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Clinical Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913535/thrombocytopenia-and-platelet-dysfunction-in-acute-tropical-infectious-diseases
#1
Indri Hapsari Putri, Rahajeng N Tunjungputri, Philip G De Groot, Andre J van der Ven, Quirijn de Mast
Thrombocytopenia is a well-known manifestation of acute tropical infectious diseases. The role of platelets in infections has received much attention recently because of their emerging activities in modulation of inflammatory responses, host defense, and vascular integrity. However, while many studies have addressed thrombocytopenia in tropical infections, abnormalities in platelet function have been largely overlooked. This is an important research gap, as platelet dysfunction may contribute to the bleeding tendency that characterizes some tropical infections...
June 18, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912964/rd5-mediated-lack-of-pe_pgrs-and-ppe-mptr-export-in-bcg-vaccine-strains-results-in-strong-reduction-of-antigenic-repertoire-but-little-impact-on-protection
#2
Louis S Ates, Fadel Sayes, Wafa Frigui, Roy Ummels, Merel P M Damen, Daria Bottai, Marcel A Behr, Jeroen W J van Heijst, Wilbert Bitter, Laleh Majlessi, Roland Brosch
Tuberculosis is the deadliest infectious disease worldwide. Although the BCG vaccine is widely used, it does not efficiently protect against pulmonary tuberculosis and an improved tuberculosis vaccine is therefore urgently needed. Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses different ESX/Type VII secretion (T7S) systems to transport proteins important for virulence and host immune responses. We recently reported that secretion of T7S substrates belonging to the mycobacteria-specific Pro-Glu (PE) and Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) proteins of the PGRS (polymorphic GC-rich sequences) and MPTR (major polymorphic tandem repeat) subfamilies required both a functional ESX-5 system and a functional PPE38/71 protein for secretion...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912944/increasing-success-and-evolving-barriers-in-the-hepatitis-c-cascade-of-care-during-the-direct-acting-antiviral-era
#3
Autumn Zuckerman, Andrew Douglas, Sam Nwosu, Leena Choi, Cody Chastain
Barriers remain in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) cascade of care (CoC), limiting the overall impact of direct acting antivirals. This study examines movement between the stages of the HCV CoC and identifies reasons why patients and specific patient populations fail to advance through care in a real world population. We performed a single-center, ambispective cohort study of patients receiving care in an outpatient infectious diseases clinic between October 2015 and September 2016. Patients were followed from treatment referral through sustained virologic response...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912875/accuracy-of-dengue-clinical-diagnosis-with-and-without-ns1-antigen-rapid-test-comparison-between-human-and-bayesian-network-model-decision
#4
Chaitawat Sa-Ngamuang, Peter Haddawy, Viravarn Luvira, Watcharapong Piyaphanee, Sopon Iamsirithaworn, Saranath Lawpoolsri
Differentiating dengue patients from other acute febrile illness patients is a great challenge among physicians. Several dengue diagnosis methods are recommended by WHO. The application of specific laboratory tests is still limited due to high cost, lack of equipment, and uncertain validity. Therefore, clinical diagnosis remains a common practice especially in resource limited settings. Bayesian networks have been shown to be a useful tool for diagnostic decision support. This study aimed to construct Bayesian network models using basic demographic, clinical, and laboratory profiles of acute febrile illness patients to diagnose dengue...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912772/stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-like-lupus-erythematosus
#5
Jutamas Tankunakorn, Sirima Sawatwarakul, Vasanop Vachiramon, Kumutnart Chanprapaph
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)-like lupus erythematosus is a hyperacute and life-threatening form of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Because of its rarity, little is known about this entity. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, systemic manifestations, treatments, and outcome of SJS/ TEN-like lupus erythematosus. METHODS: We conducted a chart review study from July 2002 to September 2016 of all patients diagnosed with SJS/TEN-like lupus erythematosus who presented with gradual epidermal necrolysis without clear drug or infectious culprit...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912168/efficient-transduction-and-expansion-of-ovine-macrophages-for-gene-therapy-implementations
#6
Garyfalia Karponi, Spyridon Kritas, Evanthia Petridou, Eleni Papanikolaou
A number of bacteria provoking zoonotic diseases present intracellular survival and a host cell tropism limited to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Thus, infection is rendered difficult to eradicate, causing chronic inflammatory reactions to the host and widespread prevalence. Although self-inactivating lentiviral vectors have been successfully tested in the clinic against virally-induced human infectious diseases, little is known about the transduction susceptibility of ruminant animal phagocytes that play a critical role in the outbreak of zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis...
June 18, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911725/tailoring-inorganic-nanoadjuvants-towards-next-generation-vaccines
#7
REVIEW
Xia Li, Xiupeng Wang, Atsuo Ito
Vaccines, one of the most effective and powerful public health measures, have saved countless lives over the past century and still have a tremendous global impact. As an indispensable component of modern vaccines, adjuvants play a critical role in strengthening and/or shaping a specific immune response against infectious diseases as well as malignancies. The application of nanotechnology provides the possibility of precisely tailoring the building blocks of nanoadjuvants towards modern vaccines with the desired immune response...
June 18, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911256/the-autoimmune-lymphoproliferative-syndrome-with-defective-fas-or-fas-ligand-functions
#8
REVIEW
Frédéric Rieux-Laucat, Aude Magérus-Chatinet, Bénédicte Neven
The autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a non-malignant and non-infectious uncontrolled proliferation of lymphocytes accompanied by autoimmune cytopenia. The genetic etiology of the ALPS was described in 1995 by the discovery of the FAS gene mutations. The related apoptosis defect accounts for the accumulation of autoreactive lymphocytes as well as for specific clinical and biological features that distinguish the ALPS-FAS from other monogenic defects of this apoptosis pathway, such as FADD and CASPASE 8 deficiencies...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911002/engineering-therapeutic-antibodies-to-combat-infectious-diseases
#9
Ellen K Wagner, Jennifer A Maynard
Serum therapy fell out of favor 80 years ago, but antibodies against infectious diseases are now experiencing a renaissance. With the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the emergence of new pathogens, and a growing population of immunocompromised individuals coupled with improvements in antibody manufacturing and biological efficacy, antibodies are an increasingly attractive therapeutic option. In this review, we highlight successful clinical strategies and discuss recent applications of advanced antibody engineering approaches to combat infectious diseases...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910568/dermatological-manifestations-of-hiv-aids-individuals-in-shiraz-south-of-iran
#10
Mohammad Ali Davarpanah, Nasrin Motazedian, Farideh Jowkar
Introduction: HIV infection remains as a major challenge facing medical sciences in the world today. Mucocutaneous manifestation was first observed in patients with HIV/AIDS in the early 1980s. The aim of this study was to identify various skin manifestations based on making careful clinical observations and performing the necessary tests. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 patients whose disease was diagnosed using WB and ELISA tests, with dermatologic manifestations and were older than 18 years, participated in this study...
April 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908150/microscopy-in-infectious-disease-research-imaging-across-scales
#11
REVIEW
Vibor Laketa
A comprehensive understanding of host-pathogen interactions requires quantitative assessment of molecular events across a wide range of spatiotemporal scales and organizational complexities. Due to recent technical developments, this is currently only achievable with microscopy. This article is providing a general perspective on the importance of microscopy in infectious disease research, with a focus on new imaging modalities that promise to have a major impact in biomedical research in the years to come. Every major technological breakthrough in light microscopy depends on, and is supported by, advancements in computing and information technologies...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907560/validation-of-a-natural-language-processing-algorithm-for-detecting-infectious-disease-symptoms-in-primary-care-electronic-medical-records-in-singapore
#12
Antony Hardjojo, Arunan Gunachandran, Long Pang, Mohammed Ridzwan Bin Abdullah, Win Wah, Joash Wen Chen Chong, Ee Hui Goh, Sok Huang Teo, Gilbert Lim, Mong Li Lee, Wynne Hsu, Vernon Lee, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Franco Wong, Jonathan Siung King Phang
BACKGROUND: Free-text clinical records provide a source of information that complements traditional disease surveillance. To electronically harness these records, they need to be transformed into codified fields by natural language processing algorithms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop, train, and validate Clinical History Extractor for Syndromic Surveillance (CHESS), an natural language processing algorithm to extract clinical information from free-text primary care records...
June 11, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906291/a-real-time-medical-cartography-of-epidemic-disease-nodding-syndrome-using-village-based-lay-mhealth-reporters
#13
Raquel Valdes Angues, Austen Suits, Valerie S Palmer, Caesar Okot, Robert A Okot, Concy Atonywalo, Suzanne K Gazda, David L Kitara, Moka Lantum, Spencer S Peter
BACKGROUND: Disease surveillance in rural regions of many countries is poor, such that prolonged delays (months) may intervene between appearance of disease and its recognition by public health authorities. For infectious disorders, delayed recognition and intervention enables uncontrolled disease spread. We tested the feasibility in northern Uganda of developing real-time, village-based health surveillance of an epidemic of Nodding syndrome (NS) using software-programmed smartphones operated by minimally trained lay mHealth reporters...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905822/endocervical-and-neutrophil-lipoxygenases-coordinate-neutrophil-transepithelial-migration-to-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#14
Jacqueline S Stevens, Mary C Gray, Christophe Morisseau, Alison K Criss
Background: Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo) is characterized by robust neutrophil influx that is insufficient to clear the bacteria. Sustained neutrophilic inflammation contributes to serious clinical sequelae that particularly affect women, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Methods: We established a three-component system using Ngo, End1 polarized human endocervical cells, and primary human neutrophils to investigate neutrophil transepithelial migration following infection...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905559/-clinical-and-immunological-criteria-for-the-adverse-course-of-infectious-mononucleosis-in-children
#15
Ya Kolesnik, T Zharkova, O Rzhevskaya, T Kvaratskheliya, O Sorokina
The article presents the results of our own studies to determine the criteria for the adverse variants of the course of infectious mononucleosis (IM) in children. The study was conducted in the regional children's infectious clinical hospital in Kharkov. 161 children aged three to fifteen years were under observation with diagnosis of infectious moninucleosis. Out of 161 ill children, 140 (86.9%) had moderate severity of disease, and 21 (13.1%) had severe forms. All children were prescribed standard clinical and laboratory-instrumental examinations...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904567/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-in-patients-with-skin-diseases-including-psoriasis-infections-and-atopic-dermatitis
#16
Ulrich Amon, Laura Baier, Raul Yaguboglu, Madeleine Ennis, Michael F Holick, Julian Amon
The pathogenetic role of vitamin D as well as its clinical correlation in inflammatory skin diseases is still uncertain. This study aimed to compare serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D (calcidiol) in outpatients suffering from different skin diseases using the same laboratory method in one study. In routine serum samples of 1,532 patients from the previous 12 months we identified retrospectively 180 (mean age 49.4 years, 80 female, 100 male) and 205 (mean age 36.3 years, 116 female, 89 male) patients with psoriasis (PSO) and atopic dermatitis (AD), respectively...
2018: Dermato-endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902435/cutting-edge-infectious-disease-diagnostics-with-crispr
#17
Charles Chiu
Three recent Science articles (Chen et al., 2018; Gootenberg et al., 2018; Myhrvold et al., 2018) describe the use of CRISPR-Cas technology to develop point-of-care diagnostics that directly detect viruses from clinical samples. These tests could radically transform approaches to diagnosing infectious diseases at the bedside and in the field.
June 13, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901588/clinical-analysis-of-215-consecutive-cases-with-fever-of-unknown-origin-a-cohort-study
#18
Yong-Zhi Zhai, Xin Chen, Xin Liu, Zhi-Qiang Zhang, Hong-Ju Xiao, Gang Liu
Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a frequently observed phenomenon in clinical practice. The present study was aimed to investigate potential causes of FUO, thereby improving clinical diagnosis of this disorder.In this retrospective study, clinical data were collected from 215 patients who were diagnosed with FUO between January 2009 and December 2010, and an 18 to 36 months follow-up visit was also performed for these patients.Among these FUO cases, the most common causes of the disease were infectious diseases (IDs) (42...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901264/proteomics-based-investigations-of-neglected-and-tropical-diseases
#19
EDITORIAL
Sanjeeva Srivastava
This special issue focusing on proteomics-based investigations of neglected and tropical diseases has eight published articles of which five are research articles and three reviews and viewpoints articles. The idea of this special issue was originated in 14th Human Proteome Organization World Congress (HUPO 2015) in Vancouver during a discussion session of Human Infectious Diseases (HID) group meeting as part of HUPO's flagship project on Human Proteome Project (HPP). This session was well attended by the scientists working on infectious diseases as well as editor of Proteomics Clinical Applications, and constructive discussions led to the culmination of this special issue...
June 14, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900894/string-test-a-new-tool-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis-and-drug-resistance-detection-in-children
#20
Belén Rocío Imperiale, Cecilia Nieves, Belén Mancino, Myriam Sanjurjo, Silvina Tártara, Ángela Beatríz Di Giulio, Juan Carlos Palomino, Nora Susana Morcillo, Anandi Martin
Background: There is a critical need to improve the diagnostic accuracy of tuberculosis (TB) in children. Several techniques have been developed to improve the quality of sputum samples; however, these procedures are very unpleasant and invasive and require hospitalization and trained personnel. This study aims to explore the potential use of a new and noninvasive tool, "string test," for TB diagnosis in children and in adults not able to render sputum samples and at risk of developing multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB)...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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