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Diffuse axonal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902865/small-world-properties-changes-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Yongxia Zhou
PURPOSE: To investigate local and global efficiency changes characterized by small-world properties based on resting-state functional MRI, such as centrality and clustering coefficient, in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients; and to associate these findings with axonal injury as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well as with post-concussive symptom (PCS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients (mean age 35 ± 13 years) with clinically defined MTBI and 45 age-matched healthy controls (mean age 37 ± 10 years) participated in the experiments...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857925/a-viewpoint-on-treatment-of-traumatic-bilateral-basal-ganglia-hemorrhage-in-a-child-case-report
#2
Kyeong Hee Baek, Chul Hee Lee, Sung Kwon Kim, Hyun Park, Dong Ho Kang, Soo Hyun Hwang
Traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage (TBGH) is a rare presentation of head injuries. Bilateral lesions are extremely rare. The pathophysiologic mechanism of bilateral TBGH seems to be the same as diffuse axonal injury. However, limited information about childhood bilateral TBGH is available in the literature. We report the case of a child with bilateral TBGH treated with stereotactic aspiration of hemorrhage and periodic urokinase irrigation.
October 2016: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855610/a-review-on-injury-mechanism-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-vehicle-accidents
#3
Fan Li, Honggeng Li, Zhi Xiao, Ronggui Lu, Zhiteng Zhang, Haiyun Zhu, Lihai Ren
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage is one of the most common injuries in vehicle accidents. The aim of this paper is to survey the injury mechanism of intracerebral hemorrhage in vehicle accidents, including contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), subdural hematoma (SDH) and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). METHODS: A condensed overview is given based on the published studies in biomechanical studies on intracerebral hemorrhage. Animal tests, cadaver tests, accident investigations and numerical simulation are the main method used for the mechanism studies...
November 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853132/traumatic-brain-injuries
#4
Kaj Blennow, David L Brody, Patrick M Kochanek, Harvey Levin, Ann McKee, Gerard M Ribbers, Kristine Yaffe, Henrik Zetterberg
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available...
November 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834536/progression-of-tau-pathology-within-cholinergic-nucleus-basalis-neurons-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-study
#5
Elliott J Mufson, Sylvia E Perez, Muhammad Nadeem, Laura Mahady, Nicholas M Kanaan, Eric E Abrahamson, Milos D Ikonomovic, Fiona Crawford, Victor Alvarez, Thor Stein, Ann C McKee
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), a cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) cortical projection system, develops neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) during the progressive pathological stages of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in the brain of athletes. METHOD: To characterize NFT pathology, tau-antibodies marking early, intermediate and late stages of NFT development in CBF tissue obtained at autopsy from eighteen former athletes and veterans with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) were used...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834534/vestibular-balance-microvascular-and-white-matter-neuroimaging-characteristics-of-blast-injuries-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-four-case-reports
#6
Ramtilak Gattu, Faith W Akin, Anthony T Cacace, Courtney D Hall, Owen D Murnane, E Mark Haacke
BACKGROUND: Case reports are presented on four Veterans, aged 29-46 years, who complained of chronic dizziness and/or postural instability following blast exposures. Two of the four individuals were diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury and three of the four were exposed to multiple blasts. Comprehensive vestibular, balance, gait, audiometry and neuroimaging procedures were used to characterize their injuries. CASE REPORT: Vestibular assessment included videonystagmography, rotary chair and cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831956/identifying-diffuse-axonal-injury-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-a-new-method-for-pathological-observation
#7
Guanheng Ren, Donghua Zou, Ping Huang, Zhengdong Li, Yu Shao, Kaifei Deng, Yijiu Chen, Ningguo Liu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify the diffuse axonal injury (DAI) of rat through screening out differentially expressed proteins which may represent potential biomarkers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), which could make a contribution for the research of forensic pathology. METHODS: A total of 15 brainstem sections of rats (10 with and 5 without DAI) were conducted by MALDI-TOF IMS...
December 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819489/does-progesterone-improve-outcome-in-diffuse-axonal-injury
#8
Zahra Soltani, Nader Shahrokhi, Saeed Karamouzian, Mohammad Khaksari, Behshad Mofid, Nouzar Nakhaee, Hamed Reihani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The benefits of progesterone have been demonstrated in the animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the results of clinical studies are conflicting. Considering the heterogenic nature of TBI, the effect of progesterone in patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) was investigated in a clinical trial. METHODS: In this study, 48 patients with DAI and Glasgow Coma Scale of 3-12, admitted within 4 hours after injury, were randomly assigned to the progesterone or control group...
November 7, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816409/progressive-increase-in-brain-glucose-metabolism-after-intrathecal-administration-of-autologous-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-patients-with-diffuse-axonal-injury
#9
Jesús Vaquero, Mercedes Zurita, Celia Bonilla, Cecilia Fernández, Juan J Rubio, Jorge Mucientes, Begoña Rodriguez, Edelio Blanco, Luis Donis
BACKGROUND AIMS: Cell therapy in neurological disability after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is in its initial clinical stage. We describe our preliminary clinical experience with three patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) who were treated with intrathecal administration of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). METHODS: Three patients with established neurological sequelae due to DAI received intrathecally autologous MSCs. The total number of MSCs administered was 60 × 10(6) (one patient), 100 × 10(6) (one patient) and 300 × 10(6) (one patient)...
November 2, 2016: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812349/diffuse-axonal-injury-epidemiology-outcome-and-associated-risk-factors
#10
Rita de Cássia Almeida Vieira, Wellingson Silva Paiva, Daniel Vieira de Oliveira, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Almir Ferreira de Andrade, Regina Márcia Cardoso de Sousa
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI), a type of traumatic injury, is known for its severe consequences. However, there are few studies describing the outcomes of DAI and the risk factors associated with it. This study aimed to describe the outcome for patients with a primary diagnosis of DAI 6 months after trauma and to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with mortality and dependence at this time point. Seventy-eight patients with DAI were recruited from July 2013 to February 2014 in a prospective cohort study...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801694/non-gaussian-diffusion-imaging-shows-brain-myelin-and-axonal-changes-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#11
Sudhakar Tummala, Bhaswati Roy, Ruchi Vig, Bumhee Park, Daniel W Kang, Mary A Woo, Ravi Aysola, Ronald M Harper, Rajesh Kumar
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by brain changes in areas that regulate autonomic, cognitive, and mood functions, which were initially examined by Gaussian-based diffusion tensor imaging measures, but can be better assessed with non-Gaussian measures. We aimed to evaluate axonal and myelin changes in OSA using axial (AK) and radial kurtosis (RK) measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We acquired diffusion kurtosis imaging data from 22 OSA and 26 controls; AK and RK maps were calculated, normalized, smoothed, and compared between groups using analysis of covariance...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800469/the-serum-changes-of-neuron-specific-enolase-and-intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1-in-patients-with-diffuse-axonal-injury-following-progesterone-administration-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Nader Shahrokhi, Zahra Soltani, Mohammad Khaksari, Saeid Karamouzian, Behshad Mofid, Gholamreza Asadikaram
BACKGROUND: Improvement of neurologic outcome in progesterone-administered patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has been found in a recent study. Also, there has been interest in the importance of serum parameters as predictors of outcome in traumatic brain injury. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progesterone administration on serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in clinical DAI...
September 2016: Archives of Trauma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799036/the-underestimated-role-of-mechanical-stimuli-in-brain-diseases-and-the-related-in-vitro-models
#13
Tingwang Guo, Peng Ren, Shilei Hao, Bochu Wang
BACKGROUND: Besides the well-documented biochemical and electrophysiological effects, the mechanical stimuli also have prominent roles in the initiation and development of brain diseases but yet have been underestimated. To explore the role of mechanical stimuli and the followed mechanical-biochemical effects in the brain diseases. METHOD: In this review, we discussed the initiation and effect of mechanical stimuli and the surrounding topography in brain diseases, especially for the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), Alzheimer's disease (AD), diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and primary brain tumors...
October 27, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797805/disconnection-between-the-default-mode-network-and-medial-temporal-lobes-in-post-traumatic-amnesia
#14
Sara De Simoni, Patrick J Grover, Peter O Jenkins, Lesley Honeyfield, Rebecca A Quest, Ewan Ross, Gregory Scott, Mark H Wilson, Paulina Majewska, Adam D Waldman, Maneesh C Patel, David J Sharp
SEE BIGLER DOI101093/AWW277 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Post-traumatic amnesia is very common immediately after traumatic brain injury. It is characterized by a confused, agitated state and a pronounced inability to encode new memories and sustain attention. Clinically, post-traumatic amnesia is an important predictor of functional outcome. However, despite its prevalence and functional importance, the pathophysiology of post-traumatic amnesia is not understood. Memory processing relies on limbic structures such as the hippocampus, parahippocampus and parts of the cingulate cortex...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793193/hippocampal-phospho-tau-mapt-neuropathology-in-the-fornix-in-alzheimer-disease-an-immunohistochemical-autopsy-study
#15
Edward D Plowey, Jennifer L Ziskin
Whereas early Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology and mild cognitive impairment are relatively common in aging, accurate prediction of patients that will progress to dementia requires new biomarkers. Recently, substantial work has focused on phospho-tau/MAPT (p-MAPT) neuropathology since its regional propagation correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Recent diffusion tensor imaging studies in AD suggest that increased diffusion in the fornix secondary to p-MAPT-related axonal injury could serve as a predictive biomarker of the risk of disease progression...
October 28, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789279/conditioned-medium-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-promotes-the-functional-recovery-and-axonal-regeneration-after-contusive-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Mengchao Gu, Zhengchao Gao, Xiaohui Li, Lei Guo, Teng Lu, Yuhuan Li, Xijing He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness and the potential role of olfactory ensheathing cell conditioned medium (OEC-M) to treat contusive spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: The contusive SCI model was established by NYU weight-drop impactor at T10 segment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injection of control medium (Con-M, n=18), low dose OEC-M (n=18) and high dose OEC-M (n=18). Immunofluorescence was performed to identify the purity of cultured OECs...
January 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784203/repetitive-model-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-produces-cortical-abnormalities-detectable-by-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-imaging-dti-dki-histopathology-and-behavior
#17
Fengshan Yu, Dinesh Shukla, Regina C Armstrong, Christina Marie Marion, Kryslaine L Radomski, Reed G Selwyn, Bernard Dardzinski
Non-invasive detection of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is important for evaluating acute through chronic effects of head injuries, particularly after repetitive impacts. To better detect abnormalities from mTBI, we performed longitudinal studies (baseline, 3, 6, 42 days) using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in adult mice after repetitive mTBI (r-mTBI; daily x 5), or sham procedure. This r-mTBI produced righting reflex delay and was first characterized in the corpus callosum to demonstrate low levels of axon damage, astrogliosis, and microglial activation, without microhemorrhages...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781299/mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-mri-identifiable-injury-protect-white-matter-and-improve-long-term-functional-outcomes-after-neonatal-focal-stroke-in-rats
#18
Cindy T van Velthoven, Mark Dzietko, Michael F Wendland, Nikita Derugin, Joel Faustino, Cobi J Heijnen, Donna M Ferriero, Zinaida S Vexler
Cell therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for many neurodegenerative diseases including stroke and neonatal ischemic brain injury. Delayed intranasal administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after experimental hypoxia-ischemia and after a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in neonatal rats has shown improvement in long-term functional outcomes, but the effects of MSCs on white matter injury (WMI) are insufficiently understood. In this study we used longitudinal T2-weighted (T2W) and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize chronic injury after tMCAO induced in postnatal day 10 (P10) rats and examined the effects of delayed MSC administration on WMI, axonal coverage, and long-term somatosensory function...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772768/cognitive-impairment-after-traumatic-brain-injury-the-role-of-mri-and-possible-pathological-basis
#19
Ming-Liang Wang, Wen-Bin Li
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is closely related to increased incidence of cognitive impairment from the acute phase to chronic phase. At present, the pathological mechanism leading to cognitive impairment after TBI is still not fully understood. We hypothesize that neuron loss, diffuse axonal injury, microbleed, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption altogether contribute to the development of cognitive impairment. Furthermore, the disruption of structural and functional neural network related to the cognitive function might bring about the final step in the occurrence of cognitive impairment after TBI...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771530/thrombin-and-protein-c-pathway-in-peripheral-nerve-schwann-cells
#20
Orna Gera, Efrat Shavit-Stein, Doron Bushi, Sagi Harnof, Marina Ben Shimon, Ronen Weiss, Valery Golderman, Amir Dori, Nicola Maggio, Kate Finegold, Joab Chapman
Thrombin and activated protein C (aPC) bound to the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) both activate protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) generating either harmful or protective signaling respectively. In the present study we examined the localization of PAR-1 and EPCR and thrombin activity in Schwann glial cells of normal and crushed peripheral nerve and in Schwannoma cell lines. In the sciatic crush model nerves were excised 1h, 1, 4, and 7days after the injury. Schwannoma cell lines produced high levels of prothrombin which is converted to active thrombin and expressed both EPCR and PAR-1 which co-localized...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
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