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Clinical Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214184/-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-lymphopenia-clinical-and-pathophysiological-features
#1
M Martin, A Guffroy, X Argemi, T Martin
Lymphopenia is frequent in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and profound (<500/mm(3)) in 10% of cases. T lymphocytes, especially CD4+, are more affected than B cells. The pathophysiological mechanisms are complex, involving lymphocytotoxic antibodies, excess of apoptosis, increased susceptibility of T cells to complement mediated cytolysis, as well as lymphopoiesis impairment and lymphocyte sequestration. Lymphopenia in SLE is independent from other cytopenia and immunosuppressive drug regiments, and associated with disease activity, risk of flare and damage scores...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213891/opioids-and-the-immune-system-friend-or-foe
#2
REVIEW
Lisanne Mirja Plein, Heike L Rittner
Systemically administered opioids are among the most powerful analgesics for treating severe pain. Several negative side-effects (respiratory depression, addiction, nausea, confusion) and the risk of opioid-induced hyperalgesia accompany opioid administration. One other side effect is the potential of opioids to suppress the immune response and thereby to increase the vulnerability for infections. Several studies have investigated the link between opioids and immunosuppression in vitro, in vivo as well as in patients with divergent results: Exogenous opioids such as morphine and fentanyl can impair macrophage and natural killer cell as well as T cell function and weaken the gut barrier in vitro and in animal studies...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213874/disease-burden-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-in-the-netherlands-1989-2014-the-gap-between-females-and-males-is-diminishing
#3
Scott A McDonald, Venetia Qendri, Johannes Berkhof, Hester E de Melker, Johannes A Bogaards
PURPOSE: Besides cervical cancer, HPV infection is linked to a multitude of diseases in both males and females, suggesting that vaccination programmes should be re-evaluated, with a judicious assessment made of the disease burden stratified by sex, age, and genotype. Projections of burden into the near future are also needed to provide a benchmark for evaluating the impact of vaccination programmes, and to assess the need for scaling-up preventive measures. METHODS: Using the disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) measure, we estimated the total HPV-associated disease burden in the Netherlands...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211007/daclizumab-a-review-in-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Matt Shirley
Daclizumab (Zinbryta(®); previously known as daclizumab high-yield process) is a therapeutic monoclonal antibody that has recently been approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) in adults. Daclizumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against CD25, the alpha subunit of the high-affinity interleukin-2 receptor. As demonstrated in the phase III DECIDE trial, once-monthly subcutaneous daclizumab was superior to once-weekly intramuscular interferon (IFN) β-1a in reducing the clinical relapse rate and radiological measures of disease in patients with relapsing-remitting MS...
February 17, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210638/an-unusual-suspect-causing-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure
#5
Masooma Aqeel, Bjorn Batdorf, Horatiu Olteanu, Jayshil J Patel
Introduction: Antisynthetase syndrome (ASS) is characterized by the presence of anti-Jo-1 antibodies in conjunction with clinical findings of fever, polymyositis-dermatomyositis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Inflammatory myopathies carry a high risk of malignancy, but this association is less well outlined in ASS. We present the case of a patient with ASS who developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Case Presentation: A 44-year-old female with ASS presented with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure...
January 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210295/global-impact-of-bronchiectasis-and-cystic-fibrosis
#6
REVIEW
Margarida Redondo, Holly Keyt, Raja Dhar, James D Chalmers
EDUCATIONAL AIMS: To recognise the clinical and radiological presentation of the spectrum of diseases associated with bronchiectasis.To understand variation in the aetiology, microbiology and burden of bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis across different global healthcare systems. : Bronchiectasis is the term used to refer to dilatation of the bronchi that is usually permanent and is associated with a clinical syndrome of cough, sputum production and recurrent respiratory infections...
September 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209904/noninvasive-imaging-of-human-immune-responses-in-a-human-xenograft-model-of-graft-versus-host-disease
#7
Catharina H M J Van Elssen, Mohammad Rashidian, Vladimir Vrbanac, Kai W Wucherpfennig, Zeina El Habre, Jana Sticht, Christian Freund, Johanne Jacobsen, Juanjo Cragnolini, Jessica Ingram, Loes Plaisier, Eric Spierings, Andrew M Tager, Hidde Ploegh
The immune system plays a crucial role in many diseases. Activation or suppression of immunity is often related to clinical outcome. Methods to explore the dynamics of immune responses are important to elucidate their role in conditions characterized by inflammation, such as infectious disease, cancer or auto-immunity. Immuno-PET is a non-invasive method by which disease and immune cell infiltration can be explored simultaneously. Using radiolabeled antibodies or fragments derived from them, it is possible to image disease-specific antigens and immune cell subsets...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209439/post-polio-syndrome-cases-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
Żanna Pastuszak, Adam Stępień, Kazimierz Tomczykiewicz, Renata Piusińska-Macoch, Dariusz Galbarczyk, Agnieszka Rolewska
It is estimated that around 15 million people survived polio infection worldwide since early twentieth century. In 1950 effective vaccination was used for first time. Since that time number of affected people decreased. The last epidemic of Haine-Medine disease in Poland was in 1950s. Another rare cases of infections were observed till 1970s. About at least 15 years after polio virus infection, slowly progressive muscle limbs paresis with muscle atrophy, joints pain, paresthesia were observed in polio survivors...
February 3, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208854/polymerase-chain-reaction-an-important-tool-for-early-diagnosis-of-leptospirosis-cases
#9
Summaiya Mullan, Tanvi Harivadanbhai Panwala
INTRODUCTION: Various diagnostic methods like Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), IgM ELISA, Isolation of Leptospira from the clinical specimen, Rapid leptocheck tests etc., are available for diagnosis of leptospirosis. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used for diagnosis of various diseases of infectious origin including leptospirosis but there is paucity of data about comparison of PCR with other available method of diagnosis of leptospirosis. AIM: The aim of the study was to detect the leptospiral DNA by PCR method and to compare the results of PCR with other available diagnostic methods used for diagnosis of suspected leptospirosis cases in acute phase of illness...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208753/possible-impact-of-190g-a-ccr2-and-%C3%AE-32-ccr5-mutations-on-decrease-of-the-hbv-vaccine-immunogenicity-a-preliminary-report
#10
Maria Ganczak, Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Marzena Drozd-Dąbrowska, Grażyna Adler
Background: Chemokine genetic variations are involved in infectious diseases such as hepatitis B virus (HBV). Several allelic variants might, in theory, affect the outcome of vaccination. Objectives: This study was carried out to examine the associations of Δ32 CCR5 and 190G > A CCR2 polymorphisms with a response to a primary course of three HBV vaccinations. Methods: Between December 2014 and December 2016, patients from three randomly selected primary care clinics in the West Pomeranian region (Poland), 1 month after receiving the third dose of HBV vaccine, were enrolled...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208046/mycobacterium-chimaera-and-cardiac-surgery
#11
Andrew J Stewardson, Rhonda L Stuart, Allen C Cheng, Paul Dr Johnson
There is an ongoing investigation into infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria associated with contaminated heater-cooler units used in cardiac surgery. The overall risk is low, but surgical site and disseminated infections have been reported, including one possible case in Australia, mainly with surgery involving implantation of prosthetic material. Mycobacterium chimaera infection should be considered in patients who have previously undergone surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and who present with cardiac or disseminated infection or sternal wound infection unresponsive to standard antibiotic therapy...
February 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207512/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-acute-kidney-injury-associated-with-continuous-intravenous-high-dose-vancomycin-in-critically-ill-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
Guillaume Lacave, Vincent Caille, Fabrice Bruneel, Catherine Palette, Stéphane Legriel, David Grimaldi, Mathilde Eurin, Jean-Pierre Bedos
For vancomycin therapy of severe infections, the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends high vancomycin trough levels, whose potential for inducing nephrotoxicity is controversial. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients given continuous intravenous vancomycin with target serum vancomycin levels of 20 to 30 mg/L.We retrospectively studied 107 continuous intravenous vancomycin treatments of ≥48 hours' duration with at least 2 serum vancomycin levels ≥20 mg/L in critically ill patients...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207511/autoimmune-hepatitis-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-case-reports-of-a-rare-but-important-diagnosis-with-therapeutic-implications
#13
Leila Kia, Adam Beattie, Richard M Green
RATIONALE: Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV. However, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in patients with HIV has rarely been reported. Our aim was to evaluate a cohort of patients with HIV and AIH and identify clinical presentations and outcomes. PATIENT CONCERNS: Management of autoimmune hepatitis in context of human immunodeficiency virus, long-term outcomes, and safety in setting of underlying immunocompromised state...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205564/elevated-serum-interferon-%C3%AE-induced-protein-10-kda-is-associated-with-tafro-syndrome
#14
Noriko Iwaki, Yuka Gion, Eisei Kondo, Mitsuhiro Kawano, Taro Masunari, Hiroshi Moro, Koji Nikkuni, Kazue Takai, Masao Hagihara, Yuko Hashimoto, Kenji Yokota, Masataka Okamoto, Shinji Nakao, Tadashi Yoshino, Yasuharu Sato
Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disorder. It is characterized by inflammatory symptoms, and interleukin (IL)-6 contributes to the disease pathogenesis. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) often drives hypercytokinemia in MCD, although the etiology of HHV-8-negative MCD is idiopathic (iMCD). A distinct subtype of iMCD that shares a constellation of clinical features including thrombocytopenia (T), anasarca (A), fever (F), reticulin fibrosis (R), and organomegaly (O) has been reported as TAFRO-iMCD, however the differences in cytokine profiles between TAFRO-iMCD and iMCD have not been established...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205148/ocular-autoimmune-systemic-inflammatory-infectious-study-oasis-report-4-analysis-and-outcome-of-scleritis-in-an-east-asian-population
#15
Muhammad Amir Bin Ismail, Rachel Hui Fen Lim, Helen Mi Fang, Elizabeth Poh Ying Wong, Ho Su Ling, Wee Kiak Lim, Stephen C Teoh, Rupesh Agrawal
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the spectrum of scleritis from database of Ocular Autoimmune Systemic Inflammatory Infectious Study (OASIS) at a tertiary eye referral eye institute in Singapore. Clinical records of 120 patients with scleritis from a database of 2200 patients from Ocular Autoimmune Systemic Inflammatory Infectious Study (OASIS) were reviewed. RESULTS: 56.6% were females, with a mean age of 48.6 ± 15.9 years. 75 (62.5%) had diffuse anterior scleritis, 25 (20...
December 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203777/2017-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-s-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-healthcare-associated-ventriculitis-and-meningitis
#16
Allan R Tunkel, Rodrigo Hasbun, Adarsh Bhimraj, Karin Byers, Sheldon L Kaplan, W Michael Scheld, Diederik van de Beek, Thomas P Bleck, Hugh J L Garton, Joseph R Zunt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203564/neurotoxicity-following-the-ingestion-of-bilimbi-fruit-averrhoa-bilimbi-in-an-end-stage-renal-disease-patient-on-hemodialysis
#17
Camille Pereira Caetano, Cinara Barros de Sá, Bruno Antônio Paixão Faleiros, Marcelo Fonseca Coutinho Fernandes Gomes, Edna Regina Silva Pereira
INTRODUCTION: The toxic effects of the ingestion of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) in chronic kidney disease patients are well described in the literature. Recently, the compound caramboxin has been isolated, explaining the mechanisms of its neurotoxicity. Bilimbi fruit belongs to the family Oxalidaceae, Averrhoa bilimbi species, and exhibits similar biochemical characteristics to star fruit. OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a patient with chronic kidney disease who developed a seizure disorder after the ingestion of bilimbi fruit...
January 2017: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202119/-acute-renal-failure-caused-by-rhabdomyolysis-in-children-a-clinical-analysis-of-26-cases
#18
Fan-Ying Meng, Xiao-Rong Liu, Qian Fu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features and prognosis of acute renal failure (ARF) caused by rhabdomyolysis (RM) in children. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data, laboratory examination, and prognosis of 26 RM children with ARF. RESULTS: The causes for all 26 RM children with ARF were non-traumatic diseases, and the three most common causes were infection (69%), diabetes (12%), and metabolic disease (8%)...
February 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199143/randomized-trial-comparing-r-chop-versus-high-dose-sequential-chemotherapy-in-high-risk-patients-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphomas
#19
Sergio Cortelazzo, Corrado Tarella, Alessandro Massimo Gianni, Marco Ladetto, Anna Maria Barbui, Andrea Rossi, Giuseppe Gritti, Paolo Corradini, Massimo Di Nicola, Caterina Patti, Antonino Mulé, Manuela Zanni, Valerio Zoli, Atto Billio, Andrea Piccin, Giovanni Negri, Claudia Castellino, Francesco Di Raimondo, Andrés J M Ferreri, Fabio Benedetti, Giorgio La Nasa, Guido Gini, Livio Trentin, Maurizio Frezzato, Leonardo Flenghi, Simona Falorio, Marco Chilosi, Riccardo Bruna, Valentina Tabanelli, Stefano Pileri, Arianna Masciulli, Federica Delaini, Cristina Boschini, Alessandro Rambaldi
Purpose The benefit of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) as first-line treatment in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas is still a matter of debate. To address this point, we designed a randomized phase III trial to compare rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP)-14 (eight cycles) with rituximab plus high-dose sequential chemotherapy (R-HDS) with ASCT. Patients and Methods From June 2005 to June 2011, 246 high-risk patients with a high-intermediate (56%) or high (44%) International Prognostic Index score were randomly assigned to the R-CHOP or R-HDS arm, and 235 were analyzed by intent to treat...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198956/evaluating-pharmaceutical-waste-disposal-in-pediatric-units
#20
Maria Angélica Randoli de Almeida, Ana Maria Miranda Martins Wilson, Maria Angélica Sorgini Peterlini
OBJECTIVE: To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. METHOD: A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. RESULTS: 356 drugs disposals were identified (35...
November 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
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