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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665409/epigenomic-biomarkers-for-prognostication-and-diagnosis-of-gastrointestinal-cancers
#1
REVIEW
Chi Chun Wong, Weilin Li, Bertina Chan, Jun Yu
Altered epigenetic regulation is central to many human diseases, including cancer. Over the past two decade, major advances have been made in our understanding of the role of epigenetic alterations in carcinogenesis, particularly for DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs. Aberrant hypermethylation of DNA at CpG islands is a well-established phenomenon that mediates transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes, and it is an early event integral to gastrointestinal cancer development...
April 14, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662653/plasma-thymidine-kinase-1-activity-predicts-outcome-in-patients-with-hormone-receptor-positive-and-her2-negative-metastatic-breast-cancer-treated-with-endocrine-therapy
#2
Martina Bonechi, Francesca Galardi, Chiara Biagioni, Francesca De Luca, Mattias Bergqvist, Magnus Neumüller, Cristina Guarducci, Giulia Boccalini, Stefano Gabellini, Ilenia Migliaccio, Angelo Di Leo, Marta Pestrin, Luca Malorni
The aim of this study was to investigate if thymidine kinase-1 (TK1), a well-known proliferation marker, could represent a valid circulating biomarker to identify hormone receptor positive (HR+)/HER2 negative (HER2neg) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients most likely to benefit from endocrine therapy (ET). We used the DiviTum™ assay to analyze TK1 activity in cell lysates of three HR+/HER2neg BC cell lines and in plasma of 31 HR+/HER2neg MBC patients receiving ET. Blood samples were collected at treatment initiation, after one month and at disease progression...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662549/tumour-necrosis-factor-interferon-gamma-and-interleukins-as-predictive-markers-of-antiprogrammed-cell-death-protein-1-treatment-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-pragmatic-approach-in-clinical-practice
#3
Efimia Boutsikou, Kalliopi Domvri, Georgia Hardavella, Dora Tsiouda, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis, Theodoros Kontakiotis
Background: The emergence of novel antiprogrammed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) has revolutionized the therapeutic landscape of this disease. Although overall survival (OS) has improved in the first- and second-line therapy settings for advanced NSCLC, the benefit is not universal. In a climate of global scrutiny for healthcare costs and potential for toxicities related to immunotherapy, appropriate patient selection is crucial. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential prognostic and predictive biomarkers interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and a panel of interleukins (ILs) in the peripheral blood, and assess any correlation with response to anti-PD-1 inhibition, progression-free survival and OS in NSCLC patients...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660691/proteomic-analysis-of-liquid-biopsy-from-tumor-draining-vein-indicates-that-high-expression-of-exosomal-ecm1-is-associated-with-relapse-in-stage-i-iii-colon-cancer
#4
Sandra Santasusagna, Isabel Moreno, Alfons Navarro, Joan J Castellano, Francisco Martinez, Raquel Hernández, Carmen Muñoz, Mariano Monzo
BACKGROUND: The analysis of exosomes in blood obtained from the tumor-draining mesenteric vein (MV) can identify tumor biomarkers before they reach target organs and form the premetastatic niche where circulating tumor cells can anchor. Our group has recently shown that microRNAs in plasma from the MV-but not the peripheral vein (PV)-have been related to liver metastases in colon cancer (CC) patients. Here we examine the exosomal protein cargo in plasma from the MV and paired PV in 31 CC patients...
April 13, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656880/fundamentals-of-functional-imaging-ii-emerging-mr-techniques-and-new-methods-of-analysis
#5
A Luna, T Martín Noguerol, L Alcalá Mata
Current multiparameter MRI protocols integrate structural, physiological, and metabolic information about cancer. Emerging techniques such as arterial spin-labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD), MR elastography, chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST), and hyperpolarization provide new information and will likely be integrated into daily clinical practice in the near future. Furthermore, there is great interest in the study of tumor heterogeneity as a prognostic factor and in relation to resistance to treatment, and this interest is leading to the application of new methods of analysis of multiparametric protocols...
April 12, 2018: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651960/targeting-brain-tumors-with-nanomedicines-overcoming-challenges-of-blood-brain-barrier
#6
Nagendra S Ningaraj, Polluru L Reddy, Divya Khaitan
This review elucidates ongoing research, which show improved delivery of anticancer drugs alone and/ or enclosed in carriers collectively called nanomedicines to cross the Blood brain barrier (BBB) / blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) to kill tumor cells and impact patient survival. We highlighted various advances in understanding the mechanism of BTB function that impact on anticancer therapeutics delivery. We discussed latest breakthroughs in developing pharmaceutical strategies, including nanomedicines and delivering them across BTB for brain tumor management and treatment...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643956/serum-cytokines-in-early-prediction-of-anastomotic-leakage-following-low-anterior-resection
#7
Marek Zawadzki, Małgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka, Andrzej Gamian, Wojciech Witkiewicz
Introduction: Anastomotic leakage continues to be one of the most serious complications following low anterior resections. Early diagnosis of a leak is difficult but critical to minimize morbidity and mortality. Aim: To evaluate changes in serum concentrations of 27 different cytokines following low anterior resection, with the goal of finding new, early biomarkers of anastomotic leak. Material and methods: This is a prospective observational study that includes 32 patients undergoing elective low anterior resection for rectal cancer...
March 2018: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643943/-h19-overexpression-promotes-leukemogenesis-and-predicts-unfavorable-prognosis-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#8
Ting-Juan Zhang, Jing-Dong Zhou, Wei Zhang, Jiang Lin, Ji-Chun Ma, Xiang-Mei Wen, Qian Yuan, Xi-Xi Li, Zi-Jun Xu, Jun Qian
Background: The long non-coding RNA H19 plays a crucial role in solid tumor initiation and progression. However, the potential role of H19 and its clinical significance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain largely elusive. Methods: H19 expression was detected by qPCR, and clinical significance in AML patients was further analyzed. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data for AML were used as validation cohorts. The roles of H19 in cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined by cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry analysis...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643471/current-state-of-immunotherapy-for-glioblastoma
#9
REVIEW
Michael Lim, Yuanxuan Xia, Chetan Bettegowda, Michael Weller
Glioma is the most common primary cancer of the central nervous system, and around 50% of patients present with the most aggressive form of the disease, glioblastoma. Conventional therapies, including surgery, radiotherapy, and pharmacotherapy (typically chemotherapy with temozolomide), have not resulted in major improvements in the survival outcomes of patients with glioblastoma. Reasons for this lack of progress include invasive tumour growth in an essential organ, which limits the utility of local therapy, as well as the protection of tumour cells by the blood-brain barrier, their intrinsic resistance to the induction of cell death, and lack of dependence on single, targetable oncogenic pathways, all of which impose challenges for systemic therapy...
April 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629753/an-analytical-pipeline-for-discovery-and-verification-of-glycoproteins-from-plasma-derived-extracellular-vesicles-as-breast-cancer-biomarkers
#10
I-Hsuan Chen, Hillary Andaluz Aguilar, Juan Sebastian Paez Paez, Xiaofeng Wu, Li Pan, Michael K Wendt, Anton B Iliuk, Ying Zhang, W Andy Tao
Glycoproteins comprise more than half of current FDA-approved protein cancer markers but the development of new glycoproteins as disease biomarkers has been stagnant. Here we present a pipeline to develop glycoproteins from extracellular vesicles (EVs) through integrating quantitative glycoproteomics with a novel reverse phase glycoprotein array, and then apply it to identify novel biomarkers for breast cancer. EV glycoproteomics show promise in circumventing the problems plaguing current serum/plasma glycoproteomics and allowed us to identify hundreds of glycoproteins that have not been identified in blood...
April 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628988/identification-of-the-thioredoxin-like-2-autoantibody-as-a-specific-biomarker-for-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#11
Jee Min Chung, Yongsik Jung, Young Pil Kim, Jinsue Song, Soyeon Kim, Ji Young Kim, Mira Kwon, Jung Hyun Yoon, Myo-Deok Kim, Jun-Kyoung Lee, Da-Yoon Chung, Seo Yun Lee, Jooseong Kang, Ho Chul Kang
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a higher risk of death within 5 years of being diagnosed than the other forms of breast cancer. It is the second leading cause of death due to cancer among women. Currently, however, no diagnostic blood-based biomarker exists to identify the early stages of TNBC. To address this point, we utilized a human protein microarray system to identify serum autoantibodies that showed different expression patterns between TNBC and normal serum samples, and identified five autoantibodies showing TNBC-specific expression...
March 2018: Journal of Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627803/danish-centre-for-strategic-research-in-type-2-diabetes-dd2-project-cohort-of-newly-diagnosed-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-cohort-profile
#12
Diana Hedevang Christensen, Sia Kromann Nicolaisen, Klára Berencsi, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Jørgen Rungby, Søren Friborg, Ivan Brandslund, Jens Sandahl Christiansen, Allan Vaag, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Jens Steen Nielsen, Reimar Wernich Thomsen
PURPOSE: The aim of this article is to provide a detailed description of the ongoing nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) project cohort and biobank. The DD2 cohort continuously enrols newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) throughout Denmark. The overall goal of the DD2 project is to establish a large and data-rich T2D cohort that can serve as a platform for exhaustive T2D research including (1) improved genotypic and phenotypic characterisation of T2D, (2) intervention studies of more individualised T2D treatment, (3) pharmacoepidemiological studies and (4) long-term follow-up studies on predictors of T2D complications and prognosis...
April 7, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627453/role-of-circulating-tumor-dna-in-the-management-of-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#13
Emilie Moati, Valérie Taly, Audrey Didelot, Géraldine Perkins, Hélène Blons, Julien Taieb, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Aziz Zaanan
Colorectal cancer is a major health burden with a prognosis that has been improved with the progresses in diagnosis and the advance of chemotherapy and personalized medicine. However, because of intra-tumor heterogeneity, clonal evolution and selection, tumors often develop resistance to treatments. "Liquid biopsy" is a minimally invasive method, based on analysis of tumor-specific material in peripheral blood samples of patients. Analysis of tumor specific genetic or epigenetic alterations in cell-free circulating nucleic acids may reflect the molecular heterogeneity of the underlying disease process and serial testing could allow to monitor its temporal genomic changing without using re-biopsy...
April 4, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626277/evaluation-of-fecal-m2pk-as-a-diagnostic-marker-in-colorectal-cancer
#14
Hisham K Dabbous, Yosry Abd El-Rahman Mohamed, Runia F El-Folly, Mohamed D El-Talkawy, Hani E Seddik, Dina Johar, Mohammed A Sarhan
BACKGROUND: Invasive colonoscopy is the gold standard for patients at risk for colorectal cancer. However, the need for non-invasive and specific markers is required. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity of the glycolytic pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 dimer (M2PK) as a diagnostic biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenomatous colorectal polyps (CRP) screening. DESIGN: Case-control. PATIENTS: Twenty patients with CRC, 20 patients with CRP (lack criteria for colonic cancer by biopsy), and 20 normal subjects...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626047/risk-factors-and-biomarkers-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-observational-cross-sectional-population-survey
#15
Xiao-Yu Hu, Yun Li, Long-Quan Li, Yuan Zheng, Jia-Hong Lv, Shu-Chun Huang, Weinong Zhang, Liang Liu, Ling Zhao, Zhuiguo Liu, Xiu-Ju Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health burden in China, and its prevalence is increasing. This study aimed to determine the risk factors and biomarkers of NAFLD. DESIGN: An observational cross-sectional primary survey. SETTING: Central China. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 1479 participants aged over 18 and below 80 years, not currently being treated for cancer or infectious disease or no surgery in the previous year, and no history of cancer or an infectious disease...
April 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624648/cns-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-common-hematopoietic-origin-for-lch-associated-neurodegeneration-and-mass-lesions
#16
Kenneth L McClain, Jennifer Picarsic, Rikhia Chakraborty, Daniel Zinn, Howard Lin, Harshal Abhyankar, Brooks Scull, Albert Shih, Karen Phaik Har Lim, Olive Eckstein, Joseph Lubega, Tricia L Peters, Walter Olea, Thomas Burke, Nabil Ahmed, M John Hicks, Brandon Tran, Jeremy Jones, Robert Dauser, Michael Jeng, Robert Baiocchi, Deborah Schiff, Stanton Goldman, Kenneth M Heym, Harry Wilson, Benjamin Carcamo, Ashish Kumar, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Nicholas S Whipple, Patrick Campbell, Geoffrey Murdoch, Julia Kofler, Simon Heales, Marian Malone, Randy Woltjer, Joseph F Quinn, Paul Orchard, Michael C Kruer, Ronald Jaffe, Markus G Manz, Sergio A Lira, D Williams Parsons, Miriam Merad, Tsz-Kwong Man, Carl E Allen
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system Langerhans cell histiocytosis (CNS-LCH) brain involvement may include mass lesions and/or a neurodegenerative disease (LCH-ND) of unknown etiology. The goal of this study was to define the mechanisms of pathogenesis that drive CNS-LCH. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers including CSF proteins and extracellular BRAFV600E DNA were analyzed in CSF from patients with CNS-LCH lesions compared with patients with brain tumors and other neurodegenerative conditions...
April 6, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624484/early-inflammatory-biomarkers-as-predictive-factors-for-freedom-from-infection-after-colorectal-cancer-surgery-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
André Goulart, Carla Ferreira, Alexandra Estrada, Fernanda Nogueira, Sandra Martins, António Mesquita-Rodrigues, Nuno Sousa, Pedro Leão
PURPOSE: Different biomarkers are useful in diagnosing infections. The aim of this work was to clarify the relation between different inflammatory biomarkers (white blood cell [WBC] count, C-reactive protein [CRP], procalcitonin [PCT], and C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio [CAR]) and early infectious complications after colorectal surgery. METHODS: This prospective single-center cohort study included 130 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. The WBC count, CRP, and PCT were measured at post-operative day one (POD1) and POD3 and albumin on POD3...
April 6, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618616/change-in-topoisomerase-1-top1-positive-circulating-tumor-cells-impacts-overall-survival-in-patients-with-advanced-breast-cancer-after-treatment-with-etirinotecan-pegol
#18
Hope S Rugo, Javier Cortes, Ahmad Awada, Joyce O'Shaughnessey, Chris J Twelves, Seock-Ah Im, Alison Hannah, Lin Lu, Sherwin Sy, Katie Caygill, Deborah A Zajchowski, Darren W Davis, Mary A Tagliaferri, Ute Hoch, Edith A Perez
PURPOSE: Preplanned exploratory analyses were performed to identify biomarkers in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) predictive of response to the topoisomerase 1 inhibitor etirinotecan pegol (EP). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The BEACON trial treated patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with EP or treatment of physician's choice (TPC). Blood from 656/852 (77%) of patients was processed with ApoStream® to enrich for CTCs. A multiplex immunofluorescence assay measured expression of candidate response biomarkers (Top1, Top2, Ki67, RAD51, ABCG2, ɣH2AX, TUNEL) in CTCs...
April 4, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616369/treatment-response-assessment-with-r-11-cpaq-pet-in-the-mmtv-pymt-mouse-model-of-breast-cancer
#19
T Tegnebratt, L Lu, S Eksborg, A Chireh, P Damberg, S Nikkhou-Aski, T Foukakis, H Rundqvist, S Holmin, R V Kuiper, E Samen
BACKGROUND: The goal of the study was to assess the potential of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2-targeting carbon-11 labeled (R)-N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-((1-methyl-3-piperidinyl)methoxy)-4-quinazolineamine ((R)-[11 C]PAQ) as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging biomarker for evaluation of the efficacy of anticancer drugs in preclinical models. METHODS: MMTV-PyMT mice were treated with vehicle alone (VEH), murine anti-VEGFA antibody (B20-4...
April 3, 2018: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614988/altered-monocyte-differentiation-and-macrophage-polarization-patterns-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#20
Chih-Hsing Hung, Fang-Ming Chen, Yi-Ching Lin, Mei-Lan Tsai, Shih-Ling Wang, Yen-Chun Chen, Yi-Ting Chen, Ming-Feng Hou
BACKGROUND: Macrophage heterogeneity is the main feature of the tumour microenvironment. Breast cancer is one of the most life-threatening cancers. However, macrophage polarization patterns in different tumour stages and the importance of its relationship to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast cancer remains highly unclear. The present study investigated the patterns of monocyte differentiation and macrophage polarization in breast cancer. METHODS: Patients with breast cancer (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 39) were prospectively recruited...
April 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
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