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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812438/acute-formaldehyde-exposure-induced-early-alzheimer-like-changes-in-mouse-brain
#1
Xudong Liu, Yuchao Zhang, Ruliu Wu, Meng Ye, Yuqing Zhao, Jun Kang, Ping Ma, Jinquan Li, Xu Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious, common, global disease, yet its etiology and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Although an association between AD and exposure to air pollutants has been discussed, the effects of pollutants on the functioning of the brain remain unclear. The indoor environment is where exposure to formaldehyde (FA) can occur. Whether exposure to FA contributes to the development of AD needs to be investigated. To determine the objective, C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily to FA (0, 0...
August 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812268/oxytocin-and-human-evolution
#2
C Sue Carter
A small, but powerful neuropeptide, oxytocin coordinates processes that are central to both human reproduction and human evolution. Also embedded in the evolution of the human nervous system are unique pathways necessary for modern human sociality and cognition. Oxytocin is necessary for facilitating the birth process, especially in light of anatomical restrictions imposed by upright human locomotion, which depends on a fixed pelvis. Oxytocin, by facilitating birth, allowed the development of a large cortex and a protective bony cranium...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811534/distinct-projection-patterns-of-different-classes-of-layer-2-principal-neurons-in-the-olfactory-cortex
#3
Camille Mazo, Julien Grimaud, Yasuyuki Shima, Venkatesh N Murthy, C Geoffrey Lau
The broadly-distributed, non-topographic projections to and from the olfactory cortex may suggest a flat, non-hierarchical organization in odor information processing. Layer 2 principal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex (APC) can be divided into 2 subtypes: semilunar (SL) and superficial pyramidal (SP) cells. Although it is known that SL and SP cells receive differential inputs from the olfactory bulb (OB), little is known about their projections to other olfactory regions. Here, we examined axonal projections of SL and SP cells using a combination of mouse genetics and retrograde labeling...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811490/mammary-tumors-induce-central-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-but-not-behavioral-deficits-in-balb-c-mice
#4
William H Walker Ii, Jeremy C Borniger, Surbhi, Abigail A Zalenski, Stevie L Muscarella, Julie A Fitzgerald, Ning Zhang, Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, A Courtney DeVries
Breast cancer survivors are more likely to develop mood disorders and cognitive deficits than women in the general population. Previous studies suggest that peripheral tumors elicit central pro-inflammatory cytokine production, in turn leading to depression and cognitive deficits. In the current study, two cohorts of female Balb/C mice received bilateral orthotopic injections of syngeneic 67NR, 4T07, or 4T1cells (1 × 10(5) cells per injection) to induce mammary tumors. Approximately three weeks later, learned fear (via fear conditioning) or depressive-like behavior (via tail suspension and forced swim test) was assessed...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811461/sparse-orthogonal-population-representation-of-spatial-context-in-the-retrosplenial-cortex
#5
Dun Mao, Steffen Kandler, Bruce L McNaughton, Vincent Bonin
Sparse orthogonal coding is a key feature of hippocampal neural activity, which is believed to increase episodic memory capacity and to assist in navigation. Some retrosplenial cortex (RSC) neurons convey distributed spatial and navigational signals, but place-field representations such as observed in the hippocampus have not been reported. Combining cellular Ca(2+) imaging in RSC of mice with a head-fixed locomotion assay, we identified a population of RSC neurons, located predominantly in superficial layers, whose ensemble activity closely resembles that of hippocampal CA1 place cells during the same task...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811367/amplification-of-local-changes-along-the-timescale-processing-hierarchy
#6
Yaara Yeshurun, Mai Nguyen, Uri Hasson
Small changes in word choice can lead to dramatically different interpretations of narratives. How does the brain accumulate and integrate such local changes to construct unique neural representations for different stories? In this study, we created two distinct narratives by changing only a few words in each sentence (e.g., "he" to "she" or "sobbing" to "laughing") while preserving the grammatical structure across stories. We then measured changes in neural responses between the two stories. We found that differences in neural responses between the two stories gradually increased along the hierarchy of processing timescales...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811255/cortical-layers-cyto-myelo-receptor-and-synaptic-architecture-in-human-cortical-areas
#7
REVIEW
Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Karl Zilles
Cortical layers have classically been identified by their distinctive and prevailing cell types and sizes, as well as the packing densities of cell bodies or myelinated fibers. The densities of multiple receptors for classical neurotransmitters also vary across the depth of the cortical ribbon, and thus determine the neurochemical properties of cyto- and myeloarchitectonic layers. However, a systematic comparison of the correlations between these histologically definable layers and the laminar distribution of transmitter receptors is currently lacking...
August 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811197/seasonal-changes-in-plasma-testosterone-and-cortisol-suggest-an-androgen-mediated-regulation-of-the-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-the-tarabul-s-gerbil-gerbillus-tarabuli-thomas-1902
#8
Yamina Zatra, Naouel Aknoun-Sail, Arezki Kheddache, Abdelouafi Benmouloud, Salima Charallah, Elara N Moudilou, Jean-Marie Exbrayat, Farida Khammar, Zaina Amirat
In the desert gerbil Gerbillus tarabuli (Thomas, 1902), cortisol is the main glucocorticosteroid produced by the adrenal glands. Plasma cortisol concentrations show highest values when testosterone is reduced and lowest values during the breeding season which occurs from early winter to late spring. In order to specify the implication of testicular androgens in these corticosteroid seasonal variations we investigated the effects induced by gonadectomy performed during the breeding season on the pituitary adrenal axis...
August 12, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811179/lateral-frontal-pole-and-relational-processing-activation-patterns-and-connectivity-profile
#9
Bart Hartogsveld, Bob Bramson, Suhas Vijayakumar, A Dilene van Campen, José P Marques, Karin Roelofs, Ivan Toni, Harold Bekkering, Rogier B Mars
The functional contribution of the lateral prefrontal cortex to behavior has been discussed with reference to several higher-order cognitive domains. In a separate line of research, recent studies have focused on the anatomical organization of this part of the brain. However, these different approaches are rarely combined. Here, we combine previous work using anatomical connectivity that identified a lateral subdivision of the human frontal pole and work that suggested a general role for rostrolateral prefrontal cortex in processing higher-order relations, irrespective of the type of information...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811022/intact-metabolite-profiling-of-mouse-brain-by-probe-electrospray-ionization-triple-quadrupole-tandem-mass-spectrometry-pesi-ms-ms-and-its-potential-use-for-local-distribution-analysis-of-the-brain
#10
Yumi Hayashi, Kei Zaitsu, Tasuku Murata, Tomomi Ohara, Stéphane Moreau, Maiko Kusano, Hiroshi Tanihata, Hitoshi Tsuchihashi, Akira Ishii, Tetsuya Ishikawa
Probe electrospray ionization (PESI), which is an ambient ionization technique, enables us to analyze intact endogenous metabolites without sample preparation. In this study, we applied the newly developed method of PESI coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (PESI/MS/MS) to analyze metabolites in mouse brain, where its lipid composition often interfere with MS-based metabolome analysis. As a result, PESI/MS/MS directly detected 25 metabolites in a mouse frontal cortex, and clearly discriminated the metabolic profiles of mice model with energy metabolism disruption from control mice...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810973/the-influence-of-combat-experience-on-psychologically-healthy-soldiers-attentiveness-to-environmental-threats
#11
Bethany Ranes, Chris P Long, Stephanie Traynham, Amanda Hayes
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to previous research that has primarily examined how psychological disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], anxiety) are affected by and affect individuals' threat perceptions, this study examines the relationship between combat experience and threat-monitoring in psychologically healthy Soldiers. Existing research has established how prolonged or intense experiences with war-related stressors can lead individuals to undergo an unconscious fear-conditioning process that affects the circuitry of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex regions of the brain...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810581/protective-effect-of-glycyrrhizin-on-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-oxidative-stress-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-inflammatory-reactions-through-high-mobility-group-box-1-and-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-expression
#12
Xiangna Cai, Xin Wang, Jilin Li, Shuying Chen
Glycyrrhizin, which is a type of perennial leguminous caudex, has been used in various Asian countries, including P.R. China, India and Japan, for thousands of years. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of glycyrrhizin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through oxidative stress, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and inflammatory reactions via high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: Sham; myocardial I/R injury + non-treated; myocardial I/R injury + 2 mg/kg glycyrrhizin; myocardial I/R injury + 4 mg/kg glycyrrhizin; and myocardial I/R injury + 10 mg/kg glycyrrhizin...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810133/floor-of-mouth-hematoma-following-dental-implant-placement-systematic-review-and-case-presentation
#13
REVIEW
Catherine Law, Peyman Alam, Farzad Borumandi
PURPOSE: The authors provide a structured review of reported cases of floor-of-mouth hematoma during or after dental implantation and frequent causes and management and present a related case. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online search of the medical literature was conducted from 1990 through 2016. The following search terms were used: floor of mouth hematoma, sublingual hematoma, dental implant hematoma, implant in mandible, and complication of dental implant. Abstracts were screened for relevance to the aims of the review...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809856/decreased-nox2-expression-in-the-brain-of-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-association-with-valproic-acid-prescription-and-substance-abuse
#14
T Seredenina, S Sorce, F R Herrmann, X-J Ma Mulone, O Plastre, A Aguzzi, V Jaquet, K-H Krause
Neuroinflammation and increased oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the development of psychiatric diseases. Animal studies have implicated NADPH oxidases (NOX) as relevant sources of reactive oxygen species in the brain. We have analyzed the expression of NOX isoforms in post-mortem brain samples from patients with psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) and non-psychiatric subjects. Two collections from the Stanley Medical Research Institute were studied: the Array Collection (RNA, 35 individuals per group), and a neuropathology consortium collection (paraffin-embedded sections, 15 individuals per group)...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809854/in-the-grip-of-worry-cerebral-blood-flow-changes-during-worry-induction-and-reappraisal-in-late-life-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#15
H T Karim, D L Tudorascu, M A Butters, S Walker, H J Aizenstein, C Andreescu
Severe worry includes a complex blend of maladaptive affective and cognitive processes. Contrary to other forms of anxiety, there is no consensus in the field regarding the neural basis of worry. To date, no study has looked at neural patterns associated specifically with in-scanner induction and reappraisal of worry. In this study, we attempt to describe distinct components of the 'neural phenomenology' of worry: induction, maintenance, severity and reappraisal, by using a personalized, in-scanner worry script...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809833/application-of-granger-causality-analysis-of-the-directed-functional-connection-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#16
Mei Wang, Zhengluan Liao, Dewang Mao, Qi Zhang, Yumei Li, Enyan Yu, Zhongxiang Ding
Impaired functional connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN) may be involved in the progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC) is a potential imaging marker for monitoring the progression of AD. Previous studies did not focus on the functional connectivity between the PCC and nodes in regions outside the DMN, but our study is an effort to explore these overlooked functional connections. For collecting data, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Granger Causality Analysis (GCA)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809400/prenatal-one-carbon-metabolism-dysregulation-programs-schizophrenia-like-deficits
#17
A Alachkar, L Wang, R Yoshimura, A R Hamzeh, Z Wang, N Sanathara, S M Lee, X Xu, G W Abbott, O Civelli
The methionine-folate cycle-dependent one-carbon metabolism is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Since schizophrenia is a developmental disorder, we examined the effects that perturbation of the one-carbon metabolism during gestation has on mice progeny. Pregnant mice were administered methionine equivalent to double their daily intake during the last week of gestation. Their progeny (MET mice) exhibited schizophrenia-like social deficits, cognitive impairments and elevated stereotypy, decreased neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, and abnormally reduced local excitatory synaptic connections in CA1 neurons...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808866/activations-in-gray-and-white-matter-are-modulated-by-uni-manual-responses-during-within-and-inter-hemispheric-transfer-effects-of-response-hand-and-right-handedness
#18
Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Marcella Bellani, Asadur Chowdury, Silvia Savazzi, Cinzia Perlini, Veronica Marinelli, Giada Zoccatelli, Franco Alessandrini, Elisa Ciceri, Gianluca Rambaldelli, Mirella Ruggieri, A Carlo Altamura, Carlo A Marzi, Paolo Bambilla
Because the visual cortices are contra-laterally organized, inter-hemispheric transfer tasks have been used to behaviorally probe how information briefly presented to one hemisphere of the visual cortex is integrated with responses resulting from the ipsi- or contra-lateral motor cortex. By forcing rapid information exchange across diverse regions, these tasks robustly activate not only gray matter regions, but also white matter tracts. It is likely that the response hand itself (dominant or non-dominant) modulates gray and white matter activations during within and inter-hemispheric transfer...
August 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808819/separating-the-idea-from-the-action-a-sloreta-study
#19
Martin Rakusa, Pierpaolo Busan, Piero Paolo Battaglini, Janez Zidar
Simple imaginary movements activate similar cortical and subcortical areas to actual movements, chiefly in the sensory-motor network. However, only a few studies also examined the imagery of more skilful movements such as reaching. Ten volunteers performed reaching movements or imagined the same movements. EEG was simultaneously recorded and analysed with sLORETA, which compared the preparation for actual and imagined reaching with respect to their baseline and between tasks. Major differences between them were found at three time intervals after target presentation, always in favour of the actual reaching condition...
August 14, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808785/conserved-dna-methylation-combined-with-differential-frontal-cortex-and-cerebellar-expression-distinguishes-c9orf72-associated-and-sporadic-als-and-implicates-serpina1-in-disease
#20
Mark T W Ebbert, Christian A Ross, Luc J Pregent, Rebecca J Lank, Cheng Zhang, Rebecca B Katzman, Karen Jansen-West, Yuping Song, Edroaldo Lummertz da Rocha, Carla Palmucci, Pamela Desaro, Amelia E Robertson, Ana M Caputo, Dennis W Dickson, Kevin B Boylan, Rosa Rademakers, Tamas Ordog, Hu Li, Veronique V Belzil
We previously found C9orf72-associated (c9ALS) and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) brain transcriptomes comprise thousands of defects, among which, some are likely key contributors to ALS pathogenesis. We have now generated complementary methylome data and combine these two data sets to perform a comprehensive "multi-omic" analysis to clarify the molecular mechanisms initiating RNA misregulation in ALS. We found that c9ALS and sALS patients have generally distinct but overlapping methylome profiles, and that the c9ALS- and sALS-affected genes and pathways have similar biological functions, indicating conserved pathobiology in disease...
August 14, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
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