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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092848/the-initial-use-of-arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-and-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-images-in-the-diagnosis-of-nonconvulsive-partial-status-epileptics
#1
Takafumi Shimogawa, Takato Morioka, Tetsuro Sayama, Sei Haga, Yuka Kanazawa, Kei Murao, Shuji Arakawa, Ayumi Sakata, Koji Iihara
BACKGROUND: In the diagnosis of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), capture of ongoing ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings is the gold standard; however, this is practically difficult without continuous EEG monitoring facilities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion MRI with arterial spin labeling (ASL), have been applied mainly in emergency situations. Recent reports have described that ictal MRI findings, including ictal hyperperfusion on ASL and cortical hyperintensity of cytotoxic edema on DWI, can be obtained from epileptically activated cortex...
December 21, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092659/rem-sleep-selectively-prunes-and-maintains-new-synapses-in-development-and-learning
#2
Wei Li, Lei Ma, Guang Yang, Wen-Biao Gan
The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092413/disruption-of-right-posterior-parietal-cortex-by-ctbs-alters-the-control-of-body-balance-in-quiet-stance
#3
David Kaulmann, Joachim Hermsdörfer, Leif Johannsen
Control of body balance relies on the integration of multiple sensory modalities. Lightly touching an earth-fixed reference augments the control of body sway. We aimed to advance the understanding of cortical integration of an afferent signal from light fingertip contact (LT) for the stabilisation of standing body balance. Assuming that right-hemisphere Posterior Parietal Cortex (rPPC) is involved in the integration and processing of touch for postural control, we expected that disrupting rPPC would attenuate any effects of light touch...
January 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092411/measurement-of-arterial-transit-time-and-renal-blood-flow-using-pseudocontinuous-asl-mri-with-multiple-post-labeling-delays-feasibility-reproducibility-and-variation
#4
Dong Won Kim, Woo Hyun Shim, Seong Kuk Yoon, Jong Yeong Oh, Jeong Kon Kim, Hoesu Jung, Tsuyoshi Matsuda, Dongeun Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility, reproducibility, and variation of renal perfusion and arterial transit time (ATT) using pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging (PCASL MRI) in healthy volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PCASL MRI at 3T was performed in 25 healthy volunteers on two different occasions. The ATT and ATT-corrected renal blood flow (ATT-cRBF) were calculated at four different post-labeling delay points (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092341/unilateral-spinous-process-non-covering-hook-type-patient-specific-drill-template-for-thoracic-pedicle-screw-fixation-a-pilot-clinical-trial-and-template-classification
#5
Sang Bum Kim, Yougun Won, Hyun Jin Yoo, Lee Jae Sin, John M Rhee, Sang Wook Lee, Gi-Soo Lee
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective Clinical Pilot tudy OBJECTIVE.: To confirm the accuracy of thoracic pedicle screw placement by using the unilateral spinous non-covering hook type patient-specific drill template (PSDT) made through rapid prototyping (RP) and to analyze previously reported PSDT designs and their characteristics. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Pedicle screw fixation is the most common form of the posterior instrumentation of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Various techniques have been introduced to improve pedicle screw placement...
January 13, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092269/analysis-of-microtubule-growth-dynamics-arising-from-altered-actin-network-structure-and-contractility-in-breast-tumor-cells
#6
Eleanor Ory, Lekhana Bhandary, Amanda Boggs, Kristi Chakrabarti, Joshua Parker, Wolfgang Losert, Stuart S Martin
The periphery of epithelial cells is shaped by opposing cytoskeletal physical forces generated predominately by two dynamic force generating systems - growing microtubule ends push against the boundary from the cell center, and the actin cortex contracts the attached plasma membrane. Here we investigate how changes to the structure and dynamics of the actin cortex alter the dynamics of microtubules. Current drugs target actin polymerization and contraction to reduce cell division and invasiveness; however, the impacts on microtubule dynamics remain incompletely understood...
January 16, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092095/noradrenergic-transmission-in-the-central-medial-thalamic-nucleus-modulates-the-electroencephalographic-activity-and-emergence-from-propofol-anesthesia-in-rats
#7
Bao Fu, Tian Yu, Jie Yuan, Xingrui Gong, Mazhong Zhang
At present, the mechanisms by which general anesthetics causing loss of consciousness remain unclear. The central medial thalamic nucleus (CMT) is a rarely studied component of the midline thalamic complex, which is deemed to be a part of the nonspecific arousal system. Despite the fact that CMT participates in modulating arousal and receives excitatory noradrenergic projections from locus coeruleus (LC), it remains unknown whether the noradrenergic pathway in the CMT takes part in modulating the arousal system...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092086/anxiety-related-behaviours-associated-with-microrna-206-3p-and-bdnf-expression-in-pregnant-female-mice-following-psychological-social-stress
#8
Zhuang Miao, Fengbiao Mao, Jialong Liang, Moshe Szyf, Yan Wang, Zhong Sheng Sun
Stress during pregnancy can induce various psychological disorders in women. However, the association linking psychological stress during pregnancy with abnormal behaviours in females remains largely unknown. We employed a novel psychological stress model by introducing pregnant mice to witness the defeat process of their mated partner (WDPMP) and examined the effects of WDPMP on depression-/anxiety-like behaviours and on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and miR-206-3p in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092055/differentiating-emotional-processing-and-attention-in-psychopathy-with-functional-neuroimaging
#9
Nathaniel E Anderson, Vaughn R Steele, J Michael Maurer, Vikram Rao, Michael R Koenigs, Jean Decety, David S Kosson, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Individuals with psychopathy are often characterized by emotional processing deficits, and recent research has examined the specific contexts and cognitive mechanisms that underlie these abnormalities. Some evidence suggests that abnormal features of attention are fundamental to emotional deficits in persons with psychopathy, but few studies have demonstrated the neural underpinnings responsible for such effects. Here, we use functional neuroimaging to examine attention-emotion interactions among incarcerated individuals (n = 120) evaluated for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)...
January 16, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091924/effects-of-acyzol-on-zinc-content-in-rat-brain-and-blood-plasma
#10
A F Yakimoskii, I I Shantyr, M A Vlasenko, M V Yakovleva
Zinc level in the blood plasma and brain of rats was studied by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Maximum amount of zinc was observed in the cerebellum (15.0±5.5 μg/mg wet tissue). Single intraperitoneal administration of a zinc donor acyzol (24 mg/kg) did not change the content of this element in the tissues. Repeated injections of acyzol (7 injections over 14 days) significantly increased zinc level in rat plasma and brain. This elevation was most pronounced in the forebrain (cortex and subcortical structures)...
January 14, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091863/fast-progression-of-cerebellar-atrophy-in-pla2g6-associated-infantile-neuronal-axonal-dystrophy
#11
Mario Mascalchi, Francesco Mari, Beatrice Berti, Emanuele Bartolini, Matteo Lenge, Andrea Bianchi, Laura Antonucci, Filippo M Santorelli, Barbara Garavaglia, Renzo Guerrini
Infantile neuronal axonal dystrophy (INAD) is characterized by progressive cerebellar atrophy. MRI has been recommended as a marker of disease progression in cerebellar diseases. We performed a longitudinal brain volumetry study in a couple of bicorial twins with PLA2G6-positive INAD. Brain volumetry was calculated with FreeSurfer software on 3T T1-weighted images acquired at age 28 (t 0) and 36 months (t 1) in patient 1 and at age 22 (t 0) and 31 months (t 1) in patient 2. Data at t 0 were compared to those obtained in 18 control children aged 14-44 months with normal MRI...
January 14, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091782/adaptation-perceptual-learning-and-plasticity-of-brain-functions
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan C Horton, Manfred Fahle, Theo Mulder, Susanne Trauzettel-Klosinski
The capacity for functional restitution after brain damage is quite different in the sensory and motor systems. This series of presentations highlights the potential for adaptation, plasticity, and perceptual learning from an interdisciplinary perspective. The chances for restitution in the primary visual cortex are limited. Some patterns of visual field loss and recovery after stroke are common, whereas others are impossible, which can be explained by the arrangement and plasticity of the cortical map. On the other hand, compensatory mechanisms are effective, can occur spontaneously, and can be enhanced by training...
January 14, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091578/temporal-dynamics-of-cerebellar-and-motor-cortex-physiological-processes-during-motor-skill-learning
#13
D Spampinato, P Celnik
Learning motor tasks involves distinct physiological processes in the cerebellum (CB) and primary motor cortex (M1). Previous studies have shown that motor learning results in at least two important neurophysiological changes: modulation of cerebellar output mediated in-part by long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and induction of long-term plasticity (LTP) in M1, leading to transient occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these two physiological mechanisms during motor skill learning...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091572/a-computational-psychiatry-approach-identifies-how-alpha-2a-noradrenergic-agonist-guanfacine-affects-feature-based-reinforcement-learning-in-the-macaque
#14
S A Hassani, M Oemisch, M Balcarras, S Westendorff, S Ardid, M A van der Meer, P Tiesinga, T Womelsdorf
Noradrenaline is believed to support cognitive flexibility through the alpha 2A noradrenergic receptor (a2A-NAR) acting in prefrontal cortex. Enhanced flexibility has been inferred from improved working memory with the a2A-NA agonist Guanfacine. But it has been unclear whether Guanfacine improves specific attention and learning mechanisms beyond working memory, and whether the drug effects can be formalized computationally to allow single subject predictions. We tested and confirmed these suggestions in a case study with a healthy nonhuman primate performing a feature-based reversal learning task evaluating performance using Bayesian and Reinforcement learning models...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091559/brain-structural-differences-between-normal-and-obese-adults-and-their-links-with-lack-of-perseverance-negative-urgency-and-sensation-seeking
#15
Haifeng Wang, Baohong Wen, Jingliang Cheng, Hongpeng Li
In order to examine the difference in brain structure between obese and normal weight individuals, and to explore the relationship between the neuroanatomical changes and impulsivity traits, this study used a voxel-based morphometry method to examine gray matter (GM) volume alterations related to impulsive personality traits in obese individuals relative to normal weight. Eighty adults that completed the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale were analyzed. Possible GM volume alterations were first analyzed at the whole brain level, and then the relationship between regional GM volume differences and UPPS-P scores were examined in selected regions of interest...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090806/randomized-sham-controlled-study-of-high-frequency-bilateral-deep-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-dtms-to-treat-adult-attention-hyperactive-disorder-adhd-negative-results
#16
Yaniv Paz, Keren Friedwald, Yeheal Levkovitz, Abraham Zangen, Uri Alyagon, Uri Nitzan, Aviv Segev, Hagai Maoz, May Koubi, Yuval Bloch
BACKGROUND: Recent studies support the possible effectiveness of rTMS as a treatment for ADHD. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and possible efficacy of bilateral prefrontal deep rTMS for the treatment of adult ADHD. METHODS: Twenty-six adult ADHD patients were randomized blindly to sham or actual deep TMS. Twenty daily sessions were conducted using the bilateral H5 deep TMS coil (Brainsway, IL) in order to stimulate the prefrontal cortex at 120% of the motor threshold at high frequency...
January 16, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090802/functional-deficits-induced-by-cortical-microinfarcts
#17
Philipp M Summers, David A Hartmann, Edward S Hui, Xingju Nie, Rachael L Deardorff, Emilie T McKinnon, Joseph A Helpern, Jens H Jensen, Andy Y Shih
Clinical studies have revealed a strong link between increased burden of cerebral microinfarcts and risk for cognitive impairment. Since the sum of tissue damage incurred by microinfarcts is a miniscule percentage of total brain volume, we hypothesized that microinfarcts disrupt brain function beyond the injury site visible to histological or radiological examination. We tested this idea using a mouse model of microinfarcts, where single penetrating vessels that supply mouse cortex were occluded by targeted photothrombosis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090785/thymic-cytoarchitecture-changes-in-mice-exposed-to-vanadium
#18
Martha Ustarroz-Cano, Isabel Garcia-Pelaez, Silvana Cervantes-Yepez, Nelly Lopez-Valdez, Teresa I Fortoul
The thymus is a vital immune system organ wherein selection of T-lymphocytes occurs in a process regulated by dendritic and epithelial thymic cells. Previously, we have reported that in a mouse model of vanadium inhalation, a decrease in CD11c dendritic cells was observed. In the present study, we report on a thymic cortex-medulla distribution distortion in these hosts due to apparent effects of the inhaled vanadium on cytokeratin-5 (K5(+)) epithelial cells in the same mouse model - after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of exposure - by immunohistochemistry...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090585/circadian-forced-desynchrony-of-the-master-clock-leads-to-phenotypic-manifestation-of-depression-in-rats
#19
Miriam Ben-Hamo, Tracy A Larson, Leanne S Duge, Carl Sikkema, Charles W Wilkinson, Horacio O de la Iglesia, Mónica M C González
In mammals, a master circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus maintains the phase coherence among a wide array of behavioral and physiological circadian rhythms. Affective disorders are typically associated with disruption of this fine-tuned "internal synchronization," but whether this internal misalignment is part of the physiopathology of mood disorders is not clear. To date, depressive-like behavior in animal models has been induced by methods that fail to specifically target the SCN regulation of internal synchronization as the mode to generate depression...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090265/identification-and-monitoring-of-korean-medicines-derived-from-cinnamomum-spp-by-using-its-and-dna-marker
#20
Eui Jeong Doh, Jung-Hoon Kim, Seung Eun Oh, Guemsan Lee
In this study, we identified and evaluated the genetic relationships among Cinnamomum plants, which are used in traditional medicine. We also attempted to monitor the distribution of traditional medicines derived from Cinnamomum cassia by using DNA barcoding and a species-specific DNA marker. Plants of the genus Cinnamomum, and in particular C. cassia, are commonly used as medicinal herbs in the form of Cinnamomi Ramulus, Cinnamomi Cortex, and Cassiae Cortex Interior. However, it is difficult to distinguish among different Cinnamomum species based on morphological features, and so to overcome this limitation, nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of Cinnamomum DNA were determined and compared...
2017: Genes & Genomics
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