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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340039/infant-birth-outcomes-are-associated-with-dna-damage-biomarkers-as-measured-by-the-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cytome-assay-the-dadhi-study
#1
Mansi Dass Singh, Philip Thomas, Maryam Hor, Theodora Almond, Julie Owens, William Hague, Michael Fenech
Accumulation of DNA damage in the first 1000 days may increase risk of accelerated ageing and degenerative diseases in adult life such as cancers. The extent of DNA damage in infants and the correlation of maternal factors during pregnancy with neonate birth outcomes and DNA damage is not known in infants born in Australia. Therefore, we performed a prospective cohort study to collect data on DNA damage in lymphocytes of Australian infants (aged 0, 3 and 6 months), using the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay...
March 3, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334432/uch-l1-containing-exosomes-mediate-chemotherapeutic-resistance-transfer-in-breast-cancer
#2
Kuan Ning, Teng Wang, Xu Sun, Pengfei Zhang, Yun Chen, Jian Jin, Dong Hua
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy resistance has become a serious challenge in the treatment of breast cancer. Previous studies showed cells can transfer proteins, including those responsible for drug resistance to adjacent cells via exosomes. METHODS: The switches of drug resistance via exosomes transfer were assessed by CellTiter-Blue Viability assay, flow cytometry, and immunostaining analysis. Relative protein levels of Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), and phospho-extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2) were measured by Western blot...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331811/proteomic-analysis-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-balf-from-lung-cancer-patients-using-label-free-mass-spectrometry
#3
Abduladim Hmmier, Michael Emmet O'Brien, Vincent Lynch, Martin Clynes, Ross Morgan, Paul Dowling
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women throughout the world. The need to detect lung cancer at an early, potentially curable stage, is essential and may reduce mortality by 20%. The aim of this study was to identify distinct proteomic profiles in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and plasma that are able to discriminate individuals with benign disease from those with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Using label-free mass spectrometry analysis of BALF during discovery-phase analysis, a significant number of proteins were found to have different abundance levels when comparing control to adenocarcinoma (AD) or squamous cell lung carcinoma (SqCC)...
June 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328955/treatment-monitoring-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients-by-quantification-and-kras-genotyping-of-circulating-cell-free-dna
#4
Andreas W Berger, Daniel Schwerdel, Hanna Welz, Ralf Marienfeld, Stefan A Schmidt, Alexander Kleger, Thomas J Ettrich, Thomas Seufferlein
Treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) has continuously improved over the last decade. However, disease monitoring remains underdeveloped and mostly dependent on imaging e.g. RECIST 1.1 criteria. The genetic landscape of individual cancers and subsequently occurring treatment-induced evolution remain neglected in current surveillance strategies. Novel biomarkers demand minimally invasive and repetitive tracking of the cancer mutagenome for therapy stratification and to make prognostic predictions. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a routinely used tumor marker for CRC, does not meet these goals and thus prevents its use as a reliable monitoring tool...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327944/a-phase-2-randomized-double-blind-placebo-%C3%A2-controlled-study-of-chemo-immunotherapy-combination-using-motolimod-with-pegylated-liposomal-doxorubicin-in-recurrent-or-persistent-ovarian-cancer-a-gynecologic-oncology-group-partners-study
#5
B J Monk, M F Brady, C Aghajanian, H A Lankes, T Rizack, J Leach, J M Fowler, R Higgins, P Hanjani, M Morgan, R Edwards, W Bradley, T Kolevska, P Foukas, E Swisher, K S Anderson, R Gottardo, J K Bryan, M Newkirk, K L Manjarrez, R S Mannel, R M Hershberg, G Coukos
Background: A phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in women with recurrent epithelial ovarian carcinoma to evaluate the efficacy and safety of motolimod-a Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) agonist that stimulates robust innate immune responses-combined with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), a chemotherapeutic that induces immunogenic cell death. Patients and methods: Women with ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma were randomized 1 : 1 to receive PLD in combination with blinded motolimod or placebo...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325291/systemic-rala-inos-nanoparticles-a-potent-gene-therapy-for-metastatic-breast-cancer-coupled-as-a-biomarker-of-treatment
#6
Cian M McCrudden, John W McBride, Joanne McCaffrey, Ahlam A Ali, Nicholas J Dunne, Vicky L Kett, Jonathan A Coulter, Tracy Robson, Helen O McCarthy
This study aimed to determine the therapeutic benefit of a nanoparticular formulation for the delivery of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene therapy in a model of breast cancer metastasis. Nanoparticles comprising a cationic peptide vector, RALA, and plasmid DNA were formulated and characterized using a range of physiochemical analyses. Nanoparticles complexed using iNOS plasmids and RALA approximated 60 nm in diameter with a charge of 25 mV. A vector neutralization assay, performed to determine the immunogenicity of nanoparticles in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice, revealed that no vector neutralization was evident...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325210/breast-cancer-immunology-and-immunotherapy-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#7
L de la Cruz-Merino, M Chiesa, R Caballero, F Rojo, N Palazón, F H Carrasco, V Sánchez-Margalet
Cancer immunology has gained renewed interest in the past few years due to emerging findings on mechanisms involved in tumoral immune evasion. Indisputably, immune edition is currently considered a critical hallmark of cancer. Basic research has revealed new targets which can be modulated in the clinical setting with new compounds and strategies. As recent evidence confirms, breast cancer (BC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease in which host immune responses play a substantial role. T-infiltrating lymphocytes measurement is suggested as a powerful new tool necessary to predict early BC evolution, especially in HER2-positive and triple negative subtypes...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322234/propsa-and-the-prostate-health-index-as-predictive-markers-for-aggressiveness-in-low-risk-prostate-cancer-results-from-an-international-multicenter-study
#8
I Heidegger, H Klocker, R Pichler, A Pircher, W Prokop, E Steiner, C Ladurner, E Comploj, A Lunacek, D Djordjevic, A Pycha, E Plas, W Horninger, J Bektic
BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in prostate cancer (PCa) treatment is distinguishing insignificant PCa from those forms that need active treatment. We evaluated the impact of PSA isoforms on risk stratification in patients with low-risk PCa as well as in active surveillance (AS) candidates who underwent radical prostatectomy. METHODS: A total of 112 patients with biopsy confirmed Gleason score (GS) 6 PCa of four different international institutions were prospectively enrolled in the study...
March 21, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322105/clinical-features-and-biological-markers-of-lung-cancer-associated-stroke
#9
Xingrui Xie, Li Chen, Jinsheng Zeng, Chao Qin, Daobin Cheng, Xinxian Wei, Zhijian Liang
Objective To identify the unique clinical features and biological markers of lung cancer-associated stroke. Methods We recruited 102 patients with lung cancer plus stroke, 102 with lung cancer, and 102 with stroke. Detailed information was analysed and compared among groups. Results The groups were age-matched. Patients with lung cancer plus stroke showed multiple lesions involving multiple cerebral artery territories on magnetic resonance imaging, compared with stroke-alone patients. These patients also had a poorer modified Rankin Scale score at 30 days, and high mortality (18...
December 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322027/rapid-differentiating-colorectal-cancer-and-colorectal-polyp-using-dried-blood-spot-mass-spectrometry-metabolomic-approach
#10
Yu Jing, Xue Wu, Peng Gao, Zhongze Fang, Jingjing Wu, Qingjun Wang, Chen Li, Zhitu Zhu, Yunfeng Cao
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading causes of cancer mortality, and the early-stage detection could significantly enhance survival rates. Cancer influences the important metabolic pathways and the changes in metabolite levels had been used in many studies as the potential biomarkers. This study is aimed at screening metabolite biomarkers with CRC diagnosis potentials. The direct infusion mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomic analysis based on dried blood spot was used to distinguish CRC from polyp. The target metabolites were composed of 23 amino acids and 26 acylcarnitines...
March 20, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321554/preoperative-plasma-fibrinogen-is-associated-with-lymph-node-metastasis-and-predicts-prognosis-in-resectable-esophageal-cancer
#11
Kohei Wakatsuki, Sohei Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Migita, Masahiro Ito, Tomohiro Kunishige, Hiroshi Nakade, Mitsuhiro Nakatani, Mutsuko Kitano, Masayuki Sho
BACKGROUND: Although it is well known that patients with malignant tumors have abnormal blood coagulation, its clinical significance has not been studied. We investigated the clinicopathological and prognostic impact of plasma fibrinogen, which is the major factor of the coagulation system, in patients with esophageal cancer. METHODS: From February 1995 to December 2006, 100 patients with esophageal cancer who had their plasma fibrinogen measured were enrolled. The associations between plasma fibrinogen, clinicopathological factors, and prognosis were analyzed...
March 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318929/biomarkers-in-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
Sebastian Blatt, Maximilian Krüger, Thomas Ziebart, Keyvan Sagheb, Eik Schiegnitz, Elisabeth Goetze, Bilal Al-Nawas, Andreas Max Pabst
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents the sixth most common cancer, accounting for 2-4% of all malignancies worldwide. The overall survival rate of less than 60% remains generally poor, with prognosis heavily relying on the TNM staging system. Tumor size as well as the presence and extent of lymph node metastases are widely recognized as the most important predictors. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to an aggressive phenotype are not yet fully understood. Therefore, possible biomarkers are much in need to predict prognosis, to help individualize therapy approaches, and to overcome possible resistance mechanisms...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318170/-application-of-saliva-in-disease-diagnosis
#13
Cheng Xingqun, Zhou Xuedong, Xu Xin
Saliva is secreted by salivary glands and performs a variety of functions, including mouth cleaning and protection, antibacterial activity, and digestion. With the rapid progress in salivaomics, saliva became recognized as a potential pool of biological markers. Being a non-invasive and safe source, saliva is a potential substitute for blood in diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. This review summarizes the latest advancement in saliva-related studies and presents the potential value of saliva in early diagnosis of oral diseases, such as dental caries, periodontal disease, cancer, diabetes, and other systemic disorders...
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317069/deciphering-the-role-of-ectosomes-in-cancer-development-and-progression-focus-on-the-proteome
#14
REVIEW
Magdalena Surman, Ewa Stępień, Dorota Hoja-Łukowicz, Małgorzata Przybyło
Ectosomes are small heterogeneous membrane vesicles generated by budding from the plasma membrane in a variety of cell types and, more frequently, in tumor cells. They are shed into the extracellular space and are proposed as a novel form of intracellular communication in which information is transmitted from the originating cell to recipient cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. This review focuses on a single population of extracellular vesicles-ectosomes. We summarize recent studies of tumor-derived ectosomes which examine their biogenesis and protein cargo, and their influence on different aspects of cancer progression...
March 19, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316053/the-use-of-rapid-and-cost-effective-blood-based-biomarkers-in-combination-with-tumour-tnm-stage-for-individual-head-and-neck-cancer-patient-treatment-selection
#15
REVIEW
Nongnit Laytragoon Lewin, Freddi Lewin, Bengt-Åke Andersson, Sture Löfgren, Lars Erik Rutqvist
Head and neck (H&N) cancer is an aggressive disease and the incidence has increased in younger population worldwide. Tumour TNM staging is the main basis for treatment decision despite significant variation in clinical outcome. Survival time of these patients has marginally improved during the last 30 years. Various biomarkers with cumbersome analysis, high cost, time consumption and requirement of special laboratory facilities have been investigated. However, none of these biomarkers have been shown to be suitable to use for individual H&N cancer patient treatment selection in the clinic...
April 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315070/mechanisms-of-resistance-in-multiple-myeloma
#16
Athanasios Papadas, Fotis Asimakopoulos
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematopoietic cancer that is characterized by malignant plasma cell infiltration of the bone marrow and/or extramedullary sites. Multi-modality approaches including "novel agents," traditional chemotherapy, and/or stem cell transplantation are used in MM therapy. Drug resistance, however, ultimately develops and the disease remains incurable for the vast majority of patients. In this chapter, we review both tumor cell-autonomous and non-autonomous (microenvironment-dependent) mechanisms of drug resistance...
March 18, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314836/safe-heart-rationale-and-design-of-a-pilot-study-investigating-cardiac-safety-of-her2-targeted-therapy-in-patients-with-her2-positive-breast-cancer-and-reduced-left-ventricular-function
#17
Filipa Lynce, Ana Barac, Ming T Tan, Federico M Asch, Karen L Smith, Chau Dang, Claudine Isaacs, Sandra M Swain
BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2) targeted therapies have survival benefit in adjuvant and metastatic HER2 positive breast cancer but are associated with cardiac dysfunction. Current U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendations limit the use of HER2 targeted agents to patients with normal left ventricular (LV) systolic function. METHODS: The objective of the SAFE-HEaRt study is to evaluate the cardiac safety of HER2 targeted therapy in patients with HER2 positive breast cancer and mildly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with optimized cardiac therapy...
March 17, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314284/altered-levels-of-serum-ceramide-sphingosine-and-sphingomyelin-are-associated-with-colorectal-cancer-a-retrospective-pilot-study
#18
Duska Separovic, Anthony F Shields, Philip A Philip, Jacek Bielawski, Alicja Bielawska, Jason S Pierce, Adi L Tarca
BACKGROUND/AIM: Because patients with cancer of apparently equivalent stage often have different outcomes, it is necessary to gather additional information to complement cancer staging. Dysregulated sphingolipid metabolism contributes to carcinogenesis. In this retrospective pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that changes in serum levels of sphingolipids are associated with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used commercially available serum samples from healthy males and patients with CRC (adenocarcinoma of the large intestine, stage IV with metastases)...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303751/vasoactive-peptides-associate-with-treatment-outcome-ofbevacizumab-containing-therapy-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#19
Helga Hagman, Pär-Ola Bendahl, Olle Melander, Jan Sundberg, Anders Johnsson, Mattias Belting
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a common early adverse event of anti-angiogenic treatment of cancer and may associate with treatment response. However, blood pressure measurement as a surrogate response biomarker has methodological limitations, and predictive biomarkers of angiogenesis inhibitors are lacking. In disease associated with hypertension, vasoactive peptides have been linked to cardiovascular pressure load. Here, we have explored potential associations between circulating levels of vasoactive peptides and tumor response during bevacizumab-containing treatment of colorectal cancer...
March 17, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303528/human-mass-balance-study-and-metabolite-profiling-of-14-c-niraparib-a-novel-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-parp-1-and-parp-2-inhibitor-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#20
Lotte van Andel, Z Zhang, S Lu, V Kansra, S Agarwal, L Hughes, M M Tibben, A Gebretensae, L Lucas, M J X Hillebrand, H Rosing, J H M Schellens, J H Beijnen
Niraparib is an investigational oral, once daily, selective poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 and PARP-2 inhibitor. In the pivotal Phase 3 NOVA/ENGOT/OV16 study, niraparib met its primary endpoint of improving progression-free survival (PFS) for adult patients with recurrent, platinum sensitive, ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer in complete or partial response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Significant improvements in PFS were seen in all patient cohorts regardless of biomarker status...
March 16, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
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