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ATP and purinergic modulation in glomus cells

Colin A Nurse, Erin M Leonard, Shaima Salman
Mammalian carotid bodies (CB) are chemosensory organs that mediate compensatory cardiorespiratory reflexes in response to low blood PO2 (hypoxemia) and elevated CO2 /H+ (acid hypercapnia). The chemoreceptors are glomus or type I cells that occur in clusters enveloped by neighboring glial-like type II cells. During chemoexcitation type I cells depolarize, leading to Ca2+ -dependent release of several neurotransmitters, some excitatory and others inhibitory, that help shape the afferent carotid sinus nerve (CSN) discharge...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Genomics
John L Carroll, Amit Agarwal, David F Donnelly, Insook Kim
Carotid body (CB) glomus cells respond to hypoxia by releasing neurotransmitters, such as ATP, which are believed to stimulate excitatory receptors on apposed nerve endings of the carotid sinus nerves as well as bind to autoreceptors on the glomus cell membrane to modulate response magnitude. The CB response to hypoxia is small at birth and increases during postnatal maturation in mammals. As ATP has been shown to inhibit the glomus cell response to hypoxia via an autoreceptor mechanism, we hypothesized that ATP-mediated inhibition may vary with age and play a role in postnatal development of the hypoxia response magnitude...
2012: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Colin A Nurse
The control of breathing depends critically on sensory inputs to the central pattern generator of the brainstem, arising from peripheral arterial chemoreceptors located principally in the carotid bodies (CBs). The CB receptors, i.e. glomus or type I cells, are excited by chemical stimuli in arterial blood, particularly hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis and low glucose, which initiate corrective reflex cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular adjustments. Type I cells occur in clusters and are innervated by petrosal afferent fibres...
June 2010: Experimental Physiology
S Lahiri, C H Mitchell, D Reigada, A Roy, N S Cherniack
The carotid body is essential to detecting levels of oxygen in the blood and initiating the compensatory response. Increasing evidence suggests that the purines ATP and adenosine make a key contribution to this signaling by the carotid body. The glomus cells release ATP in response to hypoxia. This released ATP can stimulate P2X receptors on the carotid body to elevate intracellular Ca(2+) and to produce an excitatory response. This released ATP can be dephosphorylated to adenosine by a series of extracellular enzymes, which in turn can stimulate A(1), A(2A) and A(2B) adenosine receptors...
July 1, 2007: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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