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Diffuse axonal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344063/axonal-injury-in-the-lateral-geniculate-body-radiological-diagnosis
#1
Laura Gutiérrez, Jorge Arruga, Juan J Sánchez, Silvia Muñoz, Paloma Puyalto-de-Pablo
Damage to the lateral geniculate body by diffuse axonal injury in brain trauma is uncommon. The authors present the clinical case and in vivo fibre tractography using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of this lesion in a patient presenting with homonymous sectoranopia after a traumatic head injury.
August 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341019/mri-in-the-study-of-animal-models-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#2
Nyoman D Kurniawan
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an important tool to study various animal models of degenerative diseases. This chapter describes routine protocols of T 1-, T 2-, and T 2*-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI for rodent brain and spinal cord. These protocols can be used to measure atrophy, axonal and myelin injury and changes in white matter connectivity.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334825/the-influence-of-traumatic-axonal-injury-in-thalamus-and-brain-stem-on-level-of-consciousness-at-scene-or-admission-a-clinical-mri-study
#3
Hans Kristian Moe, Kent Gøran Moen, Toril Skandsen, Kjell Arne Kvistad, Steven Laureys, Asta Kristine Håberg, Anne Vik
The aim of this study was to investigate how traumatic axonal injury (TAI) lesions in the thalamus, basal ganglia and brain stem on clinical brain MRI are associated with level of consciousness in the acute phase in patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). 158 patients with moderate-severe TBI (7-70 years) with early 1.5T MRI (median 7 days, range 0-35) without mass lesion were prospectively included. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores were registered before intubation or at admission. TAI lesions were identified in T2*gradient echo (GRE), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scans...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330037/sustained-delivery-of-glial-cell-derived-neurotrophic-factors-in-collagen-conduits-for-facial-nerve-regeneration
#4
Fukai Ma, Feng Xu, Ronggang Li, Yongtao Zheng, Fan Wang, Naili Wei, Junjie Zhong, Qisheng Tang, Tongming Zhu, Zhifu Wang, Jianhong Zhu
Facial nerve injury caused by traffic accidents or operations may reduce the quality of life in patients, and recovery following the injury presents unique clinical challenges. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is important in nerve regeneration; however, soluble GDNF rapidly diffuses into body fluids, making it difficult to achieve therapeutic efficacy. In this work, we developed a rat tail derived collagen conduit to connect nerve defects in a simple and safe manner. GDNF was immobilized in the collagen conduits via chemical conjugation to enable controlled release of GDNF...
January 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320530/the-amyloid-precursor-protein-derivative-app96-110-is-efficacious-following-intravenous-administration-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Stephanie L Plummer, Frances Corrigan, Emma Thornton, Joshua A Woenig, Robert Vink, Roberto Cappai, Corinna Van Den Heuvel
Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) neurological damage is ongoing through a complex cascade of primary and secondary injury events in the ensuing minutes, days and weeks. The delayed nature of secondary injury provides a valuable window of opportunity to limit the consequences with a timely treatment. Recently, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its derivative APP96-110 have shown encouraging neuroprotective activity following TBI following an intracerebroventricular administration. Nevertheless, its broader clinical utility would be enhanced by an intravenous (IV) administration...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309860/effects-of-total-saponins-from-trillium-tschonoskii-rhizome-on-grey-and-white-matter-injury-evaluated-by-quantitative-multiparametric-mri-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#6
Manzhong Li, Junyao Ouyang, Yi Zhang, Brian Chi Yan Cheng, Yu Zhan, Le Yang, Haiyan Zou, Hui Zhao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Trillium tschonoskii rhizome (TTR), a medicinal herb, has been traditionally used to treat traumatic brain injury and headache in China. Although the potential neuroprotective efficacy of TTR has gained increasing interest, the pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. Steroid saponins are the main bioactive components of the herb. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the protective and repair-promoting effects of the total saponins from TTR (TSTT) on grey and white matter damages in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assay...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303451/traumatic-midline-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-on-initial-computed-tomography-as-a-marker-of-severe-diffuse-axonal-injury
#7
Daddy Mata-Mbemba, Shunji Mugikura, Atsuhiro Nakagawa, Takaki Murata, Kiyoshi Ishii, Shigeki Kushimoto, Teiji Tominaga, Shoki Takahashi, Kei Takase
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that midline (interhemispheric or perimesencephalic) traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) on initial CT may implicate the same shearing mechanism that underlies severe diffuse axonal injury (DAI). METHODS The authors enrolled 270 consecutive patients (mean age [± SD] 43 ± 23.3 years) with a history of head trauma who had undergone initial CT within 24 hours and brain MRI within 30 days. Six initial CT findings, including intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and tSAH, were used as candidate predictors of DAI...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297053/anatomical-wiring-and-functional-networking-changes-in-the-visual-system-following-optic-neuritis
#8
Yael Backner, Joseph Kuchling, Said Massarwa, Timm Oberwahrenbrock, Carsten Finke, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Klemens Ruprecht, Alexander U Brandt, Hanna Zimmermann, Noa Raz, Friedemann Paul, Netta Levin
Importance: Clinical outcome in multiple sclerosis was suggested to be driven by not only remyelination but also adaptive reorganization. This mechanism needs to be further understood. Objective: To explore anatomical and functional visual networks in patients with optic neuritis (ON) to assess the relative weight of each connectivity modality to expedite visual recovery. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between March 11, 2011, and May 26, 2014, 39 patients with either clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) ON (n = 18) or other CIS (non-ON) (n = 21) were recruited 1 to 28 months following an initial clinical event...
January 2, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281157/serum-neurofilament-light-chain-in-patients-with-acute-cerebrovascular-events
#9
Gian Marco De Marchis, Mira Katan, Christian Barro, Joachim Fladt, Christopher Traenka, David J Seiffge, Lisa Hert, Henrik Gensicke, Giulio Disanto, Raoul Sutter, Nils Peters, Hakan Sarikaya, Barbara Goeggel-Simonetti, Marwan El-Koussy, Stephan Engelter, Philippe A Lyrer, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Marcel Arnold, Jens Kuhle, Leo H Bonati
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Serum Neurofilaments are markers of axonal injury. We addressed their diagnostic and prognostic role in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and TIA. METHODS: Nested within a prospective cohort study, we compared serum neurofilament light chain levels (sNfL) drawn within 24 hours from symptom onset in patients with AIS or TIA. Patients without MRI on admission were excluded. We assessed if sNfL are associated with: (i) clinical severity on admission, (ii) diagnosis of AIS vs TIA, (iii) infarct size on admission diffusion weighted imaging (MR-DWI), and (iv) functional outcome at 3 months...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278529/erythropoietin-does-not-alter-serum-profiles-of-neuronal-and-axonal-biomarkers-after-traumatic-brain-injury-findings-from-the-australian-epo-tbi-clinical-trial
#10
Sarah C Hellewell, Stefania Mondello, Alison Conquest, Gerry Shaw, Irina Madorsky, Jay V Deng, Lorraine Little, Firas Kobeissy, Nicole Bye, Rinaldo Bellomo, David J Cooper, Shirley Vallance, Jasmine Board, Maria C Morganti-Kossmann
OBJECTIVE: To determine profiles of serum ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy-chain, examine whether erythropoietin administration reduce their concentrations, and whether biomarkers discriminate between erythropoietin and placebo treatment groups. DESIGN: Single-center, prospective observational study. SETTING: A sub-study of the erythropoietin-traumatic brain injury clinical trial, conducted at the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia...
December 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273521/the-pathology-and-pathophysiology-of-vascular-dementia
#11
REVIEW
Raj N Kalaria
Vascular dementia (VaD) is widely recognised as the second most common type of dementia. Consensus and accurate diagnosis of clinically suspected VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures in life but more importantly pathological confirmation. Factors defining subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes as well as time after the initial vascular event...
December 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262441/imaging-in-neurocritical-care-practice
#12
Craig Williamson, Larry Morgan, Joshua P Klein
The use of neuroimaging in conjunction with serial neurological examinations is a core component of modern neurocritical care practice. Although there is a growing role for other neuromonitoring techniques, the ability to quickly and accurately interpret images in the context of a patient's clinical status arguably remains the indispensable skill for neurocritical care practitioners. Due to its rapid acquisition time and excellent ability to detect intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), cerebral edema, and signs of elevated intracranial pressure, computed tomography (CT) remains the most useful neuroimaging technique for intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
December 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249380/high-resolution-retinal-scanning-reveals-regional-structural-differences-between-ms-and-nmosd-optic-neuritis-regardless-of-antibody-status
#13
Marcel Bertsch-Gout, Richard Loeb, Ashley K Finch, Adil Javed, Jacqueline Bernard
BACKGROUND: There is a need for biomarkers that can classify optic neuritis (ON) attacks as belonging to either neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with optic neuritis (NMOSD-ON) or relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis with optic neuritis (MS-ON). This study uses spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) data to perform a preliminary contrast between NMOSD-ON and MS-ON by analyzing peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and intra-macular layer patterns of injury. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used SD-OCT to obtain peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and intra-macular layer data for 26 NMOSD-ON, 25 MS-ON, and 26 healthy control (HC) age-matched eyes...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246630/expression-of-rgmb-in-brain-tissue-of-mcao-rats-and-its-relationship-with-axonal-regeneration
#14
Xiao Wang, Jing-Liang Cheng, Yun-Cai Ran, Yong Zhang, Lu Yang, Ya-Nan Lin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in the expression of repulsive guidance molecule b (RGMb) in brain tissue of rats with ischemic cerebral infarction and determine its relationship with axonal regeneration, synapse remodeling and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters with magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging as the dynamic continuous monitoring method in vivo, so as to explore the pathophysiological mechanism of the occurrence, development and prognosis of cerebral infarction...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239341/delayed-degeneration-of-an-injured-spinothalamic-tract-in-a-patient-with-diffuse-axonal-injury
#15
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239261/white-matter-tract-integrity-an-indicator-of-axonal-pathology-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Sohae Chung, Els Fieremans, Xiuyuan Wang, Nuri E Kucukboyaci, Charles J Morton, James S Babb, Prin Amorapanth, Farng-Yang Foo, Dmitry S Novikov, Steven R Flanagan, Joseph F Rath, Yvonne W Lui
We seek to elucidate the underlying pathophysiology of injury sustained after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) using multi-shell diffusion MRI, deriving compartment-specific WM tract integrity (WMTI) metrics. WMTI allows a more biophysical interpretation of WM changes by describing microstructural characteristics in both intra- and extra-axonal environments. Thirty-two patients with MTBI within 30 days of injury and twenty-one age- and sex-matched controls were imaged on a 3T MR scanner. Multi-shell diffusion acquisition was performed with 5 b-values (250 - 2500 s/mm<sup>2</sup>) along 6 - 60 diffusion encoding directions...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219268/-application-of-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-in-the-identification-of-hemorrhagic-diffuse-axonal-injury
#17
W Li
OBJECTIVES: To explore the application value of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in the forensic identification of hemorrhagic diffuse axonal injury (DAI). METHODS: The forensic identification materials of 20 DAI cases were analyzed retrospectively. The sequence image materials of T1WI, T2WI, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) were analyzed statistically...
August 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219262/-screening-of-differential-expression-proteins-in-rat-brain-tissues-after-dai-by-itraq-lc-ms-ms
#18
Q Chen, J Bai, W F Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To screen for the differential expression proteins in brain tissues of SD rat after diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification-liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS), and to explore potential biomarkers available for the diagnosis of DAI. METHODS: Animal models of DAI were established with the Marmarou method as reference, and the subjects were divided into blank control group (n=4), sham strike group (n=4) and fatal strike group (n=4), respectively...
August 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213509/comparative-analysis-of-the-electroencephalogram-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-diffuse-axonal-injury-patients-and-healthy-controls-using-loreta-analysis
#19
Jéssica Natuline Ianof, Francisco José Fraga, Leonardo Alves Ferreira, Renato Teodoro Ramos, José Luiz Carlos Demario, Regina Baratho, Luís Fernando Hindi Basile, Ricardo Nitrini, Renato Anghinah
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a dementia that affects a large contingent of the elderly population characterized by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a non-degenerative injury caused by an external mechanical force. One of the main causes of TBI is diffuse axonal injury (DAI), promoted by acceleration-deceleration mechanisms. Objective: To understand the electroencephalographic differences in functional mechanisms between AD and DAI groups...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209266/current-opportunities-for-clinical-monitoring-of-axonal-pathology-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
REVIEW
Parmenion P Tsitsopoulos, Sami Abu Hamdeh, Niklas Marklund
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multidimensional and highly complex disease commonly resulting in widespread injury to axons, due to rapid inertial acceleration/deceleration forces transmitted to the brain during impact. Axonal injury leads to brain network dysfunction, significantly contributing to cognitive and functional impairments frequently observed in TBI survivors. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a clinical entity suggested by impaired level of consciousness and coma on clinical examination and characterized by widespread injury to the hemispheric white matter tracts, the corpus callosum and the brain stem...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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