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Diffuse axonal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812366/a-combination-of-experimental-measurement-constitutive-damage-model-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-to-characterize-the-mechanical-properties-of-the-human-brain
#1
Alireza Karimi, Seyed Mohammadali Rahmati, Reza Razaghi
Understanding the mechanical properties of the human brain is deemed important as it may subject to various types of complex loadings during the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Although many studies so far have been conducted to quantify the mechanical properties of the brain, there is a paucity of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the human brain tissue and the damage of its axon fibers under the various types of complex loadings during the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Although many studies so far have been conducted to quantify the mechanical properties of the brain, there is a paucity of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the human brain tissue and the damage of its axon fibers under the frontal lobe of the human brain...
August 16, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812113/-pathophysiology-of-intracranial-injuries
#2
REVIEW
D Lahner, G Fritsch
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a heterogeneous condition that affects the most complex organ of the human body. It is commonly classified by its location as focal injury (e.g. epidural hematoma) and diffuse injury (e.g. diffuse axonal shearing injury) as well as by primary and secondary tissue injury. Accordingly, direct mechanical force causes the primary insult. The tissue damage occurring afterwards is subsumed under the term secondary brain damage. Some of these processes are overlapping and include in the early phase local cerebral ischemia resulting in excitotoxicity, which together with the triggered neuroinflammatory cascade causes the formation of cerebral edema and ultimately increased intracranial pressure once the intracranial compliance is exhausted...
August 15, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801041/diagnosis-of-delayed-diffuse-axonal-%C3%A4-njury
#3
Çağri Kokkoz, Mehmet Irik, Halil I Dayangaç, Mustafa Hayran, Adnan Bilge, Musa Çavuş
Diffuse axonal injury is usually caused by head trauma, and patients have significant clinical symptoms during admission to the emergency department. In our case, we present a five-year-old patient who was involved in a car accident. During admission to the emergency department, the patient had no symptoms of trauma. However, 6 h after admission to emergency service, neurological symptoms occurred, and mental status changed. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is characterized by diffuse nerve axon injury in the brain and brainstem...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771043/longitudinal-dynamics-of-3-dimensional-components-of-selfhood-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-qeeg-case-study
#4
Andrew A Fingelkurts, Alexander A Fingelkurts
In this report, we describe the case of a patient who sustained extremely severe traumatic brain damage with diffuse axonal injury in a traffic accident and whose recovery was monitored during 6 years. Specifically, we were interested in the recovery dynamics of 3-dimensional components of selfhood (a 3-dimensional construct model for the complex experiential selfhood has been recently proposed based on the empirical findings on the functional-topographical specialization of 3 operational modules of brain functional network responsible for the self-consciousness processing) derived from the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal...
September 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769787/a-combination-of-ex-vivo-diffusion-mri-and-multiphoton-to-study-microglia-monocytes-alterations-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Harun N Noristani, Hassan Boukhaddaoui, Guillaume Saint-Martin, Pauline Auzer, Rahima Sidiboulenouar, Nicolas Lonjon, Eric Alibert, Nicolas Tricaud, Christophe Goze-Bac, Christophe Coillot, Florence E Perrin
Central nervous system (CNS) injury has been observed to lead to microglia activation and monocytes infiltration at the lesion site. Ex vivo diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI or DWI) allows detailed examination of CNS tissues, and recent advances in clearing procedures allow detailed imaging of fluorescent-labeled cells at high resolution. No study has yet combined ex vivo diffusion MRI and clearing procedures to establish a possible link between microglia/monocytes response and diffusion coefficient in the context of spinal cord injury (SCI)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728755/-magnetic-resonance-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-comparative-study-of-the-different-conventional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-sequences-and-their-diagnostic-value-in-diffuse-axonal-injury
#6
Marta Cicuendez, Ana Castaño-León, Ana Ramos, Amaya Hilario, Pedro A Gómez, Alfonso Lagares
OBJECTIVE: To compare the identification capability of traumatic axonal injury (TAI) by different sequences on conventional magnetic resonance (MR) studies in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retropectevely analyzed 264 TBI patients to whom a MR had been performed in the first 60 days after trauma. All clinical variables related to prognosis were registered, as well as the data from the initial computed tomography. The MR imaging protocol consisted of a 3-plane localizer sequence T1-weighted and T2-weighted fast spin-echo, FLAIR and gradient-echo images (GRET2*)...
July 17, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728462/increased-binding-potential-of-brain-adenosine-a-sub-1-sub-receptor-in-chronic-stages-of-patients-with-diffuse-axonal-injury-measured-with-1-methyl-sup-11-sup-c-8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-methyl-3-propylxanthine-pet-imaging
#7
Shihori Hayashi, Motoki Inaji, Tadashi Nariai, Keiichi Oda, Muneyuki Sakata, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishii, Kiichi Ishiwata, Taketoshi Maehara
The positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for adenosine A <sub>1</sub> receptor (A1R) [1-methyl- <sup>11</sup>C] 8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-methyl-3-propylxanthine (MPDX) has recently been developed for human brain imaging. In the present study, we evaluated the alteration of the A1R in patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in chronic stage <i>in vivo</i>. Ten patients with DAI (7 men and 3 women) were included in this study. Three PET examinations were sequentially performed to measure A1R binding with <sup>11</sup>C-MPDX, glucose metabolism with <sup>18</sup>F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and central benzodiazepine receptor binding with <sup>11</sup>C-flumazenil (FMZ), decreases of <sup>11</sup>C-FMZ uptake indicate neuronal loss...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708729/t2-weighted-and-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-differentiation-of-cerebral-fat-embolism-from-diffuse-axonal-injury
#8
Aaron M Rutman, Elliot J Rapp, Daniel S Hippe, Baoanh Vu, Mahmud Mossa-Basha
OBJECTIVE: This study differentiates cerebral fat embolism (CFE) and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Consecutive CFE and DAI cases were retrospectively selected. Hemorrhages were characterized by number, size/shape, and distribution, whereas DWI lesions by pattern. The number of hemorrhages was compared using the Mann-Whitney test with adjustment for multiple comparisons, whereas DWI abnormality was compared using Fisher exact test...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707953/neural-correlates-of-visual-memory-in-patients-with-diffuse-axonal-injury
#9
Juliane Lauer, Laura Moreno-López, Anne Manktelow, Ellen L Carroll, Joanne G Outtrim, Jonathan P Coles, Virginia F Newcombe, Barbara J Sahakian, David K Menon, Emmanuel A Stamatakis
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neural substrates of visual memory in a sample of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that patients with decreased grey and white matter volume in frontal and parietal cortices as well as medial temporal and occipital lobes would perform poorly on the tests of visual memory analysed. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: 39 patients and 53 controls were assessed on tests of visual memory and learning from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
July 14, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704292/improvement-of-higher-brain-dysfunction-after-brain-injury-by-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-intensive-rehabilitation-therapy-case-report
#10
Takatoshi Hara, Masahiro Abo, Nobuyuki Sasaki, Naoki Yamada, Masachika Niimi, Mari Kenmoku, Kastuya Kawakami, Reiko Saito
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive cognitive rehabilitation (CR) were administered to two patients with cognitive dysfunction following brain injury. The first case was a 67-year-old man who presented with memory dysfunction, attention dysfunction, and decreased insight following diffuse axonal injury. High-frequency rTMS (10 Hz, 2400 pulses/day) targeting the anterior cingulate using a navigation system and CR were administered for 12 days at 1 year from the onset of injury...
September 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676987/white-matter-abnormalities-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-with-and-without-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-subject-specific-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#11
Christian Lepage, Amicie de Pierrefeu, Inga K Koerte, Michael J Coleman, Ofer Pasternak, Gerald Grant, Christine E Marx, Rajendra A Morey, Laura A Flashman, Mark S George, Thomas W McAllister, Norberto Andaluz, Lori Shutter, Raul Coimbra, Ross D Zafonte, Murray B Stein, Martha E Shenton, Sylvain Bouix
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are often associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In cases of chronic mTBI, accurate diagnosis can be challenging due to the overlapping symptoms this condition shares with PTSD. Furthermore, mTBIs are heterogeneous and not easily observed using conventional neuroimaging tools, despite the fact that diffuse axonal injuries are the most common injury. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to diffuse axonal injuries and is thus more likely to detect mTBIs, especially when analyses account for the inter-individual variability of these injuries...
July 5, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673666/the-peculiar-properties-of-the-falx-and-tentorium-in-brain-injury-biomechanics
#12
Johnson Ho, Zhou Zhou, Xiaogai Li, Svein Kleiven
The influence of the falx and tentorium on brain injury biomechanics during impact was studied with finite element (FE) analysis. Three detailed 3D FE head models were created based on the images of a healthy, normal size head. Two of the models contained the addition of falx and tentorium with material properties from previously published experiments. Impact loadings from a reconstructed concussive case in a sport accident were applied to the two players involved. The results suggested that the falx and tentorium could induce large strains to the surrounding brain tissues, especially to the corpus callosum and brainstem...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643955/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-normal-appearing-white-matter-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-and-multiple-sclerosis
#13
S-H Kim, K Kwak, J-W Hyun, A Joung, S H Lee, Y-H Choi, J-M Lee, H J Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The occult changes in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were investigated and compared amongst patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HCs) by applying tract-based spatial statistics to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging was performed with a 3-T scanner in 93 patients with NMOSD, 53 patients with MS and 43 HCs. Voxel-wise statistical analyses of the DTI data were performed using tract-based spatial statistics...
July 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638364/impact-of-neuronal-membrane-damage-on-the-local-field-potential-in-a-large-scale-simulation-of-cerebral-cortex
#14
David L Boothe, Alfred B Yu, Pawel Kudela, William S Anderson, Jean M Vettel, Piotr J Franaszczuk
Within multiscale brain dynamics, the structure-function relationship between cellular changes at a lower scale and coordinated oscillations at a higher scale is not well understood. This relationship may be particularly relevant for understanding functional impairments after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when current neuroimaging methods do not reveal morphological changes to the brain common in moderate to severe TBI such as diffuse axonal injury or gray matter lesions. Here, we created a physiology-based model of cerebral cortex using a publicly released modeling framework (GEneral NEural SImulation System) to explore the possibility that performance deficits characteristic of blast-induced mTBI may reflect dysfunctional, local network activity influenced by microscale neuronal damage at the cellular level...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634442/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-evokes-pyramidal-neuron-axon-initial-segment-plasticity-and-diffuse-presynaptic-inhibitory-terminal-loss
#15
Michal Vascak, Jianli Sun, Matthew Baer, Kimberle M Jacobs, John T Povlishock
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential (AP) initiation, thus a crucial regulator of neuronal activity. In excitatory pyramidal neurons, the high density of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV1.6) at the distal AIS regulates AP initiation. A surrogate AIS marker, ankyrin-G (ankG) is a structural protein regulating neuronal functional via clustering voltage-gated ion channels. In neuronal circuits, changes in presynaptic input can alter postsynaptic output via AIS structural-functional plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627942/diffusion-imaging-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-impact-accelerated-rodent-model-a-pilot-study
#16
Zora Kikinis, Marc Muehlmann, Ofer Pasternak, Sharon Peled, Praveen Kulkarni, Craig Ferris, Sylvain Bouix, Yogesh Rathi, Inga K Koerte, Steve Pieper, Alexander Yarmarkovich, Caryn L Porter, Bruce S Kristal, Martha E Shenton
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: There is a need to understand pathologic processes of the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Previous studies report axonal injury and oedema in the first week after injury in a rodent model. This study aims to investigate the processes occurring 1 week after injury at the time of regeneration and degeneration using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the impact acceleration rat mTBI model. RESEARCH DESIGN: Eighteen rats were subjected to impact acceleration injury, and three rats served as sham controls...
June 19, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625420/formation-and-remodeling-of-the-brain-extracellular-matrix-in-neural-plasticity-roles-of-chondroitin-sulfate-and-hyaluronan
#17
REVIEW
Shinji Miyata, Hiroshi Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the brain is rich in glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronan. These glycosaminoglycans are organized into either diffuse or condensed ECM. Diffuse ECM is distributed throughout the brain and fills perisynaptic spaces, whereas condensed ECM selectively surrounds parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV cells) in mesh-like structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). The brain ECM acts as a non-specific physical barrier that modulates neural plasticity and axon regeneration...
June 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604837/dynamic-changes-in-diffusion-measures-improve-sensitivity-in-identifying-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Alexander W Thomas, Richard Watts, Christopher G Filippi, Joshua P Nickerson, Trevor Andrews, Gregory Lieberman, Magdalena R Naylor, Margaret J Eppstein, Kalev Freeman
The goal of this study was to investigate patterns of axonal injury in the first week after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We performed a prospective cohort study of 20 patients presenting to the emergency department with mTBI, using 3.0T diffusion tensor MRI immediately after injury and again at 1 week post-injury. Corresponding data were acquired from 16 controls over a similar time interval. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and other diffusion measures were calculated from 11 a priori selected axon tracts at each time-point, and the change across time in each region was quantified for each subject...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597208/subject-specific-regional-measures-of-water-diffusion-are-associated-with-impairment-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Ann S Choe, Cristina L Sadowsky, Seth A Smith, Peter C M van Zijl, James J Pekar, Visar Belegu
PURPOSE: We aimed to identify non-invasive imaging parameters that can serve as biomarkers for the integrity of the spinal cord, which is paramount to neurological function. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices are sensitive to axonal and myelin damage, and have strong potential to serve as such biomarkers. However, averaging DTI indices over large regions of interest (ROIs), a common approach to analyzing the images of injured spinal cord, leads to loss of subject-specific information...
August 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574152/serum-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-levels-are-associated-with-improved-white-matter-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Claire Feeney, David J Sharp, Peter J Hellyer, Amy E Jolly, James H Cole, Gregory Scott, David Baxter, Sagar Jilka, Ewan Ross, Timothy E Ham, Peter O Jenkins, Lucia M Li, Nikos Gorgoraptis, Mark Midwinter, Anthony P Goldstone
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common disabling condition with limited treatment options. Diffusion tensor imaging measures recovery of axonal injury in white matter (WM) tracts after TBI. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) after TBI may impair axonal and neuropsychological recovery, and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) may mediate this effect. We conducted a longitudinal study to determine the effects of baseline serum IGF-I concentrations on WM tract and neuropsychological recovery after TBI...
July 2017: Annals of Neurology
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