few studies have investigated the effect of device type on outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to compare outcomes between 2 types of ICP monitoring devices in patients with isolated severe blunt head trauma...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544025/phase-imaging-of-axonal-integrity-of-cranial-corticospinal-tract-in-experimental-spinal-cord-injury-at-9-4t
#2
Genxia He, Junchao Qian
It was known that Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to neuronal cell death, axonal damage and demyelination, and often results in severe functional loss. Noninvasive imaging of axonal integrity may hold great importance in clinic. This study evaluated the role of phase imaging in detection of axonal integrity of cranial corticospinal tract after spinal cord injury. Quantitative MR phase imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were performed on a group of rats prior to and after spinal cord injury at 9.4 T in this study...
May 23, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534077/white-matter-injury-in-the-preterm-infant-pathology-and-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Stephen A Back
The human preterm brain is particularly susceptible to cerebral white matter injury (WMI) that disrupts the normal progression of developmental myelination. Advances in the care of preterm infants have resulted in a sustained reduction in the severity of WMI that has shifted from more severe focal necrotic lesions to milder diffuse WMI. Nevertheless, WMI remains a global health problem and the most common cause of chronic neurological morbidity from cerebral palsy and diverse neurobehavioral disabilities. Diffuse WMI involves maturation-dependent vulnerability of the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage with selective degeneration of late oligodendrocyte progenitors (preOLs) triggered by oxidative stress and other insults...
May 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522972/recent-advances-in-the-study-of-bipolar-rod-shaped-microglia-and-their-roles-in-neurodegeneration
#4
Ngan Pan Bennett Au, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499862/successful-revascularization-of-aortic-arch-in-a-39-year-old-blunt-trauma-patient-with-acute-diffuse-axonal-injury-without-the-use-of-systemic-anticoagulation
#5
Andrew M Abi-Chaker, Keith M Jones, Priscilla Sanchez, Jordan Sasson, Xiaoyi Li, Jorge Rey
BACKGROUND: Blunt traumatic aortic injury is the second leading cause of death in trauma patients age 4 to 34. Of the patients that are able to receive treatment, mortality rates as high as 40% have been reported. Endovascular repair options have allowed for more expeditious repairs with reduced iatrogenic trauma; however, when the injury involves the ascending aorta or arch, current endografts lack fenestrations needed for cerebral blood flow. Traditionally, on pump cardiopulmonary bypass with systemic anticoagulation has been used to repair these injuries...
May 9, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499787/motocross-associated-head-and-spine-injuries-in-adult-patients-evaluated-in-an-emergency-department
#6
Lucas Oliveira J E Silva, M Fernanda Bellolio, Elisa M Smith, David J Daniels, Christine M Lohse, Ronna L Campbell
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle-related injuries (including off-road) are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and acute traumatic spinal cord injury in the United States. OBJECTIVES: To describe motocross-related head and spine injuries of adult patients presenting to an academic emergency department (ED). METHODS: We performed an observational cohort study of adult ED patients evaluated for motocross-related injuries from 2010 through 2015...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477152/revisiting-grade-3-diffuse-axonal-injury-not-all-brainstem-microbleeds-are-prognostically-equal
#7
Saef Izzy, Nicole L Mazwi, Sergi Martinez, Camille A Spencer, Joshua P Klein, Gunjan Parikh, Mel B Glenn, Steven M Greenberg, David M Greer, Ona Wu, Brian L Edlow
BACKGROUND: Recovery of functional independence is possible in patients with brainstem traumatic axonal injury (TAI), also referred to as "grade 3 diffuse axonal injury," but acute prognostic biomarkers are lacking. We hypothesized that the extent of dorsal brainstem TAI measured by burden of traumatic microbleeds (TMBs) correlates with 1-year functional outcome more strongly than does ventral brainstem, corpus callosal, or global brain TMB burden. Further, we hypothesized that TMBs within brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal network (AAN) correlate with 1-year outcome...
May 5, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472086/mild-and-repetitive-very-mild-axonal-stretch-injury-triggers-cystoskeletal-mislocalization-and-growth-cone-collapse
#8
Yiing C Yap, Anna E King, Rosanne M Guijt, Tongcui Jiang, Catherine A Blizzard, Michael C Breadmore, Tracey C Dickson
Diffuse axonal injury is a hallmark pathological consequence of non-penetrative traumatic brain injury (TBI) and yet the axonal responses to stretch injury are not fully understood at the cellular level. Here, we investigated the effects of mild (5%), very mild (0.5%) and repetitive very mild (2×0.5%) axonal stretch injury on primary cortical neurons using a recently developed compartmentalized in vitro model. We found that very mild and mild levels of stretch injury resulted in the formation of smaller growth cones at the tips of axons and a significantly higher number of collapsed structures compared to those present in uninjured cultures, when measured at both 24 h and 72 h post injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469085/gdf15-is-elevated-in-mice-following-retinal-ganglion-cell-death-and-in-glaucoma-patients
#9
Norimitsu Ban, Carla J Siegfried, Jonathan B Lin, Ying-Bo Shui, Julia Sein, Wolfgang Pita-Thomas, Abdoulaye Sene, Andrea Santeford, Mae Gordon, Rachel Lamb, Zhenyu Dong, Shannon C Kelly, Valeria Cavalli, Jun Yoshino, Rajendra S Apte
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Physicians often use surrogate endpoints to monitor the progression of glaucomatous neurodegeneration. These approaches are limited in their ability to quantify disease severity and progression due to inherent subjectivity, unreliability, and limitations of normative databases. Therefore, there is a critical need to identify specific molecular markers that predict or measure glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Here, we demonstrate that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is associated with retinal ganglion cell death...
May 4, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437717/traumatic-axonal-injury-a-clinical-pathological-correlation
#10
N Davceva, A Sivevski, Neli Basheska
Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a distinct clinicopathological entity that can cause serious impairment of the brain function and can sometimes be found as a concrete cause of death. It has been discussed from the perspective of its biomechanical importance, and also from the standpoint of certain criteria for the pathological diagnosis of TAI. However, since the time when DAI (diffuse axonal injury) was initially described, there have been few, if any, discussions about the clinical-pathological correlation in TAI...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429407/spinal-cord-injury-induces-widespread-chronic-changes-in-cerebral-white-matter
#11
Tero Ilvesmäki, Eerika Koskinen, Antti Brander, Teemu Luoto, Juha Öhman, Hannu Eskola
Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) lead to axonal damage at the trauma site, as well as disconnections within the central nervous system. While the exact mechanisms of the long-term pathophysiological consequences of SCIs are not fully understood, it is known that neuronal damage and degeneration are not limited to the direct proximity of the trauma. Instead, the effects can be detected even in the cerebrum. We examined SCI-induced chronic brain changes with a case-control design using 32 patients and 70 control subjects...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394205/a-three-dimensional-computational-human-head-model-that-captures-live-human-brain-dynamics
#12
Shailesh Ganpule, Nitin P Daphalapurkar, Kaliat T Ramesh, Andrew K Knutsen, Dzung L Pham, Philip V Bayly, Jerry L Prince
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a debilitating consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributed to abnormal stretching of axons caused by blunt head trauma or acceleration of the head. We developed an anatomically accurate, subject-specific, three-dimensional (3D) computational model of the human brain, and used it to study the dynamic deformations in the substructures of the brain when the head is subjected to rotational accelerations. The computational head models use anatomy and morphology of the white matter fibers obtained using MRI...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393281/reaction-time-impairments-in-decision-making-networks-as-a-diagnostic-marker-for-traumatic-brain-injuries-and-neurological-diseases
#13
Pedro D Maia, J Nathan Kutz
The presence of diffuse Focal Axonal Swellings (FAS) is a hallmark cellular feature in many neurological diseases and traumatic brain injury. Among other things, the FAS have a significant impact on spike-train encodings that propagate through the affected neurons, leading to compromised signal processing on a neuronal network level. This work merges, for the first time, three fields of study: (i) signal processing in excitatory-inhibitory (EI) networks of neurons via population codes, (ii) decision-making theory driven by the production of evidence from stimulus, and (iii) compromised spike-train propagation through FAS...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388913/diffusion-mri-quantifies-early-axonal-loss-in-the-presence-of-nerve-swelling
#14
Tsen-Hsuan Lin, Chia-Wen Chiang, Carlos J Perez-Torres, Peng Sun, Michael Wallendorf, Robert E Schmidt, Anne H Cross, Sheng-Kwei Song
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging markers have been widely used to detect and quantify white matter pathologies in multiple sclerosis. We have recently developed a diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) to distinguish and quantify co-existing axonal injury, demyelination, and inflammation in multiple sclerosis patients and animal models. It could serve as a longitudinal marker for axonal loss, a primary cause of permanent neurological impairments and disease progression. METHODS: Eight 10-week-old female C57BL/6 mice underwent optic nerve DBSI, followed by a week-long recuperation prior to active immunization for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385062/diffusion-tensor-imaging-parameter-obtained-during-acute-blunt-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-in-predicting-long-term-outcome
#15
Kathirkamanthan Shanmuganathan, Jiachen Zhuo, Hegang H Chen, Bizhan Aarabi, Jason Adams, Catriona Miller, Jay Menaker, Rao Gullapallie, Stuart E Mirvis
There are no reliable neuroimaging biomarkers to predict long term outcome following spinal cord injury. This prospective longitudinal study evaluates diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in predicting long term outcome following cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI). We investigate the admission DTI parameters measured in 30 patients with CSCI, with 16 of them followed up to 1 year, and 15 volunteers serving as controls. All MRI examinations were performed within 24 hours of injury. DTI parameters were measured in patients and controls, avoiding areas of hemorrhage in patients and at corresponding upper/middle/lower regions of the spinal cord in controls...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378287/pediatric-thoracic-sciwora-after-back-bend-during-dance-practice-a-retrospective-case-series-and-analysis-of-trauma-mechanisms
#16
Jian Ren, Gao Zeng, Yong-Jie Ma, Nan Chen, Zan Chen, Feng Ling, Hong-Qi Zhang
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to describe a unique type of low-energy traumatic pediatric thoracic spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) after a back bend during dance practice and analyze the trauma mechanisms and treatment protocols. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series from September 2007 to August 2016. The study was conducted at a tertiary medical center in Beijing, China (Xuanwu Hospital, China International Neuroscience Institute [China-INI], Capital Medical University)...
April 4, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365421/quantitative-validation-of-a-nonlinear-histology-mri-coregistration-method-using-generalized-q-sampling-imaging-in-complex-human-cortical-white-matter
#17
Mihika Gangolli, Laurena Holleran, Joong Hee Kim, Thor D Stein, Victor Alvarez, Ann C McKee, David L Brody
Advanced diffusion MRI methods have recently been proposed for detection of pathologies such as traumatic axonal injury and chronic traumatic encephalopathy which commonly affect complex cortical brain regions. However, radiological-pathological correlations in human brain tissue that detail the relationship between the multi-component diffusion signal and underlying pathology are lacking. We present a nonlinear voxel based two dimensional coregistration method that is useful for matching diffusion signals to quantitative metrics of high resolution histological images...
March 30, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358277/evaluation-of-head-and-brain-injury-risk-functions-using-sub-injurious-human-volunteer-data
#18
Erin J Sanchez, Lee F Gabler, James S McGhee, Ardyn V Olszko, Valeta Carol Chancey, Jeff Crandall, Matthew B Panzer
Risk assessment models are developed to estimate the probability of brain injury during head impact using mechanical response variables such as head kinematics and brain tissue deformation. Existing injury risk functions have been developed using different datasets based on human volunteer and scaled animal injury responses to impact. However, many of these functions have not been independently evaluated with respect to laboratory-controlled human response data. In this study, the specificity of fourteen existing brain injury risk functions was assessed by evaluating their ability to correctly predict non-injurious response using previously conducted sled tests with well-instrumented human research volunteers...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350176/facial-emotion-recognition-in-patients-with-focal-and-diffuse-axonal-injury
#19
Walid Yassin, Brandy L Callahan, Shiho Ubukata, Genichi Sugihara, Toshiya Murai, Keita Ueda
OBJECTIVE: Facial emotion recognition impairment has been well documented in patients with traumatic brain injury. Studies exploring the neural substrates involved in such deficits have implicated specific grey matter structures (e.g. orbitofrontal regions), as well as diffuse white matter damage. Our study aims to clarify whether different types of injuries (i.e. focal vs. diffuse) will lead to different types of impairments on facial emotion recognition tasks, as no study has directly compared these patients...
March 28, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347679/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-the-cellular-sequela-to-repetitive-brain-injury
#20
REVIEW
Alexander R Vile, Leigh Atkinson
This review aims to integrate current literature on the pathogenic mechanisms of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) to create a multifactorial understanding of the disease. CTE is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, classed as a tauopathy, although it appears the pathogenic mechanisms are more complex than this. It affects those with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. Currently, there are no treatments for CTE and the disease can only be affirmatively diagnosed in post mortem. Understanding the pathogenesis of the disease will provide an avenue to explore possible treatment and diagnostic modalities...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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