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Pharmacology, drugs, drug interactions and contraindications

Jeffrey Guina, Brian Merrill
Benzodiazepines are some of the most commonly prescribed medications in the world. These sedative-hypnotics can provide rapid relief for symptoms like anxiety and insomnia, but are also linked to a variety of adverse effects (whether used long-term, short-term, or as needed). Many patients take benzodiazepines long-term without ever receiving evidence-based first-line treatments (e.g., psychotherapy, relaxation techniques, sleep hygiene education, serotonergic agents). This review discusses the risks and benefits of, and alternatives to benzodiazepines...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Danny Kupka, Dirk Sibbing
P2Y12 inhibitors are a critical component of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), which is the superior strategy to prevent arterialthrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and undergoing stent implantation.. Areas covered: Basic science articles, clinical studies, and reviews from 1992-2017 were searched using Pubmed library to collet impactful literature. After an introduction to the purinergic receptor biology, this review summarizes current knowledge on P2Y12 receptor inhibitors. Furthermore, we describe the subsequent improvements of next-generation P2Y12 receptor inhibitors facing the ambivalent problem of bleeding events versus prevention of arterial thrombosis in a variety of clinical settings...
March 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Eva Barrenberg, Edeltraut Garbe
PURPOSE: Little is known about the extent of switches from prescription-only (Rx) to over-the-counter (OTC) status in Europe and about the pharmacological properties of the switched substances. The objectives of this study were to provide an overview of the substances that were switched from Rx to OTC status in Germany between 2006 and 2015 and to assess their pharmacological properties. METHODS: Session minutes of the German Expert Advisory Committee for Prescription-Only Issues, changes to the German Ordinance on Prescription-Only Medicines and the Summary of Product Characteristics of the switched substances were analysed...
July 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
María Elisa Irarrázaval O, Leonardo Gaete G
Tamoxifen (Tmf), is a standard of care for women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Endoxifen is a Tmf metabolite generated by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Antidepressive agents (AD) are often prescribed to women with breast cancer not only for depression, but also for anxiety and hot flashes. Some AD are substrates or inhibitors of the Tmf metabolic pathway. Therefore there may be interactions when Tmf and AD are prescribed simultaneously. Oncologic protection afforded by Tmf may become less effective or null when AD are indicated, especially in poor metabolizing patients...
October 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
D J Brinkman, J Tichelaar, T Schutte, S Benemei, Y Böttiger, B Chamontin, T Christiaens, R Likic, R Maˇiulaitis, T Marandi, E C Monteiro, P Papaioannidou, Y M Pers, C Pontes, A Raskovic, R Regenthal, E J Sanz, B I Tamba, K Wilson, Tp de Vries, M C Richir, Ma van Agtmael
European medical students should have acquired adequate prescribing competencies before graduation, but it is not known whether this is the case. In this international multicenter study, we evaluated the essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) of final-year medical students across Europe. In a cross-sectional design, 26 medical schools from 17 European countries were asked to administer a standardized assessment and questionnaire to 50 final-year students. Although there were differences between schools, our results show an overall lack of essential prescribing competencies among final-year students in Europe...
February 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Katherine H Saunders, Alpana P Shukla, Leon I Igel, Rekha B Kumar, Louis J Aronne
Successful treatment of obesity requires a multidisciplinary approach including diet, exercise and behavioral modification. As lifestyle changes are not sufficient for some patients, pharmacologic therapies should be considered as adjuncts to lifestyle interventions. In this article, we review clinical indications, mechanisms of action, dosing/administration, side effects, drug interactions and contraindications for the six most widely prescribed obesity medications. We also summarize the efficacy data from phase 3 trials which led to drug approval...
September 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Puttaswamy Ganashree, Krishnaswamy Bhuvana, Narayana Sarala
OBJECTIVE: Drug promotional literatures (DPLs) are used as a promotional tool to advertise new drugs entering the market to doctors. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy of DPLs by using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. METHODS: An observational study was conducted from March to August 2014. The DPLs were collected from various departments at R.L. Jalappa Hospital and Research Centre attached to Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar, India...
July 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
Carlos M Villalón, Antoinette Maassen VanDenBrink
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a highly prevalent neurovascular disorder. OBJECTIVE: Of the many factors that have been implicated over the years, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) has long been involved in the pathophysiology of migraine. Certainly, some lines of evidence suggest: (i) a 5-HT depletion from blood platelets resulting in cranial extracerebral vasodilatation; and (ii) the effectiveness of an intravenous (i.v.) infusion of 5-HT to abort migraine in some patients...
2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Elizabeth S John, Kristina Katz, Mark Saxena, Sita Chokhavatia, Seymour Katz
A substantial and growing proportion of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are elderly, and these patients require tailored treatment strategies. However, significant challenges exist in the management of this population due to the paucity of data. Establishing the initial diagnosis and assessing the etiology of future symptoms and flares can be challenging as several other prevalent diseases can masquerade as IBD, such as ischemic colitis, diverticular disease, and infectious colitis. Important pharmacologic considerations include reduced glomerular filtration rate and drug-drug interactions in the elderly...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Hilda S Suto, Giordana C Braga, Giuliano R Scarpellini, Leandro I Takeuchi, Ana P Martins, João P Leite, Carolina S Vieira
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate neurologists' knowledge of contraceptive counseling for women receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). METHODS: An interview-based survey was conducted from February 2 to June 30, 2015, among neurologists working in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Direct interviews were conducted using a questionnaire that assessed knowledge of the pharmacological interactions between various contraceptive methods and six AEDs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, topiramate, phenytoin, lamotrigine, and valproate) on the basis of WHO medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use...
September 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Carol McCrum
The use of an intra-articular methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) injection has been shown to have benefits for symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, considerations beyond drug efficacy can influence the appropriateness, clinical effectiveness and potential harm of an injection. A review of research evidence and published literature on clinical and procedural factors influencing the effectiveness and safety of a knee injection has been undertaken. Factors include dose, frequency, contraindications, precautions, drug interactions, side-effects, and procedural and patient-related considerations...
December 2016: Musculoskeletal Care
Hugh Tilson, Lisa E Hines, Gerald McEvoy, David M Weinstein, Philip D Hansten, Karl Matuszewski, Marianne le Comte, Stefanie Higby-Baker, Joseph T Hanlon, Lynn Pezzullo, Kathleen Vieson, Amy L Helwig, Shiew-Mei Huang, Anthony Perre, David W Bates, John Poikonen, Michael A Wittie, Amy J Grizzle, Mary Brown, Daniel C Malone
PURPOSE: Recommendations for including drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in clinical decision support (CDS) are presented. SUMMARY: A conference series was conducted to improve CDS for DDIs. A work group consisting of 20 experts in pharmacology, drug information, and CDS from academia, government agencies, health information vendors, and healthcare organizations was convened to address (1) the process to use for developing and maintaining a standard set of DDIs, (2) the information that should be included in a knowledge base of standard DDIs, (3) whether a list of contraindicated drug pairs can or should be established, and (4) how to more intelligently filter DDI alerts...
April 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Anastasia Rivkin, Sergey Rybalov
Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is one of the most common diagnoses made by gastroenterologists. Current pharmacologic treatments for IBS-D include fiber supplements, antidiarrheal over-the-counter medications, probiotics, antispasmodics, antidepressants, and a 5-hydroxytryptophan 3 receptor antagonist. All of these options have limited efficacy in managing IBS-D. Rifaximin, a nonabsorbable antibiotic, has been evaluated in patients with IBS-D. In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trials evaluating rifaximin 550 mg by mouth 3 times/day for 14 days, the primary efficacy end point was achieved by 9% more patients randomized to the rifaximin group compared with placebo (40...
March 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Shilpadevi Patil, Olga Willett, Terin Thompkins, Robert Hermann, Sathish Ramanathan, Elyse M Cornett, Charles J Fox, Alan David Kaye
Botulinum toxin, also known as Botox, is produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, and botulinum toxin injections are among the most commonly practiced cosmetic procedures in the USA. Although botulinum toxin is typically associated with cosmetic procedures, it can be used to treat a variety of other conditions, including pain. Botulinum toxin blocks the release of acetylcholine from nerve endings to paralyze muscles and to decrease the pain response. Botulinum toxin has a long duration of action, lasting up to 5 months after initial treatment which makes it an excellent treatment for chronic pain patients...
March 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Juan Tamargo, José M Castellano, Valentín Fuster
During the last decade, there has been a tremendous effort to develop different cardiovascular polypills in response to the upsurge in global cardiovascular disease worldwide. The pharmacological development of such a strategy has proven to be extremely complex from a formulation standpoint. Not all drugs are suitable for use in a polypill because of potential drug incompatibilities between them. Candidate agents must be safe, well tolerated, effective, guideline recommended and physiochemically compatible with the other components of the pill...
December 2015: International Journal of Cardiology
Barbara J Zarowitz, Carrie Allen, Terrence O'Shea, Eric G Tangalos, Todd Berner, Joseph G Ouslander
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of nursing home (NH) residents (NHR) with overactive bladder (OAB) or urinary incontinence (UI) with potential pharmacodynamic contraindications to antimuscarinic treatment because of concomitant anticholinergic medications or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and nonpharmacological limitations to antimuscarinic treatment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective analysis. SETTING: U.S. skilled nursing facilities...
November 2015: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Karin Ardjomand-Woelkart, Rudolf Bauer
Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifoli and Echinacea pallida are frequently used as medicinal plants. Besides asking for evidence on their efficacy, there is an increasing interest for safety data. This review systematically presents the available literature on drug interactions, contraindications, adverse events, duration of use, and safety of use in pregnant and nursing women, and assesses the safety profile of corresponding Echinacea preparations. It is noteworthy that all safety data reported are as product specific as the pharmacological or efficacy data are...
January 2016: Planta Medica
Greg L Plosker
Acamprosate (Campral(®), Aotal(®), Regtect(®)) is one of a limited number of pharmacological treatment options approved as an adjunct to psychosocial interventions to facilitate the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. It has been used in Europe, the USA and other countries for many years and was recently approved for this indication in Japan. In several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (without active comparators), acamprosate in conjunction with psychosocial therapy for 3-12 months was generally significantly better than placebo plus psychosocial interventions in improving various key outcomes, including the proportion of patients who maintained complete abstinence from alcohol (complete abstinence rate), the mean cumulative abstinence duration, the percentage of alcohol-free days and the median time to first drink...
July 2015: Drugs
Helen McIlleron, Susan Abdel-Rahman, Joel Alex Dave, Marc Blockman, Andrew Owen
Special populations, including children and pregnant women, have been neglected in tuberculosis drug development. Patients in developing countries are inadequately represented in pharmacology research, and postmarketing pharmacovigilance activities tend to be rudimentary in these settings. There is an ethical imperative to generate evidence at an early stage to support optimal treatment in these populations and in populations with common comorbid conditions, such as diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
June 15, 2015: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Borwin Bandelow, Markus Reitt, Christian Röver, Sophie Michaelis, Yvonne Görlich, Dirk Wedekind
To our knowledge, no previous meta-analysis has attempted to compare the efficacy of pharmacological, psychological and combined treatments for the three main anxiety disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia). Pre-post and treated versus control effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all evaluable randomized-controlled studies (n = 234), involving 37,333 patients. Medications were associated with a significantly higher average pre-post ES [Cohen's d = 2.02 (1.90-2.15); 28,051 patients] than psychotherapies [1...
July 2015: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
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