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Clinical Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323753/budget-impact-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-french-clinic-cohort-anrs-gota
#1
Emmanuelle Papot, Roland Landman, Françoise Louni, Charlotte Charpentier, Gilles Peytavin, Agnès Certain, Clémence Fradet, Daniela Rojas Castro, Marie Preau, Cécile Goujard, Patrick Yeni, Yazdan Yazdanpanah
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we first assessed costs associated with the use of ART in an infectious diseases University Hospital Clinic, we secondly evaluated characteristics associated with these costs, and finally simulated the impact on the overall ART budget of switching 1- and 2-line regimens to less costly regimens (as effective and well-tolerated). DESIGN: Cohort analysis including PLHIV ≥ 18 years on ART to estimate ART costs during 2014. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital Clinic in Paris, France, where 4,501 PLHIV consulted in 2014...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323505/pattern-of-uveitis-in-a-referral-hospital-in-bangladesh
#2
Zahedur Rahman, Ziaul Ahsan, Niaz Abdur Rahman, Parthopratim Dutta Majumder
PURPOSE: To report the pattern of uveitis in a tertiary eye care center in Bangladesh. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all uveitis cases visiting uveitis clinic of Bangladesh Eye Hospital between January, 2009 and April, 2015. RESULTS: In total, 652 patients (mean age 32.3 years, female 47.8%) were included in the study. Uveitis was bilateral in 42.6% of cases. Anterior uveitis was the most common (39.2%) case, closely followed by intermediate uveitis (22...
March 21, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319732/an-antigen-to-remember-regulation-of-b-cell-memory-in-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Aleta Pupovac, Kim L Good-Jacobson
Vaccine success relies on the formation of immunity. Humoral immunity is critical and is mediated by long-lived antibody-secreting cells and memory B cells (MBCs). Chronic infectious diseases cause a significant global burden of disease; pathogens that evade the immune system can cause phenotypical and functional changes to immune memory populations. Thus, recent studies have focused on MBC subset function. IgM(+) MBCs have emerged as important early responders in malaria. Atypical MBCs have functional qualities associated with exhaustion in chronic infectious diseases, but the requirements for their formation and where they localize remains unknown...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318535/organism-and-microbiome-analysis-techniques-and-implications-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#4
REVIEW
Ashleigh A Halderman, Andrew P Lane
Modern advances in DNA sequencing have allowed for the development of culture-independent techniques with application to infectious and inflammatory conditions, such as rhinosinusitis. Although paradigm-changing discoveries have resulted from molecular microbiologic methods for a number of diseases, insights provided into the role of bacteria in chronic rhinosinusitis have yet to be fully understood to the point of impacting clinical diagnosis and management. As culture-independent techniques continue to evolve and become more refined, it is likely that a better understanding will emerge of how the microbiome influences chronic rhinosinusitis pathogenesis and response to therapy...
March 16, 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318010/ataxia-telangiectasia-recommendations-for-multidisciplinary-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Nienke J H van Os, Charlotte A Haaxma, Michiel van der Flier, Peter J F M Merkus, Marcel van Deuren, Imelda J M de Groot, Jan Loeffen, Bart P C van de Warrenburg, Michèl A A P Willemsen
Ataxia-telangiectasia is a rare, neurodegenerative, and multisystem disease, characterized by cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, immunodeficiency, progressive respiratory failure, and an increased risk of malignancies. It demands specialized care tailored to the individual patient's needs. Besides the classic ataxia-telangiectasia phenotype, a variant phenotype exists with partly overlapping but some distinctive disease characteristics. This guideline summarizes frequently encountered medical problems in the disease course of patients with classic and variant ataxia-telangiectasia, in the domains of neurology, immunology and infectious diseases, pulmonology, anaesthetic and perioperative risk, oncology, endocrinology, and nutrition...
March 20, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317799/a-first-insight-into-the-genetic-diversity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-veracruz-mexico
#6
Raquel Almaraz-Velasco, Daniela Munro-Rojas, Javier Fuentes-Domínguez, Raquel Muñiz-Salazar, Maria Angélica Ibarra-Estela, Alma Delia Guevara-Méndez, Rosa Icela Chaparro-Martinez, Monserrat Perez-Navarro, Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most important infectious diseases. Although Mexico is one of the Latin American countries with the largest contribution to these statistics, there are few reports that describe the genotypic characteristics of TB. The aim of this study was to use the MIRU-VNTR-24 loci to analyze the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis circulating in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. METHODS: Here, we analyze by MIRU-VNTR-24 loci 80 clinical isolates from individuals with confirmed TB from Veracruz México, also clinical and epidemiological variables were recovered and analyzed...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317570/oral-viral-infections-diagnosis-and-management
#7
REVIEW
Earl Clarkson, Fatima Mashkoor, Saif Abdulateef
This article focuses on common viral infections in the oral cavity with associated systemic manifestations. Discussed are the clinical features, histopathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of viral infections in oral cavity. This will be a useful aid for general practitioners and other dental personnel wanting to expand their pathologic knowledge. This article discusses herpes simplex, varicella zoster, mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus, enteroviruses, rubeola, rubella, mumps, and human papillomavirus...
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315929/adnexal-masses-associated-with-peritoneal-involvement-diagnosis-with-ct-and-mri
#8
REVIEW
Audrey Ognong-Boulemo, Anthony Dohan, Christine Hoeffel, Agatha Stanek, François Golfier, Olivier Glehen, Pierre-Jean Valette, Pascal Rousset
Given the unique intra-peritoneal anatomic location of the adnexa, tubo-ovarian diseases can commonly spread into the peritoneal cavity. Peritoneal seeding may occur in a spectrum of adnexal conditions including infectious diseases, endometriosis, and benign or malignant primary or secondary ovarian tumors. CT is usually the imaging modality on which the concomitant involvement of the peritoneum and the ovary is depicted. The first diagnosis to be considered by the radiologist is generally peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian cancer but other conditions cited above have also to be borne in mind and may be suggested on the basis of careful assessment of CT findings or on further MR findings...
March 18, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315032/novel-indications-for-fecal-microbial-transplantation-update-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Nathaniel Aviv Cohen, Nitsan Maharshak
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is an established successful treatment modality for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The safety profile and potential therapeutic advantages of FMT for diseases associated with dysbiosis and immune dysfunction have led to many publications, mainly case series, and while many studies and reviews have been published on the use of FMT for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), its potential use for other disease conditions has not been thoroughly reviewed...
March 17, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314116/secretory-proteome-analysis-of-streptomycin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates
#10
Divakar Sharma, Deepa Bisht
Tuberculosis still remains one of the most fatal infectious diseases. Streptomycin (SM) is the drug of choice, especially for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis or category II patients, because it targets the protein synthesis machinery by interacting with steps of translation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the resistance, but our knowledge is inadequate. Secretome often plays an important role in pathogenesis and is considered an attractive reservoir for the development of novel diagnostic markers and targets...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304239/immunoglobulin-g4-related-epidural-inflammatory-pseudotumor-presenting-with-pulmonary-complications-and-spinal-cord-compression-case-report
#11
Kavelin Rumalla, Kyle A Smith, Paul M Arnold
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently defined condition characterized by inflammatory tumefactive lesions in various organ systems. IgG4-RD is a clinical and radiological diagnosis of exclusion and requires the presence of specific histopathological criteria for diagnosis. A 50-year-old man presented to an outside hospital with a 3-month history of progressively worsening back pain and symptoms of pleurisy, nasal crusting, and hematochezia. Radiological workup revealed an epidural-paraspinal mass with displacement of the spinal cord, destruction of the T5-6 vertebrae, and extension into the right lung...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303782/paradoxical-reactions-and-the-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#12
L W Preston Church, Amit Chopra, Marc A Judson
In HIV-infected individuals, paradoxical reactions after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with a variety of underlying infections and have been called the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In cases of IRIS associated with tuberculosis (TB), two distinct patterns of disease are recognized: (i) the progression of subclinical TB to clinical disease after the initiation of ART, referred to as unmasking, and (ii) the progression or appearance of new clinical and/or radiographic disease in patients with previously recognized TB after the initiation of ART, the classic or "paradoxical" TB-IRIS...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302522/is-there-a-relationship-between-genetic-factors-and-the-incidence-and-severity-of-h1n1-in-kosova-a-preliminary-investigation-and-pointers-for-further-research
#13
Shemsedin Dreshaj, Avdulla J Alija, Patricia Schlagenhauf, Teuta Doda, Njomeza Geca, Ismet Bajraktari, Nikolaus Bresgen, Peter M Eckl
BACKGROUND: Host genetic factors may impact susceptibility to infection. A small number of studies have investigated the association between factors such as ABO blood groups and selected phenotypes on the incidence and severity of H1N1 infections with inconclusive results. METHODS: Using data from the Clinic of Infectious Diseases - University Clinical Centre Prishtina and based on the examination of 125 patients hospitalized with H1N1 in the period 2009-2014, the frequency of blood groups from ABO and Rhesus (Rh) systems as phenotypical markers were evaluated...
March 14, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301584/diagnostic-accuracy-and-added-value-of-dual-energy-subtraction-radiography-compared-to-standard-conventional-radiography-using-computed-tomography-as-standard-of-reference
#14
Katharina Martini, Marco Baessler, Stephan Baumueller, Thomas Frauenfelder
PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate diagnostic performance of dual-energy subtraction radiography (DESR) for interpretation of chest radiographs compared to conventional radiography (CR) using computed tomography (CT) as standard of reference. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 199 patients (75 female, median age 67) were included in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved clinical trial. All patients were scanned in posteroanterior and lateral direction with dual-shot DE-technique...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301249/investigation-of-different-infection-routes-of-parrot-bornavirus-in-cockatiels
#15
Julia Heckmann, Dirk Enderlein, Anne K Piepenbring, Sibylle Herzog, Ursula Heffels-Redmann, Sara Malberg, Christiane Herden, Michael Lierz
The aim of this study was to determine the natural infection route of parrot bornavirus (PaBV), the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacines. For this purpose, nine cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ) were inoculated orally, and nine cockatiels were inoculated intranasally, with a PaBV-4 isolate. To compare the results of the trials, the same isolate and the same experimental design were used as in a previous study where infection was successful by intravenous as well as intracerebral inoculation...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301236/coinfection-of-avibacterium-paragallinarum-and-gallibacterium-anatis-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens-complicates-clinical-signs-of-infectious-coryza-which-can-be-prevented-by-vaccination
#16
Surya Paudel, Michael Hess, Claudia Hess
Avibacterium paragallinarum and Gallibacterium anatis are recognized bacterial pathogens both infecting the respiratory tract of chickens. The present study investigated outcomes of their coinfection by elucidating clinical signs, pathologic lesions, and bacteriologic findings. Additionally, the efficacy of a commercially available vaccine to prevent diseases caused by A. paragallinarum and G. anatis was evaluated. Birds inoculated with G. anatis alone did not present any clinical signs and gross pathologic lesions in the respiratory tract...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300768/tim-3-as-a-target-for-cancer-immunotherapy-and-mechanisms-of-action
#17
REVIEW
Wenwen Du, Min Yang, Abbey Turner, Chunling Xu, Robert L Ferris, Jianan Huang, Lawrence P Kane, Binfeng Lu
Cancer immunotherapy has produced impressive clinical results in recent years. Despite the success of the checkpoint blockade strategies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1), a large portion of cancer patients have not yet benefited from this novel therapy. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) has been shown to mediate immune tolerance in mouse models of infectious diseases, alloimmunity, autoimmunity, and tumor Immunity. Thus, targeting TIM-3 emerges as a promising approach for further improvement of current immunotherapy...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298472/clinical-manifestations-treatment-and-diagnosis-of-tropheryma-whipplei-infections
#18
REVIEW
Ruben A V Dolmans, C H Edwin Boel, Miangela M Lacle, Johannes G Kusters
Whipple's disease is a rare infectious disease that can be fatal if left untreated. The disease is caused by infection with Tropheryma whipplei, a bacterium that may be more common than was initially assumed. Most patients present with nonspecific symptoms, and as routine cultivation of the bacterium is not feasible, it is difficult to diagnose this infection. On the other hand, due to the generic symptoms, infection with this bacterium is actually quite often in the differential diagnosis. The gold standard for diagnosis used to be periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining of duodenal biopsy specimens, but PAS staining has a poor specificity and sensitivity...
April 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296807/long-term-outcomes-in-patients-undergoing-liver-transplantation-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-related-cirrhosis
#19
Chandra Bhati, Michael O Idowu, Arun J Sanyal, Maria Rivera, Carolyn Driscoll, Richard Todd Stravitz, Divyanshoo R Kohli, Scott Matherly, Puneet Puri, HoChong Giles, Adrian Cotterrell, Marlon Levy, Richard Sterling, Velimir Luketic, Hannah Lee, Amit Sharma, Mohammad Shadab Siddiqui
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a clinically aggressive variant of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is becoming an increasingly common indication for liver transplantation (LT); however, relatively little is known regardings its clinical course post-LT. The aim of the current study is to describe disease recurrence and clinical course after LT. METHODS: All surviving patients transplanted for NASH at the authors' institution had transient elastography (TE) to evaluate hepatic steatosis and fibrosis...
March 15, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296747/adult-onset-still-s-disease-with-atypical-cutaneous-manifestations
#20
Francisco Javier Narváez Garcia, María Pascual, Mercè López de Recalde, Pablo Juarez, Isabel Morales-Ivorra, Jaime Notario, Anna Jucglà, Joan M Nolla
The diagnosis of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) can be very difficult. There are no specific tests available, and diagnosis is usually based on a symptom complex and the well-described typical evanescent rash seen in the majority of patients. However, in recent years, other atypical cutaneous manifestations of AOSD have been reported. These atypical skin eruptions often present in addition to the typical evanescent rash but may also be the only skin manifestation, resulting in delayed diagnosis because of under-recognition...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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