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Daisuke Shimaoka, Kenneth D Harris, Matteo Carandini
Changes in arousal modulate the activity of mouse sensory cortex, but studies in different mice and different sensory areas disagree on whether this modulation enhances or suppresses activity. We measured this modulation simultaneously in multiple cortical areas by imaging mice expressing voltage-sensitive fluorescent proteins (VSFP). VSFP imaging estimates local membrane potential across large portions of cortex. We used temporal filters to predict local potential from running speed or from pupil dilation, two measures of arousal...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Magdalene I Schlesiger, Brittney L Boublil, Jena B Hales, Jill K Leutgeb, Stefan Leutgeb
The high storage capacity of the episodic memory system relies on distinct representations for events that are separated in time and space. The spatial component of these computations includes the formation of independent maps by hippocampal place cells across environments, referred to as global remapping. Such remapping is thought to emerge by the switching of input patterns from specialized spatially selective cells in medial entorhinal cortex (mEC), such as grid and border cells. Although it has been shown that acute manipulations of mEC firing patterns are sufficient for inducing hippocampal remapping, it remains unknown whether specialized spatial mEC inputs are necessary for the reorganization of hippocampal spatial representations...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Adina S Fischer, M Catalina Camacho, Tiffany C Ho, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Ian H Gotlib
Importance: Adolescence is a neurodevelopmental period during which experience-dependent plasticity in brain circuitry may confer vulnerability to depression as well as resilience to disorder. Little is known, however, about the neural mechanisms that underlie resilience during this critical period of brain development. Objective: To examine neural functional connectivity correlates of resilience in adolescent females at high and low familial risk for depression who did and did not develop the disorder...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
H P Dong, W Zhou, X X Ma, Z Z He, Z H Wang
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of salvinorin A on the cerebral pial artery after forebrain ischemia and explore related mechanisms. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats received forebrain ischemia for 10 min. The dilation responses of the cerebral pial artery to hypercapnia and hypotension were assessed in rats before and 1 h after ischemia. The ischemia reperfusion (IR) control group received DMSO (1 µL/kg) immediately after ischemia. Two different doses of salvinorin A (10 and 20 µg/kg) were administered following the onset of reperfusion...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Carlos A Gómez, Jason Sutin, Weicheng Wu, Buyin Fu, Hana Uhlirova, Anna Devor, David A Boas, Sava Sakadžić, Mohammad A Yaseen
Investigating cerebral metabolism in vivo at a microscopic level is essential for understanding brain function and its pathological alterations. The intricate signaling and metabolic dynamics between neurons, glia, and microvasculature requires much more detailed understanding to better comprehend the mechanisms governing brain function and its disease-related changes. We recently demonstrated that pharmacologically-induced alterations to different steps of cerebral metabolism can be distinguished utilizing 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging of endogenous reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence in vivo...
2018: PloS One
Yoshihiro Kawakubo, Masaya Yanagi, Noa Tsujii, Osamu Shirakawa
In applications of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in clinical psychiatry settings in Japan, a phonemic verbal fluency test (VFT) that includes "switching" (the ability to shift efficiently to a new word subcategory) to assess phonemic fluency is employed to capture disease-specific hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this study, to extend the specific features of this test, the VFT was repeated to examine an activation change in NIRS measurements in 20 healthy males. Without task performance change, the hemodynamic activation induced by the VFT was significantly attenuated in the left PFC through repetition of the task...
2018: PloS One
Marco K Wittmann, Patricia L Lockwood, Matthew F S Rushworth
Activity in a network of areas spanning the superior temporal sulcus, dorsomedial frontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex is concerned with how nonhuman primates negotiate the social worlds in which they live. Central aspects of these circuits are retained in humans. Activity in these areas codes for primates' interactions with one another, their attempts to find out about one another, and their attempts to prevent others from finding out too much about themselves. Moreover, important features of the social world, such as dominance status, cooperation, and competition, modulate activity in these areas...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Xia Liao, Cuiping Mao, Yuan Wang, Qingfeng Zhang, Dongyuan Cao, David A Seminowicz, Ming Zhang, Xiaoli Yang
Altered cerebral gray matter volume (GMV) is commonly found in patients with chronic pain. Chronic pain is the prominent characteristic of knee osteoarthritis (KOA), yet little is known about its morphological changes in the brain. Here an MRI study was performed to examine the structural brain abnormalities in 30 KOA patients with knee pain and age-matched healthy subjects. We detected that the patients exhibited significant almost 2-fold age-related decreases of GMV compared to healthy controls. Moreover, KOA patients also had significant loss of regional GMV including in the bilateral orbital frontal cortex (OFC), the right lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC), and precentral and postcentral cortices...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Heather L Kosakowski, Rebecca Saxe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Sawsan Aboul-Fotouh, Mohamed Habib, Tarek Asaad, Samar K Kassim, Mohamed H Ghanem
Depression is the disease of the modern era. The lack of response to the available antidepressants, which were developed on the basis of the monoaminergic deficit hypothesis of depression, has encouraged scientists to think about new mechanisms explaining the pathogenesis of depression. In this context, the inflammatory theory has emerged to clarify many aspects of depression that the previous theories have failed to explain. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) has a regulatory role in the brain's immune response to stress, and its activation is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of depression...
March 20, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Talia Brandman, Marius V Peelen
We internally represent the structure of our surroundings even when there is little layout information available in the visual image, such as when walking through fog or darkness. One way in which we disambiguate such scenes is through object cues; for example, seeing a boat supports the inference that the foggy scene is a lake. Recent studies have investigated the neural mechanisms by which object and scene processing interact to support object perception. The current study examines the reverse interaction by which objects facilitate the neural representation of scene layout...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Seng Bum Michael Yoo, Brianna J Sleezer, Benjamin Y Hayden
Knowing whether core reward regions carry information about the positions of relevant objects is crucial for adjudicating between choice models. One limitation of previous studies, including our own, is that spatial positions can be consistently differentially associated with rewards, and thus, position can be confounded with attention, motor plans, or target identity. We circumvented these problems by using a task in which value-and thus choices-was determined solely by a frequently changing rule, which was randomized relative to spatial position on each trial...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Paul Slezak, Philipp Heher, Xavier Monforte, Claudia Keibl, Heinz Redl, Daniel Spazierer, Heinz Gulle
PURPOSE: Topical hemostatic agents are an important means of controlling or preventing bleeding. This study was performed to compare gelatin-thrombin matrix with smooth particles (SmGM) versus gelatin-thrombin matrix with stellate particles (StGM) in a porcine kidney bleeding model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In male pigs, reproducible lesions (diameter and depth ∼10 mm) were created in the renal cortex. Each lesion was treated topically using either SmGM or StGM...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Luna Jammal, Ben Whalley, Edi Barkai
Training rats in a complex olfactory discrimination task results in acquisition of 'rule learning' (learning how to learn), a term describing the capability to perform the task superbly. Such rule learning results in strengthening of both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections between neurons in the piriform cortex. Moreover, intrinsic excitability is also enhanced throughout the pyramidal neuron population. Surprisingly, the cortical network retains its stability under these long-term modifications...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
E V Beliaeva, L V Lapshina, E V Shaposhnikova, A A Molgachev
Dandy-Walker malformation is a rare disease of the central nervous system pathology (congenital malformations of the fossa cranii posterior). The key features of this syndrome are an enlargement of the fourth ventricle; complete absence of the cerebellar vermis, the posterior midline area of cerebellar cortex responsible for coordination of the axial musculature; and cyst formation near the internal base of the skull. Pregnant patients with Dandy-Walker malformation are at high risk and are managed by multidisciplinary teams including neurologists and obstetricians...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Guangheng Dong, Lingxiao Wang, Xiaoxia Du, Marc N Potenza
BACKGROUND: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been proposed as a behavioral addiction warranting additional investigation. Craving is considered a core component of addictions. However, few studies to date have investigated craving in IGD. In the current study, we investigated how gaming was associated with changes in response to gaming-related stimuli in subjects with IGD and those with recreational game use (RGU). METHODS: Behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 27 individuals with IGD and 43 individuals with RGU...
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Chris Baeken, Romain Duprat, Guo-Rong Wu, Rudi De Raedt, Kees van Heeringen
BACKGROUND: Accelerated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigms have been shown to result in fast decreases in depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Although the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) region has been put forward as a possible biological marker, so far, no studies evaluated the clinical effects of accelerated intermittent theta burst stimulation (aiTBS) on sgACC functional connectivity (FC). METHODS: Fifty patients with treatment-resistant depression were enrolled in this registered randomized double-blind sham-controlled crossover aiTBS treatment study...
October 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Ping-An Zhang, Hong-Yan Zhu, Qi-Ya Xu, Wan-Jie Du, Shufen Hu, Guang-Yin Xu
Aims Insular cortex is a brain region critical for processing of the sensation. Purinergic receptors are involved in the formation of chronic pain. The aim of the present study was to explore the role and mechanism of P2X3 receptors (P2X3Rs) in insular cortex in chronic visceral pain. Methods Chronic visceral pain in adult rats was induced by neonatal maternal deprivation and measured by detecting the threshold of colorectal distension. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques were used to detect the expression and distribution of P2X3Rs...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
Pierre H M Pechon, Rhys Pullin, Mark J Eaton, Stephan A Jones, Sam Evans
During uncemented hip arthroplasty the femoral prosthesis can be fitted too tightly into the femoral canal, causing a hoop-stress fracture of the proximal femur. The research undertaken evaluated Acoustic Emission (AE) technology as a potential method of detecting a fracture forming in this manner, in an attempt to assess whether this technology may be used as a means of early warning of impending fracture during surgery. Deer femora were prepared in a manner similar to surgery and uncemented hip arthroplasty broaches were inserted until fracture occurred...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Marco A Marra, Marta Strzelczak, Petra J C Heesterbeek, Sebastiaan A W van de Groes, Dennis Janssen, Bart F J M Koopman, Nico Verdonschot, Ate B Wymenga
PURPOSE: When downsizing the femoral component to prevent mediolateral overhang, notching of the anterior femoral cortex may occur, which could be solved by flexing the femoral component. In this study, we investigated the effect of flexion of the femoral component on patellar tendon moment arm, patellofemoral forces and kinematics in posterior-referencing CR-TKA. Our hypothesis was that flexion of the femoral component increases the patellar tendon moment arm, reduces the patellofemoral forces and provides stable kinematics...
March 20, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
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