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Cancer blood biomarker

L de la Cruz-Merino, N Palazón-Carrión, F Henao-Carrasco, E Nogales-Fernández, M Álamo-de la Gala, A Vallejo-Benítez, M Chiesa, V Sánchez-Margalet
Immunology and immunotherapy of cancer is an expanding field in oncology, with recent great achievements obtained through the new successful approaches implemented to circumvent immune evasion, which is undoubtedly considered a novel hallmark of cancer. Translational research in this topic has revealed targets that can be modulated in the clinical setting with new compounds and strategies. Like most of the tumors, breast cancer is considered a complex and heterogeneous disease in which host immune responses have been also recently demonstrated of critical relevance...
June 18, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Lu-Nan Qi, Bang-De Xiang, Fei-Xiang Wu, Jia-Zhou Ye, Jian-Hong Zhong, Yan-Yan Wang, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Zu-Shun Chen, Liang Ma, Jie Chen, Wen-Feng Gong, Ze-Guang Han, Yan Lu, Jin-Jie Shang, Le-Qun Li
To clarify the significance of circulating tumor cells (CTC) undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, we used an advanced CanPatrol™ CTC-enrichment technique and in situ hybridization (ISH) to enrich and classify CTC from blood samples. 101 of 112 (90.18%) HCC patients were CTC-positive, even with early-stage disease. CTC were also detected in 2 of 12 hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients, both of whom had small HCC tumors detected within 5 months. CTC count ≥16 and mesenchymal-CTC (M-CTC) percentage ≥2% prior to resection were significantly associated with early recurrence, multi-intrahepatic recurrence, and lung metastasis...
June 18, 2018: Cancer Research
D Caputo, M Cartillone, C Cascone, D Pozzi, L Digiacomo, S Palchetti, G Caracciolo, R Coppola
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) early diagnosis is  crucial  and new, cheap and user-friendly techniques for biomarker identification  are  needed. "Protein corona" (PC) is emerging a new bio-interface potentially useful in tumor early diagnosis. In a previous investigation, we showed that relevant differences between the  protein patterns of  PCs formed on lipid NPs after exposure to PDAC and non-cancer plasma  samples exist. To extend that research, We performed this pilot study to investigate the effect of PDAC tumor size and distant metastases on PC composition...
June 12, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
George M Vlăsceanu, Roxana-Maria Amărandi, Mariana Ioniță, Teddy Tite, Horia Iovu, Luisa Pilan, Jorge S Burns
Technological advances in engineering and cell biology stimulate novel approaches for medical treatment, in particular cell-based therapy. The first cell-based gene therapy against cancer was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Progress in cancer diagnosis includes a blood test detecting five cancer types. Numerous stem cell phase I/II clinical trials showing safety and efficacy will soon pursue qualifying criteria for advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP), aspiring to join the first stem-cell therapy approved by the European Medicines Agency...
May 1, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Sotirios G Papageorgiou, Marios A Diamantopoulos, Christos K Kontos, Anthi Bouchla, Diamantina Vasilatou, Efthymia Bazani, Andreas Scorilas, Vasiliki Pappa
MicroRNA-92a-3p (miR-92a-3p) is a member of the miR-17/92 cluster and the cancer-related miR-92 family. miR-92a-3p regulates important transcription factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) and inhibits SOCS1 to enhance the anti-apoptotic STAT3/IL6 signaling route. In this study, we examined the putative prognostic value of miR-92a-3p in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Total RNA, which was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from 88 CLL patients and 36 non-leukemic blood donors, was polyadenylated and reverse-transcribed...
June 18, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Haitham Mirghani, Krystle A Lang Kuhs, Tim Waterboer
One of the major concerns in oncology lies in the ability to detect recurrences at their earliest stage to increase the likelihood of cure following second line, or salvage, therapy. Although human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven oropharyngeal cancers have a good prognosis, 20-25% of patients will recur within 5 years of treatment and a significant portion will die from their disease. In recent years, great effort has been put toward evaluating the potential clinical utility of HPV-related biomarkers for early diagnosis of recurrent disease...
July 2018: Oral Oncology
Ioannis Psallidas, Nikolaos I Kanellakis, Stephen Gerry, Marie Laëtitia Thézénas, Philip D Charles, Anastasia Samsonova, Herbert B Schiller, Roman Fischer, Rachelle Asciak, Robert J Hallifax, Rachel Mercer, Melissa Dobson, Tao Dong, Ian D Pavord, Gary S Collins, Benedikt M Kessler, Harvey I Pass, Nick Maskell, Georgios T Stathopoulos, Najib M Rahman
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of malignant pleural effusion is increasing worldwide, but prognostic biomarkers to plan treatment and to understand the underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain unidentified. The PROMISE study was designed with the objectives to discover, validate, and prospectively assess biomarkers of survival and pleurodesis response in malignant pleural effusion and build a score that predicts survival. METHODS: In this multicohort study, we used five separate and independent datasets from randomised controlled trials to investigate potential biomarkers of survival and pleurodesis...
June 13, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Foyez Mahmud, Ok-Cheol Jeon, Farzana Alam, Ruby Maharjan, Jeong Uk Choi, Jooho Park, Sojung Lee, Jin Woo Park, Dong Soo Lee, Youngro Byun
There is a growing interest in preclinical research to consider low-dose metronomic chemotherapy as antiangiogenic cancer treatment. Oral metronomic therapy, in particular, has shown much promise with its ease of daily administration and higher therapeutics window. In that regard, we developed oral pemetrexed using the physical complex with the bile acid enhancers (DCK). In a caco-2 permeability study, the oral pemetrexed/DCK complex had significantly higher drug uptake, and inhibited efflux transporter activity as well...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Chieh Kao, Ritu Chandna, Abhijeet Ghode, Charlotte Dsouza, Mo Chen, Andreas Larsson, Siau Hoi Lim, Minjun Wang, Zhonglian Cao, Yizhun Zhu, Ganesh S Anand, Ruowen Ge
Glucose regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) is a recently emerged target for cancer therapy and a biomarker for cancer prognosis. Overexpression of GRP78 is observed in many types of cancers, with the cell-surface GRP78 being preferentially present in cancer cells and cancer blood vessel endothelial cells. Isthmin (ISM) is a secreted high-affinity proapoptotic protein ligand of cell-surface GRP78 that suppresses angiogenesis and tumor growth in mice. The C-terminal AMOP (adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins) domain of ISM is critical in mediating its interaction with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
June 12, 2018: EBioMedicine
Antonio M Serafin, Angela Chinhengo, Pedro Fernandez, John M Akudugu
No unambiguous role of the involvement of uroplasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) in prostate cancer has emerged, with current evidence suggesting that neither biomarker is likely of significant clinical value, save as an overall contributor. In this study, we attempt to discriminate prostate cancer from non-cancer in a cohort of plasma samples, using the Imubind ELISA assay. In this cohort, PAI-1 levels are higher in prostate cancer patients than healthy donors; uPA levels are higher in healthy donors than prostate cancer patients; and the uPA/PAI-1 ratio is higher in healthy donors than in prostate cancer patients...
May 2018: Discovery Medicine
Xu Han, Hossein Shokri Kojori, Roger M Leblanc, Sung Jin Kim
Cancers and many other diseases, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), have threatened human lives for centuries. Therefore, a novel technique for such disease prediction, therefore, is in an urgent demand for timely treatment. Biomarkers - alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU) for HCC and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) for CVD - have proven to be essential in the role of disease detection. Herein, we report on an ultrasensitive plasmonic biosensor that converts plasmonic absorption to electrical current in order to detect AFU and cTnI using whole human blood in a real-time and parallel fashion...
June 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Soledad Carinelli, Cristina Xufré, Mercè Martí, María Isabel Pividori
Interferon-γ is a proinflammatory cytokine, and its production is related with effective host defense against intracellular pathogens. Therefore, the level of interferon-γ is considered a good biomarker for intracellular infections. It is also useful for the assessment, treatment progression and follow-up of non-communicable diseases, including cancer and autoimmune disorders, among others. This work addresses the development of a novel interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) to evaluate the expression of interferon-γ transcripts as biomarker produced by isolated T cells, as a main advantage...
May 22, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Bo Yang, Xiao L Ren, Zhi Y Wang, Liang Wang, Feng Zhao, Xiao J Guo, Duo Li
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to summarize the up-to-date epidemiology evidence on biomarkers of long-chain (LC) n-3 fatty acid (FA) intake in relation to breast cancer (BC). METHODS: Epidemiology studies determining FA levels in biospecimen (circulating blood or adipose tissue (AT)) were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases until March 2018. Multivariate-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effect model...
June 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Angelika Tölle, Conrad C Blobel, Klaus Jung
This study presents a critical appraisal of previously published study data of miRNAs in blood, urine and exosomes as biomarkers of bladder cancer (BC). The evaluation included 39 articles published from the beginning of 2010 until September 2017 and searched in PubMed. The heterogeneity of studies, due to their clinicopathological variability, including insufficient consideration of diagnostic and prognostic biomarker guidelines and missing internal and external validation of data, do not currently allow the recommending of a useful miRNA marker as diagnostic or prognostic tool in BC...
June 13, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
Paweł Mochalski, Marcis Leja, Evita Gasenko, Roberts Skapars, Daiga Santare, Armands Sivins, Dan Erik Aronsson, Clemens Ager, Carsten Jaeschke, Gidi Shani, Jan Mitrovics, Christopher A Mayhew, Hossam Haick
The presence of certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath of patients with gastric cancer has been reported by a number of research groups; however, the source of these compounds remains controversial. Comparison of VOCs emitted from gastric cancer tissue to those emitted from non-cancerous tissue would help in understanding which of the VOCs are associated with gastric cancer and provide a deeper knowledge on their generation. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) coupled with head-space needle trap extraction (HS-NTE) as the pre-concentration technique, was used to identify and quantify VOCs released by gastric cancer and non-cancerous tissue samples collected from 41 patients during surgery...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Ruzanna Mnatsakanyan, Gerta Shema, Mark Basik, Gerald Batist, Christoph H Borchers, Albert Sickmann, René P Zahedi
Numerous diseases are caused by changes in post-translational modifications (PTMs). Therefore, the number of clinical proteomics studies that include the analysis of PTMs is increasing. Combining complementary information - e.g., changes in protein abundance, PTM levels, with the genome and transcriptome (proteogenomics) - holds great promise for discovering important drivers and markers of disease, as variations in copy number, expression levels, or mutations without spatial/functional/isoform information is often insufficient or even misleading...
June 12, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Yasunori Akutsu, Kentaro Murakami, Masayuki Kano, Takeshi Toyozumi, Yasunori Matsumoto, Masahiko Takahashi, Ryota Otsuka, Nobufumi Sekino, Masaya Yokoyama, Tadashi Shiraishi, Hisahiro Matsubara
BACKGROUND: We determined the serum concentrations of Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 85 patients with histologically proved ESCC. Serum levels of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Correlations between serum PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 concentration and tumor depth, number of lymph node metastases, organ metastasis status, or disease stage were assessed and five-year survival rates according to clinicopathological characteristics were calculated...
April 2018: Esophagus: Official Journal of the Japan Esophageal Society
Fatima Lousada-Fernandez, Oscar Rapado-Gonzalez, Jose-Luis Lopez-Cedrun, Rafael Lopez-Lopez, Laura Muinelo-Romay, Maria Mercedes Suarez-Cunqueiro
Oral cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer worldwide. Carcinogenesis is a complex process, in which heterogeneity plays an important role in the development and progression of the disease. This review provides an overview of the current biological and clinical significance of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), and exosomes for diagnosis and prognosis of oral cancer. We highlight the importance of liquid biopsy—using blood and saliva—which represents a potential alternative to solid biopsy for diagnosis and prognosis...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tianye Niu, Pengfei Yang, Xiaonan Sun, Tingyu Mao, Lei Xu, Ning Jeff Yue, Yu Kuang, Liming Shi, Ke Nie
Tumor angiogenesis is considered as an important prognostic factor. With an increasing emphasis on imaging evaluation of the tumor microenvironment, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) CT has evolved as an important functional technique in this setting. Yet many questions remain as how and when these functional measurements should be performed for each agent and tumor type, and what quantitative models should be used in the fitting process. In this study, we evaluated the variations of perfusion measurement on DCE-CT for rectal cancer patients from (1) different tracer kinetic models, (2) different scan acquisition lengths and (3) different scan intervals...
June 11, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Andrea Stoccoro, Fabio Coppedè
Advances in molecular biology technologies have allowed uncovering the role of epigenetic regulation in several complex diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Although the role of epigenetic mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease is still little understood, recent findings clearly show that such mechanisms are dysregulated during disease progression, already in its early stages. However, it is not clear if the observed epigenetic changes represent a cause or a consequence of the disease. Promising results are emerging from studies performed in peripheral blood DNA that could provide early biomarkers of the pathology...
June 11, 2018: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
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