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Clinical Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452047/lessons-learned-from-ebola-vaccine-r-d-during-a-public-health-emergency
#1
Marie-Paule Kieny
In spite of a complete lack of Research and Development (R&D) preparedness, the 2013-2016 West-Africa Ebola experience demonstrated that it is possible to compress R&D timelines to less than a single year, from a more usual decade or longer. This is mostly to be credited to an unprecedented collaborative effort building on the availability of a small number of candidate diagnostic tests, drugs and vaccines that could be moved rapidly into the clinical phase evaluation. The World Health Organization (WHO) led international consultations and activities - including the organization of a successful Ebola vaccine efficacy trial in Guinea - as a contribution to the unprecedented global efforts to control the Ebola epidemic...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451848/mr-imaging-of-atraumatic-muscle-disorders
#2
Edward Smitaman, Dyan V Flores, Catalina Mejía Gómez, Mini N Pathria
Atraumatic disorders of skeletal muscles include congenital variants; inherited myopathies; acquired inflammatory, infectious, or ischemic disorders; neoplastic diseases; and conditions leading to muscle atrophy. These have overlapping appearances at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and are challenging for the radiologist to differentiate. The authors organize muscle disorders into four MR imaging patterns: (a) abnormal anatomy with normal signal intensity, (b) edema/inflammation, (c) mass, and (d) atrophy, highlighting each of their key clinical and imaging findings...
February 16, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451010/assessment-of-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-vaccine-efficacy-in-a-co-infection-challenge-model-with-qx-like-infectious-bronchitis-virus
#3
Dauda G Bwala, Solomon Ponman, Neil Duncan, Daniel B R Wandrag, Celia Abolnik
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is the primary cause of chronic respiratory disease in poultry. We investigated the protective efficacy of the live attenuated ts-11 and 6/85 MG vaccines against a local MG strain, and in order to enhance symptoms and mimic a typical field situation, we co-infected birds with a virulent strain of QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Both vaccines showed similar ability to protect infected chickens from clinical signs, although ts-11 performed slightly better. Despite the lower protection against clinical disease, 6/85-vaccinated birds had significantly (P≤0...
February 16, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449793/clinical-proteomic-analysis-of-scrub-typhus-infection
#4
Edmond Changkyun Park, Sang-Yeop Lee, Sung Ho Yun, Chi-Won Choi, Hayoung Lee, Hyun Seok Song, Sangmi Jun, Gun-Hwa Kim, Chang-Seop Lee, Seung Il Kim
Background: Scrub typhus is an acute and febrile infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative α-proteobacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi from the family Rickettsiaceae that is widely distributed in Northern, Southern and Eastern Asia. In the present study, we analysed the serum proteome of scrub typhus patients to investigate specific clinical protein patterns in an attempt to explain pathophysiology and discover potential biomarkers of infection. Methods: Serum samples were collected from three patients (before and after treatment with antibiotics) and three healthy subjects...
2018: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449651/beyond-streptococcus-mutans-clinical-implications-of-the-evolving-dental-caries-aetiological-paradigms-and-its-associated-microbiome
#5
N Philip, B Suneja, L Walsh
Aetiological concepts of dental caries have evolved over the years from being considered as a disease initiated by nonspecific microorganisms, to being regarded as an 'infectious' disease caused by specific bacteria, to the current paradigms that emphasise a 'mixed bacterial-ecological approach' as being responsible for lesion initiation and pathogenesis. These aetiological paradigms are not just intellectual concepts but have important implications on how clinicians manage this age-old disease in the twenty-first century...
February 16, 2018: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449049/extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-national-study-of-antimicrobial-treatment-for-pediatric-urinary-tract-infection
#6
M Lagree, S Bontemps, R Dessein, F Angoulvant, F Madhi, A Martinot, R Cohen, F Dubos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical practices for ESBL-producing urinary tract infection (UTI) in France. METHODS: We performed an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study in 22 pediatric departments of university or secondary care hospitals. We collected data of the last five patients presenting with ESBL-producing UTI in 2012 and the physicians' therapeutic approach to two case vignettes of acute non-septic ESBL-producing pyelonephritis (7-month-old girl) and cystitis (30-month-old girl)...
February 12, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448846/are-infectious-diseases-and-microbiology-new-fields-for-thermal-therapy-research
#7
Deniz Gazel, Mehmet Yılmaz
Antimicrobial chemotherapy and surgery are classical methods for treating infectious diseases. However, there is a need for alternative methods to cure infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens, recurrent or chronic infections, and unreachable local infections in which the use of drugs or surgery is anatomically and physically restricted. Several microorganisms are known to be sensitive to mild hyperthermia, and this sensitivity is one of the potential benefits proposed for the host during an episode of fever...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447988/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-agents-targeting-lymphoid-cells-surface-antigens-i-cd19-cd20-and-cd52
#8
REVIEW
Małgorzata Mikulska, Simone Lanini, Carlota Gudiol, Lubos Drgona, Giuseppe Ippolito, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Bernd Salzberger
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting CD19, CD20 and CD52 and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447484/cationic-dda-tdb-liposome-as-a-mucosal-vaccine-adjuvant-for-uptake-by-dendritic-cells-in-vitro-induces-potent-humoural-immunity
#9
Wenjing Qu, Na Li, Rui Yu, Wenbao Zuo, Tingting Fu, Wenling Fei, Yanhui Hou, Yanhua Liu, Jianhong Yang
The cationic dimethyldioctadecylammonium/trehalose 6,6,9-dibehenate (DDA/TDB) liposome is as a strong adjuvant system for vaccines, with remarkable immunostimulatory activity. The mucosal administration of vaccines is a potential strategy for inducing earlier and stronger mucosal immune responses to infectious diseases. In this study, we assessed whether the intranasal administration of cationic DDA/TDB liposomes combined with influenza antigen A (H3N2) can be used as a highly efficacious vaccine to induce mucosal and systemic antibody responses...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447384/antimicrobial-prophylaxis-with-combat-related-open-soft-tissue-injuries
#10
Bradley A Lloyd, Clinton K Murray, Faraz Shaikh, M Leigh Carson, Dana M Blyth, Elizabeth R Schnaubelt, Timothy J Whitman, David R Tribble
Introduction: All Department of Defense (DoD) guidance documents recommend cefazolin or clindamycin as post-trauma antibiotic prophylaxis for open soft-tissue injuries. Although not advocated, some patients with open soft-tissue injuries also received expanded Gram-negative coverage (EGN) prophylaxis based on the judgment of front-line trauma providers. During the study period, revised guidelines in 2011/2012 re-emphasized recommendations for using cefazolin or clindamycin, and stewardship efforts in the DoD trauma community aimed to reduce the practice of adding EGN to guideline-recommended antibiotic prophylaxis...
February 13, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447155/prevalence-of-trachoma-in-school-children-in-the-maraj%C3%A3-archipelago-brazilian-amazon-and-the-impact-of-the-introduction-of-educational-and-preventive-measures-on-the-disease-over-eight-years
#11
Joana Favacho, Antonio José Ledo Alves da Cunha, Samara Tatielle Monteiro Gomes, Felipe Bonfim Freitas, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak
Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the world and is associated with precarious living conditions in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of trachoma in three municipalities of the Marajó Archipelago, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. In 2008, 2,054 schoolchildren from the public primary school system of the urban area of the region and their communicants were clinically examined; in 2016, 1,502 schoolchildren were examined. The positive cases seen during the clinical evaluation were confirmed by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) laboratory tests...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447008/extracellular-hmgb1-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-inflammatory-diseases
#12
Ulf Andersson, Huan Yang, Helena Harris
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein that promotes inflammation when released extracellularly after cellular activation, stress, damage or death. HMGB1 operates as one of the most intriguing molecules in inflammatory disorders via recently elucidated signal and molecular transport mechanisms. Treatments based on antagonists specifically targeting extracellular HMGB1 have generated encouraging results in a wide number of experimental models of infectious and sterile inflammation...
February 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446074/a-hitchhiker-s-guide-to-humanized-mice-new-pathways-to-studying-viral-infections
#13
REVIEW
J K Skelton, A M Ortega-Prieto, M Dorner
Humanized mice are increasingly appreciated as an incredibly powerful platform for infectious disease research. The often very narrow species tropism of many viral infections, coupled with the sometimes-misleading results from preclinical studies in animal models (e.g. fatal immune reactions in the PEARL study 1 ) further emphasize the need for more predictive model systems based on human cells rather than surrogates. Humanized mice represent such a model and have been greatly enhanced in regards to their immune system reconstitution as well as immune functionality in the past years, resulting in their recommendation as pre-clinical model by the US Food and Drug Administration...
February 15, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444768/web-based-just-in-time-information-and-feedback-on-antibiotic-use-for-village-doctors-in-rural-anhui-china-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
XingRong Shen, Manman Lu, Rui Feng, Jing Cheng, Jing Chai, Maomao Xie, Xuemeng Dong, Tao Jiang, Debin Wang
BACKGROUND: Excessive use of antibiotics is very common worldwide, especially in rural China; various measures that have been used in curbing the problem have shown only marginal effects. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test an innovative intervention that provided just-in-time information and feedback (JITIF) to village doctors on care of common infectious diseases. METHODS: The information component of JITIF consisted of a set of theory or evidence-based ingredients, including operation guideline, public commitment, and takeaway information, whereas the feedback component tells each participating doctor about his or her performance scores and percentages of antibiotic prescriptions...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444148/development-of-a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-francisella-noatunensis-subsp-orientalis
#15
Khalid Shahin, Jose Gustavo Ramirez-Paredes, Graham Harold, Benjamin Lopez-Jimena, Alexandra Adams, Manfred Weidmann
Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is the causative agent of piscine francisellosis in warm water fish including tilapia. The disease induces chronic granulomatous inflammation with high morbidity and can result in high mortality. Early and accurate detection of Fno is crucial to set appropriate outbreak control measures in tilapia farms. Laboratory detection of Fno mainly depends on bacterial culture and molecular techniques. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel isothermal technology that has been widely used for the molecular diagnosis of various infectious diseases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440688/unbalanced-inflammatory-reaction-could-increase-tissue-destruction-and-worsen-skin-infectious-diseases-a-comparative-study-of-leishmaniasis-and-sporotrichosis
#16
F N Morgado, L M V de Carvalho, J Leite-Silva, A J Seba, M I F Pimentel, A Fagundes, M F Madeira, M R Lyra, M M Oliveira, A O Schubach, F Conceição-Silva
The clinical presentations of skin diseases produced by different pathogens, as American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) and sporotrichosis can be similar and possibly influenced by the skin immune system (SIS). The aim of the study was to understand the underlying mechanisms of skin inflammation produced by different pathogens. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze 96 patients: a- localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL-ATL); b- sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis (SCL-ATL); c-lymphocutaneous (LC-SP); d- fixed (F-SP) sporotrichosis...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439118/understanding-novel-mechanisms-of-microbial-pathogenesis-in-chronic-lung-disease-implications-for-new-therapeutic-targets
#17
Mathew Suji Eapen, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal
Airway infections are considered as one of the vital factors driving the pathophysiology of chronic lung disease with significant influences on disease trajectory. Opportunistic lung microbes in diseased conditions induce excessive exacerbations and contribute to airflow limitation. Though there has been considerable amount of information that ascertains their links with airway inflammation, the intricate interaction in clinical conditions are poorly understood and requires further deciphering. Current therapeutic interventions for such pathologies are few and lack the ability to modulate underlying dysfunctional immunity as well as suppress the excessive infectious conditions...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439003/impact-of-red-and-processed-meat-and-fibre-intake-on-treatment-outcomes-among-patients-with-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-prognostic-factors-and-personalised-medicine
#18
Robin Christensen, Berit L Heitmann, Karina Winther Andersen, Ole Haagen Nielsen, Signe Bek Sørensen, Mohamad Jawhara, Anette Bygum, Lone Hvid, Jakob Grauslund, Jimmi Wied, Henning Glerup, Ulrich Fredberg, Jan Alexander Villadsen, Søren Geill Kjær, Jan Fallingborg, Seyed A G R Moghadd, Torben Knudsen, Jacob Brodersen, Jesper Frøjk, Jens Frederik Dahlerup, Anders Bo Bojesen, Grith Lykke Sorensen, Steffen Thiel, Nils J Færgeman, Ivan Brandslund, Tue Bjerg Bennike, Allan Stensballe, Erik Berg Schmidt, Andre Franke, David Ellinghaus, Philip Rosenstiel, Jeroen Raes, Mette Boye, Lars Werner, Charlotte Lindgaard Nielsen, Heidi Lausten Munk, Anders Bathum Nexøe, Torkell Ellingsen, Uffe Holmskov, Jens Kjeldsen, Vibeke Andersen
INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) are frequently treated with biological medications, specifically tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi)). These medications inhibit the pro-inflammatory molecule TNF alpha, which has been strongly implicated in the aetiology of these diseases. Up to one-third of patients do not, however, respond to biologics, and lifestyle factors are assumed to affect treatment outcomes. Little is known about the effects of dietary lifestyle as a prognostic factor that may enable personalised medicine...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437046/zika-and-public-health-understanding-the-epidemiology-and-information-environment
#19
Pia D M MacDonald, E Wayne Holden
Because Zika is a newly emerging infectious disease with little previous information known about it, there are many epidemiologic and clinical questions. The complexity of providing care to those who are at risk for infection or are already infected with Zika in this evidence-scarce environment cannot be understated. In this article, we provide an overview of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in the context of public health and pediatric health care. A broad public health focus is used to provide relevant information for addressing important questions about the epidemic and to facilitate communication with patients, parents, and caregivers within the current information environment...
February 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435520/chronic-non-suppurative-mandibular-osteomyelitis-with-proliferative-periostitis-a-review
#20
Ihsène Taihi, Loredana Radoi
Chronic non-suppurative osteomyelitis (CNSO) is a chronic bone disease and may be associated with a reparative periosteum entity called proliferative periostitis (PP). This condition rarely affects the maxillofacial region. Mandibular cases were already described for an infectious dental cause, often with an "onion skin" radiographic aspect, but some rare reported cases showed no obvious etiology. They represent a challenge for diagnosis because of possible misdiagnosis leading to unsuccessful or inappropriate treatment attempts...
February 12, 2018: Quintessence International
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