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Diffuse axonal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643955/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-normal-appearing-white-matter-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-and-multiple-sclerosis
#1
S-H Kim, K Kwak, J-W Hyun, A Joung, S H Lee, Y-H Choi, J-M Lee, H J Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The occult changes in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were investigated and compared amongst patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HCs) by applying tract-based spatial statistics to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging was performed with a 3-T scanner in 93 patients with NMOSD, 53 patients with MS and 43 HCs. Voxel-wise statistical analyses of the DTI data were performed using tract-based spatial statistics...
July 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638364/impact-of-neuronal-membrane-damage-on-the-local-field-potential-in-a-large-scale-simulation-of-cerebral-cortex
#2
David L Boothe, Alfred B Yu, Pawel Kudela, William S Anderson, Jean M Vettel, Piotr J Franaszczuk
Within multiscale brain dynamics, the structure-function relationship between cellular changes at a lower scale and coordinated oscillations at a higher scale is not well understood. This relationship may be particularly relevant for understanding functional impairments after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when current neuroimaging methods do not reveal morphological changes to the brain common in moderate to severe TBI such as diffuse axonal injury or gray matter lesions. Here, we created a physiology-based model of cerebral cortex using a publicly released modeling framework (GEneral NEural SImulation System) to explore the possibility that performance deficits characteristic of blast-induced mTBI may reflect dysfunctional, local network activity influenced by microscale neuronal damage at the cellular level...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634442/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-evokes-pyramidal-neuron-axon-initial-segment-plasticity-and-diffuse-presynaptic-inhibitory-terminal-loss
#3
Michal Vascak, Jianli Sun, Matthew Baer, Kimberle M Jacobs, John T Povlishock
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential (AP) initiation, thus a crucial regulator of neuronal activity. In excitatory pyramidal neurons, the high density of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV1.6) at the distal AIS regulates AP initiation. A surrogate AIS marker, ankyrin-G (ankG) is a structural protein regulating neuronal functional via clustering voltage-gated ion channels. In neuronal circuits, changes in presynaptic input can alter postsynaptic output via AIS structural-functional plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627942/diffusion-imaging-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-impact-accelerated-rodent-model-a-pilot-study
#4
Zora Kikinis, Marc Muehlmann, Ofer Pasternak, Sharon Peled, Praveen Kulkarni, Craig Ferris, Sylvain Bouix, Yogesh Rathi, Inga K Koerte, Steve Pieper, Alexander Yarmarkovich, Caryn L Porter, Bruce S Kristal, Martha E Shenton
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: There is a need to understand pathologic processes of the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Previous studies report axonal injury and oedema in the first week after injury in a rodent model. This study aims to investigate the processes occurring 1 week after injury at the time of regeneration and degeneration using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the impact acceleration rat mTBI model. RESEARCH DESIGN: Eighteen rats were subjected to impact acceleration injury, and three rats served as sham controls...
June 19, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625420/formation-and-remodeling-of-the-brain-extracellular-matrix-in-neural-plasticity-roles-of-chondroitin-sulfate-and-hyaluronan
#5
REVIEW
Shinji Miyata, Hiroshi Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the brain is rich in glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronan. These glycosaminoglycans are organized into either diffuse or condensed ECM. Diffuse ECM is distributed throughout the brain and fills perisynaptic spaces, whereas condensed ECM selectively surrounds parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV cells) in mesh-like structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). The brain ECM acts as a non-specific physical barrier that modulates neural plasticity and axon regeneration...
June 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604837/dynamic-changes-in-diffusion-measures-improve-sensitivity-in-identifying-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Alexander W Thomas, Richard Watts, Christopher G Filippi, Joshua P Nickerson, Trevor Andrews, Gregory Lieberman, Magdalena R Naylor, Margaret J Eppstein, Kalev Freeman
The goal of this study was to investigate patterns of axonal injury in the first week after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We performed a prospective cohort study of 20 patients presenting to the emergency department with mTBI, using 3.0T diffusion tensor MRI immediately after injury and again at 1 week post-injury. Corresponding data were acquired from 16 controls over a similar time interval. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and other diffusion measures were calculated from 11 a priori selected axon tracts at each time-point, and the change across time in each region was quantified for each subject...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597208/subject-specific-regional-measures-of-water-diffusion-are-associated-with-impairment-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Ann S Choe, Cristina L Sadowsky, Seth A Smith, Peter C M van Zijl, James J Pekar, Visar Belegu
PURPOSE: We aimed to identify non-invasive imaging parameters that can serve as biomarkers for the integrity of the spinal cord, which is paramount to neurological function. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices are sensitive to axonal and myelin damage, and have strong potential to serve as such biomarkers. However, averaging DTI indices over large regions of interest (ROIs), a common approach to analyzing the images of injured spinal cord, leads to loss of subject-specific information...
June 8, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574152/serum-igf-i-levels-are-associated-with-improved-white-matter-recovery-after-tbi
#8
Claire Feeney, David J Sharp, Peter J Hellyer, Amy E Jolly, James H Cole, Gregory Scott, David Baxter, Sagar Jilka, Ewan Ross, Timothy E Ham, Peter O Jenkins, Lucia M Li, Nikos Gorgoraptis, Mark Midwinter, Anthony P Goldstone
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common disabling condition with limited treatment options. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures recovery of axonal injury in white matter (WM) tracts after TBI. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) after TBI may impair axonal and neuropsychological recovery, and serum IGF-I may mediate this effect. We conducted a longitudinal study to determine the effects of baseline serum IGF-I concentrations on WM tract and neuropsychological recovery after TBI...
June 2, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560158/application-and-evaluation-of-noddi-in-the-cervical-spinal-cord-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#9
Samantha By, Junzhong Xu, Bailey A Box, Francesca R Bagnato, Seth A Smith
INTRODUCTION: There is a need to develop imaging methods sensitive to axonal injury in multiple sclerosis (MS), given the prominent impact of axonal pathology on disability and outcome. Advanced multi-compartmental diffusion models offer novel indices sensitive to white matter microstructure. One such model, neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), is sensitive to neurite morphology, providing indices of apparent volume fractions of axons (vin), isotropic water (viso) and the dispersion of fibers about a central axis (orientation dispersion index, ODI)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553646/protection-against-blast-induced-traumatic-brain-injury-by-increase-in-brain-volume
#10
Ming Gu, Usmah Kawoos, Richard McCarron, Mikulas Chavko
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a leading cause of injuries in recent military conflicts and it is responsible for an increased number of civilian casualties by terrorist attacks. bTBI includes a variety of neuropathological changes depending on the intensity of blast overpressure (BOP) such as brain edema, neuronal degeneration, diffuse axonal damage, and vascular dysfunction with neurological manifestations of psychological and cognitive abnormalities. Internal jugular vein (IJV) compression is known to reduce intracranial compliance by causing an increase in brain volume and was shown to reduce brain damage during closed impact-induced TBI...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552225/mechanisms-and-use-of-neural-transplants-for-brain-repair
#11
Stephen B Dunnett, Anders Björklund
Under appropriate conditions, neural tissues transplanted into the adult mammalian brain can survive, integrate, and function so as to influence the behavior of the host, opening the prospect of repairing neuronal damage, and alleviating symptoms associated with neuronal injury or neurodegenerative disease. Alternative mechanisms of action have been postulated: nonspecific effects of surgery; neurotrophic and neuroprotective influences on disease progression and host plasticity; diffuse or locally regulated pharmacological delivery of deficient neurochemicals, neurotransmitters, or neurohormones; restitution of the neuronal and glial environment necessary for proper host neuronal support and processing; promoting local and long-distance host and graft axon growth; formation of reciprocal connections and reconstruction of local circuits within the host brain; and up to full integration and reconstruction of fully functional host neuronal networks...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548592/intracranial-pressure-monitoring-in-severe-blunt-head-trauma-does-the-type-of-monitoring-device-matter
#12
Alberto Aiolfi, Desmond Khor, Jayun Cho, Elizabeth Benjamin, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios Demetriades
OBJECTIVE Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has become the standard of care in the management of severe head trauma. Intraventricular devices (IVDs) and intraparenchymal devices (IPDs) are the 2 most commonly used techniques for ICP monitoring. Despite the widespread use of these devices, very few studies have investigated the effect of device type on outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to compare outcomes between 2 types of ICP monitoring devices in patients with isolated severe blunt head trauma...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544025/phase-imaging-of-axonal-integrity-of-cranial-corticospinal-tract-in-experimental-spinal-cord-injury-at-9-4t
#13
Genxia He, Junchao Qian
It was known that Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to neuronal cell death, axonal damage and demyelination, and often results in severe functional loss. Noninvasive imaging of axonal integrity may hold great importance in clinic. This study evaluated the role of phase imaging in detection of axonal integrity of cranial corticospinal tract after spinal cord injury. Quantitative MR phase imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were performed on a group of rats prior to and after spinal cord injury at 9.4 T in this study...
May 23, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534077/white-matter-injury-in-the-preterm-infant-pathology-and-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Stephen A Back
The human preterm brain is particularly susceptible to cerebral white matter injury (WMI) that disrupts the normal progression of developmental myelination. Advances in the care of preterm infants have resulted in a sustained reduction in the severity of WMI that has shifted from more severe focal necrotic lesions to milder diffuse WMI. Nevertheless, WMI remains a global health problem and the most common cause of chronic neurological morbidity from cerebral palsy and diverse neurobehavioral disabilities. Diffuse WMI involves maturation-dependent vulnerability of the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage with selective degeneration of late oligodendrocyte progenitors (preOLs) triggered by oxidative stress and other insults...
May 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522972/recent-advances-in-the-study-of-bipolar-rod-shaped-microglia-and-their-roles-in-neurodegeneration
#15
Ngan Pan Bennett Au, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499862/successful-revascularization-of-aortic-arch-in-a-39-year-old-blunt-trauma-patient-with-acute-diffuse-axonal-injury-without-the-use-of-systemic-anticoagulation
#16
Andrew M Abi-Chaker, Keith M Jones, Priscilla Sanchez, Jordan Sasson, Xiaoyi Li, Jorge Rey
BACKGROUND: Blunt traumatic aortic injury is the second leading cause of death in trauma patients age 4 to 34. Of the patients that are able to receive treatment, mortality rates as high as 40% have been reported. Endovascular repair options have allowed for more expeditious repairs with reduced iatrogenic trauma; however, when the injury involves the ascending aorta or arch, current endografts lack fenestrations needed for cerebral blood flow. Traditionally, on pump cardiopulmonary bypass with systemic anticoagulation has been used to repair these injuries...
May 9, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499787/motocross-associated-head-and-spine-injuries-in-adult-patients-evaluated-in-an-emergency-department
#17
Lucas Oliveira J E Silva, M Fernanda Bellolio, Elisa M Smith, David J Daniels, Christine M Lohse, Ronna L Campbell
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle-related injuries (including off-road) are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and acute traumatic spinal cord injury in the United States. OBJECTIVES: To describe motocross-related head and spine injuries of adult patients presenting to an academic emergency department (ED). METHODS: We performed an observational cohort study of adult ED patients evaluated for motocross-related injuries from 2010 through 2015...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477152/revisiting-grade-3-diffuse-axonal-injury-not-all-brainstem-microbleeds-are-prognostically-equal
#18
Saef Izzy, Nicole L Mazwi, Sergi Martinez, Camille A Spencer, Joshua P Klein, Gunjan Parikh, Mel B Glenn, Steven M Greenberg, David M Greer, Ona Wu, Brian L Edlow
BACKGROUND: Recovery of functional independence is possible in patients with brainstem traumatic axonal injury (TAI), also referred to as "grade 3 diffuse axonal injury," but acute prognostic biomarkers are lacking. We hypothesized that the extent of dorsal brainstem TAI measured by burden of traumatic microbleeds (TMBs) correlates with 1-year functional outcome more strongly than does ventral brainstem, corpus callosal, or global brain TMB burden. Further, we hypothesized that TMBs within brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal network (AAN) correlate with 1-year outcome...
May 5, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472086/mild-and-repetitive-very-mild-axonal-stretch-injury-triggers-cystoskeletal-mislocalization-and-growth-cone-collapse
#19
Yiing C Yap, Anna E King, Rosanne M Guijt, Tongcui Jiang, Catherine A Blizzard, Michael C Breadmore, Tracey C Dickson
Diffuse axonal injury is a hallmark pathological consequence of non-penetrative traumatic brain injury (TBI) and yet the axonal responses to stretch injury are not fully understood at the cellular level. Here, we investigated the effects of mild (5%), very mild (0.5%) and repetitive very mild (2×0.5%) axonal stretch injury on primary cortical neurons using a recently developed compartmentalized in vitro model. We found that very mild and mild levels of stretch injury resulted in the formation of smaller growth cones at the tips of axons and a significantly higher number of collapsed structures compared to those present in uninjured cultures, when measured at both 24 h and 72 h post injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469085/gdf15-is-elevated-in-mice-following-retinal-ganglion-cell-death-and-in-glaucoma-patients
#20
Norimitsu Ban, Carla J Siegfried, Jonathan B Lin, Ying-Bo Shui, Julia Sein, Wolfgang Pita-Thomas, Abdoulaye Sene, Andrea Santeford, Mae Gordon, Rachel Lamb, Zhenyu Dong, Shannon C Kelly, Valeria Cavalli, Jun Yoshino, Rajendra S Apte
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Physicians often use surrogate endpoints to monitor the progression of glaucomatous neurodegeneration. These approaches are limited in their ability to quantify disease severity and progression due to inherent subjectivity, unreliability, and limitations of normative databases. Therefore, there is a critical need to identify specific molecular markers that predict or measure glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Here, we demonstrate that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is associated with retinal ganglion cell death...
May 4, 2017: JCI Insight
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