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Clinical Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241143/perceptions-about-supervised-injection-facilities-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-philadelphia
#1
Robert E Harris, Jessica Richardson, Rosemary Frasso, Evan D Anderson
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for infectious diseases, skin and soft tissue infections, and overdose. However, these harms are all avoidable when sterile injection equipment, hygienic places to inject, and medical care are accessible. Unfortunately, many PWID in the U.S lack these resources. The most vulnerable are forced to inject in public spaces, where individual risks are high and communal harms are sometimes many. Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs) are an established intervention for reducing these harms...
December 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239849/hepatitis-during-pregnancy-a-case-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#2
Halil Yildiz, Bernard Vandercam, Xave Thissen, Mina Komuta, Nicolas Lanthier, Frederic Debieve, Geraldine Dahlqvist
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare but severe and potentially fatal syndrome that can occur during pregnancy. A 36 years-old woman, at 29 weeks of gestation, presented with itchiness and jaundice since a week. On clinical examination she was apyrexial and frankly icteric. Laboratory data showed evidence of acute hepatitis. A complete work-up was made excluding viral hepatitis (HAV, HEV, HBV, HCV, HHV6, CMV, EBV) and autoimmune liver disease. Liver diseases related to pregnancy were not completely excluded...
November 24, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239784/new-perspectives-for-natural-triterpene-glycosides-as-potential-adjuvants
#3
Marie-Aleth Lacaille-Dubois, Hildebert Wagner
BACKGROUND: Triterpene glycosides are a vast group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants including a high number of biologically active compounds. The pharmacological potential is evaluated by using many bioassays particularly in the field of cancerology, immunology, and microbiology. The adjuvant concept is well known for these molecules in vaccines, but there is little preclinical evidence to support this concept in the management of cancer, infections and inflammation...
November 7, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239468/the-importance-of-risk-factors-for-the-prediction-of-patients-with-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#4
Selçuk Kaya, Eda Gençalioğlu, Mehmet Sönmez, Iftihar Köksal
OBJECTIVE: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a major challenge in the management of immunocompromised patients. Despite all the advances in diagnosis, it remains a problem. The purpose of our study was to investigate the risk factors associated with IPA seen in patients with hematological malignancies. METHOD: A total of 152 febrile neutropenia (FEN) patients with hematological malignancies aged over 18 years and receiving high-dose chemotherapy or stem cell transplant between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012 were included in the study...
September 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237100/perianal-tuberculosis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#5
Gabriela Mosena, Andréia Della Giustina Pires, Jessica Matos D'Almeida Santos, Joel Schwartz, Josué Victorino
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem worldwide, considered to be the main cause of death from infectious diseases, ranking alongside HIV infection. Skin involvement occurs in 1.5% of the cases, and perianal involvement is extremely rare and tends to occur among immunocompromised patients. Due to its heterogeneous clinical presentation, the diagnosis of cutaneous TB is challenging, requiring a high level of suspicion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 13, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237094/dermoscopy-for-discriminating-between-trichophyton-and-microsporum-infections-in-tinea-capitis
#6
D Lekkas, D Ioannides, Z Apalla, A Lallas, E Lazaridou, E Sotiriou
Tinea capitis (TC) is an infection of the scalp, most often observed in pre-school or early school ages. Diagnosis of TC is based on clinical signs and laboratory examinations (direct microscopy and culture). Dermoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique with an already established role in the evaluation of skin tumors, and with a gradually expanding application also in the field of inflammatory and infectious skin diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 13, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236915/prognostic-factors-of-the-short-term-outcomes-of-patients-with-hepatitis-b-virus-associated-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#7
Qing Lei, Kangjian Ao, Yinhua Zhang, Deqiang Ma, Deping Ding, Changzheng Ke, Yue Chen, Jie Luo, Zhongji Meng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the baseline status of patients with hepatitis B virus-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure on short-term outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted that included a total of 138 patients with hepatitis B virus-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, from November 2013 to October 2016. The patients were divided into a poor prognosis group (74 patients) and a good prognosis group (64 patients) based on the disease outcome...
November 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236288/disaster-preparedness-biological-threats-and-treatment-options
#8
Navaneeth Narayanan, Clifton R Lacy, Joseph E Cruz, Meghan Nahass, Jonathan Karp, Joseph A Barone, Evelyn Hermes-DeSantis
Biological disasters can be natural, accidental, or intentional. Biological threats have made a lasting impact on civilization. This review will focus on agents of clinical significance, bioterrorism, and national security; specifically Category A agents (anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and smallpox), as well as briefly discuss other naturally-emerging infections of public health significance including Ebola virus (also a Category A agent) and Zika virus. The role of the pharmacist in disaster preparedness and disaster response is multifaceted and important...
December 13, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236138/-inflammatory-and-infectious-abdominal-peritoneal-and-mesenterial-processes
#9
REVIEW
A G Schreyer
BACKGROUND: Mesenterial and peritoneal inflammation represents a major clinical challenge regarding differential diagnosis. In this review article, a systematic overview of the most common causes such as autoimmune reaction, infarction with consecutive necrosis and infection caused by protozoa or bacteria is provided. RESULTS: The common clinical features of all inflammatory peritoneal and mesenterial diseases are the nonspecific abdominal symptoms. Even in radiological imaging an overlap of imaging features such as lymphadenopathy and nodular mesenteric structures is typical...
December 13, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235414/zikaplan-zika-preparedness-latin-american-network
#10
A Wilder-Smith, R Preet, K E Renhorn, R A Ximenes, L C Rodrigues, T Solomon, J Neyts, L Lambrechts, H Willison, R Peeling, A K Falconar, A R Precioso, J Logan, T Lang, H P Endtz, M C Erasmus, E Massad
The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Islands has underlined the need for a coordinated research network across the whole region that can respond rapidly to address the current knowledge gaps in Zika and enhance research preparedness beyond Zika. The European Union under its Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme awarded three research consortia to respond to this need. Here we present the ZikaPLAN (Zika Preparedness Latin American Network) consortium...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234318/leprosy-as-a-complex-infection-breakdown-of-the-th1-and-th2-immune-paradigm-in-the-immunopathogenesis-of-the-disease
#11
REVIEW
Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Mirian Nacagami Sotto, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease whose evolution involves complex immune mechanisms of the host that influence the clinical presentation of the disease. For many years, the main interpretation of the host defense response was based on characterization of the established immune paradigm between T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 lymphocytes. However, with advances in the knowledge of immunology, new approaches have emerged along with the development of new immunological pathways that have changed the interpretation of the long-established paradigm of the polar forms of the disease, especially with the identification of new subtypes of T lymphocytes such as Th9, Th17, Th22, and Tregs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233677/alzheimer-s-disease-and-gut-microbiota-modifications-the-long-way-between-preclinical-studies-and-clinical-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Cesare Mancuso, Rosaria Santangelo
Recent studies have suggested the role of an infectious component in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In light of this, research has focused on some bacteria constituting the intestinal microbial flora which can produce amyloid. Once generated, the latter hypothetically triggers a systemic inflammatory response which compromises complex brain functions, such as learning and memory. Clinical studies have shown that, in cognitively impaired elderly patients with brain amyloidosis, there is lower abundance in the gut of E...
December 9, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233308/evaluation-of-students-perceptions-of-the-socrative-application-versus-a-traditional-student-response-system-and-its-impact-on-classroom-engagement
#13
Anthony J Guarascio, Branden D Nemecek, David E Zimmerman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Student response systems (SRSs) or "clickers" are common tools that lecturers can implement into didactic lectures. Socrative is a convenient and free SRS application that can be downloaded on personal handheld devices and used by faculty and students. It is unknown if students prefer using this application and what advantages or disadvantages can be seen with Socrative's use. PURPOSE: To measure student preference of standard SRS methods compared to Socrative as well as the impact of Socrative use on student engagement during delivery of clinical pharmacy instruction EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Standard SRS and Socrative incorporated lectures were presented to students during an infectious disease module...
September 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231172/cefazolin-and-coagulation-disorders-a-case-report
#14
Eugénie Gay, Anne Barthel, Nicolas Rouzic, Basile Henriot, Baptiste Quélennec, Aurélien Lorleac'h, Nathalie Prades, François Schmitt
We report the case of a 79-year-old patient, admitted to the department of infectious diseases at Bretagne Sud Hospital Center for a right calcaneal osteitis, complicated by a pacemaker leads infectious endocarditis. Meticillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was documented by blood culture. Antibiotic treatment was established using intravenous cefazolin for an initial 6 weeks period. Prothrombin time (PT) decreased as well as vitamin K dependent factors, without anticoagulation therapy, at day 7 of cefazolin treatment...
December 12, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231134/plant-made-antibodies-properties-and-therapeutic-applications
#15
Tatianamsu Ru V Komarova, Ekaterina V Sheshukova, Yuri L Dorokhov
A cost-effective plant platform for therapeutic monoclonal antibody production is both flexible and scalable. In addition, plant-made antibodies (PMAbs) could be advantageous compared to those produced in animal cells due to the absence of a risk of contamination from nucleic acids or proteins of animal origin. In this review, the various platforms of PMAbs production are described, and the widely used transient expression system based on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of genetic material into plant cells is discussed in detail...
December 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229451/more-clinical-mimics-of-infant-botulism
#16
Jessica M Khouri, Jessica R Payne, Stephen S Arnon
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the actual diagnoses of 76 patients (2005-2015) whose clinical presentations so closely resembled infant botulism that the patients were treated with Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV; BabyBIG), but whose illnesses subsequently were not laboratory confirmed as infant botulism ("clinical mimics" of infant botulism). STUDY DESIGN: The California Department of Public Health produces BIG-IV and distributes it nationwide as a public service (ie, not-for-profit) orphan drug to treat patients hospitalized with suspected infant botulism...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229361/a-literature-review-on-maternal-fetal-and-reproductive-disorders-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#17
REVIEW
Shirzad Fallahi, Ali Rostami, Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Hamed Behniafar, Shahrokh Paktinat
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infection is one of the most prevalent infectious disease with worldwide distribution. Congenital toxoplasmosis is annually responsible for 1.20 million disability-adjusted life years around the world, but often it is overlooked many countries. METHODS: We performed an updated review to summarize the current researches on fetal, neonatal and maternal consequences of T. gondii infection and also adverse effects of toxoplasmosis on women reproductive organs...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229167/glomerular-diseases-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Scott E Wenderfer, Joseph P Gaut
Unique challenges exist in the diagnosis and treatment of glomerular diseases with their onset during childhood. Mounting evidence supports the notion that earlier onset cases occur due to larger numbers of genetic risk alleles. Nearly all causes of adult-onset glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and thrombotic microangiopathy have also been described in children, although the prevalence of specific causes differs. Postinfectious glomerulonephritis, Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis, and minimal change disease remain the most common causes of glomerular disease in younger children in the United States and can be diagnosed clinically without need for biopsy...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228112/xenotransplantation-the-current-status-and-prospects
#19
D K C Cooper, R Gaston, D Eckhoff, J Ladowski, T Yamamoto, L Wang, H Iwase, H Hara, M Tector, A J Tector
Introduction: There is a continuing worldwide shortage of organs from deceased human donors for transplantation into patients with end-stage organ failure. Genetically engineered pigs could resolve this problem, and could also provide tissues and cells for the treatment of conditions such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease and corneal blindness. Sources of data: The current literature has been reviewed. Areas of agreement: The pathobiologic barriers are now largely defined...
December 8, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227734/influenza-immunization-policies-which-could-be-the-main-reasons-for-differences-among-countries
#20
Nicola Principi, Barbara Camilloni, Susanna Esposito
Despite the availability of effective prophylactic and therapeutic measures, influenza remains one of the most important infectious disease threats to the human population. Every year, seasonal influenza epidemics infect up to 30% of the population; a relevant portion of the ill are hospitalized, and more than a marginal number die. In an attempt to reduce the medical, social and economic burden of influenza, vaccines are recommended by many health authorities worldwide. However, not all countries have a national program for influenza immunization...
December 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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