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Gui-Ping Wen, Zi-Min Tang, Si-Ling Wang, Wen-Fang Ji, Wei Cai, Xu Zhang, Shou-Jie Huang, Ting Wu, Jun Zhang, Zi-Zheng Zheng, Ning-Shao Xia
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the major pathogens that cause acute viral hepatitis. The human (genotypes 1 and 2) and zoonotic (genotypes 3 and 4) groups of HEV present different epidemiology and clinical features. In this study, we developed a classification method for rapidly classifying HEV into human or zoonotic groups that combines a general antigen test with a zoonotic group-specific antigen test. Evaluation of serial samples from HEV-infected rhesus monkeys indicated that HEV antigen-positive samples can be classified using the antigen-based classification method...
October 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
D Porea, A Anita, A Demange, C Raileanu, L Oslobanu Ludu, D Anita, G Savuta, N Pavio
In industrialized countries, Hepatitis E is a recognized zoonosis, with wild boar and swine representing the main reservoirs for zoonotic genotype HEV-3 in Europe. Data related to HEV infection in wild boar population in Romania are restricted to serological surveys. Therefore, our main goal was to determine the HEV prevalence in wild boar population and to characterize HEV strains circulating in Romania. Using TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay, we analyzed the presence of RNA HEV in 45 liver samples and five spleen samples collected from 50 wild boars...
October 12, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Sangmin Kang, Jinjong Myoung
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections cause epidemic or sporadic acute hepatitis, which are mostly self-limiting. However, viral infection in immunocompromised patients and pregnant women may result in serious consequences such as chronic hepatitis and liver damages, mortality of the latter of which reaches up to 20~30%. Type I Interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral immunity is known to be the first line defense against virus infection. Upon HEV infection in the cell, the virus genome is recognized by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to rapid activation of intracellular signaling cascades...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Grazia Tosone, Davide Simeone, Anna M Spera, Giulio Viceconte, Vincenzo Bianco, Raffaele Orlando
The pregnancy-associated immunological and hormonal changes may alter the immune response to infectious agents, including hepatitis viruses. Therefore, this phenomenon may affect the clinical course and the outcome of acute viral hepatitis in pregnant women. For this reason, we have focused on epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of the fulminant liver failure caused by acute viral hepatitis reviewing PubMED in April of 2017. Although all the viruses might cause a fulminant AVH in a pregnant woman, the large majority of fulminant failure reported in the literature had been related to Hepatits E Virus mainly and had been concentrated in Indian subcontinent and some African areas, whereas the problem seems to be very low or absent in the remaining geographical areas...
October 9, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
Daniele Lapa, Carla Brega, Alessia Mammone, Mauro Zaccarelli, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Anna Rosa Garbuglia
The aim of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of hepatitis E virus antigen (HEV-Ag) to determine acute E hepatitis. Ninety-four serum samples resulting anti-HEV IgM by DIA.PRO assay were analyzed with Wantai assay to check for HEV-Ag. Thirty samples were anti-HEV IgM positive and HEV-RNA positive, 19 samples harbored genotype 3, whereas 11 samples were genotype 1. Overall, 16% of anti-HEV IgM samples resulted HEV-Ag positive and 33.3% of HEV-RNA positive were also HEV-Ag positive. Among 64 HEV-RNA negative samples, 5 (7...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
Tsutomu Nishizawa, Putu Prathiwi Primadharsini, Masashi Namikawa, Yuichi Yamazaki, Satoko Uraki, Hiroshi Okano, Shinichiro Horiike, Tatsunori Nakano, Shintaro Takaki, Manri Kawakami, Shigeo Nagashima, Masaharu Takahashi, Hiroaki Okamoto
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute or chronic hepatitis in humans worldwide and can be transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Four HEV strains (HE-JA14-2173, HE-JA15-1335, HE-JA15-1920 and HE-JA16-0610) obtained from patients with imported (from Pakistan or India) or autochthonous acute hepatitis E in Japan were most closely related to the Nepalese and Mongolian genotype 1 HEV strains of unassigned subtype within the partial ORF2 sequence. To investigate whether a putative novel subtype (1g) of genotype 1 can be assigned, full-length genomic sequences were determined for the four HEV strains...
October 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Siddharth Sridhar, Jasper F W Chan, Desmond Y H Yap, Jade L L Teng, Chuan Huang, Cyril C Y Yip, Ivan F N Hung, Sydney C W Tang, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo, Kwok-Yung Yuen
There are two genotypes of swine hepatitis E causing foodborne zoonotic infections in humans - genotype 3 (HEV-3), which is prevalent in Europe and Japan, and genotype 4 (HEV-4) prevalent in China. HEV-3 has been established as a cause of chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. However, the outcomes of HEV-4 infection, the most common cause of viral hepatitis in China, in immunocompromised patients is unknown. The aim of this study is to establish whether HEV-4 infection progresses to chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised transplant recipients...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Eloy Gonzales-Gustavson, N Timoneda, X Fernandez-Cassi, A Caballero, J F Abril, M Buti, F Rodriguez-Frias, R Girones
Hepatitis is a general term meaning inflammation of the liver, which can be caused by a variety of viruses. However, a substantial number of cases remain with unknown aetiology. We analysed the serum of patients with clinical signs of hepatitis using a metagenomics approach to characterize their viral species composition. Four pools of patients with hepatitis without identified aetiological agents were evaluated. Additionally, one pool of patients with hepatitis E (HEV) and pools of healthy volunteers were included as controls...
2017: PloS One
Hee-Seop Ahn, Sang-Hoon Han, Yong-Hyun Kim, Byung-Joo Park, Dong-Hwi Kim, Joong-Bok Lee, Seung-Yong Park, Chang-Seon Song, Sang-Won Lee, Changsun Choi, Jinjong Myoung, In-Soo Choi
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes severe hepatitis in pregnant women, with associated poor fetal outcomes. To study HEV viral pathogenesis, pregnant rabbits were infected with low- and high-dose rabbit HEV at 2 weeks gestation. HEV was identified in the serum, feces, and liver tissue of infected rabbits, and dose-dependent fetal mortality rates ranging from 67% to 80% were observed. The aspartate transaminase (AST)/alanine transaminase ratio was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in high-dose infected rabbits than low-dose infected and negative control rabbits 14 days post infection (dpi)...
December 2017: Virology
Ibrahim M Sayed, Philip Meuleman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
A C Ferreira, Michele Soares Gomes-Gouvêa, G Lisboa-Neto, M C J Mendes-Correa, C M Picone, N A Salles, A Mendrone-Junior, F J Carrilho, J R R Pinho
In Brazil, the circulation of hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been demonstrated in distinct groups of individuals and some animals, but its prevalence among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is unknown. This study aimed to assess the frequency of serological and molecular HEV markers in individuals infected with HIV from São Paulo, Brazil. Serum and plasma samples of 354 HIV-infected patients collected between 2007 and 2013 were included. All samples were tested for anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies and HEV RNA...
September 30, 2017: Archives of Virology
Kavita Lole, Neeta Thorat, Dadasaheb Akolkar, Shweta Pingle
KIs virus (KIs-V) is a putative new hepatitis virus recently identified from Japan. Prevalence of this virus was found to be significantly higher in individuals with past exposure to hepatitis E virus and having moderately raised alanine aminotransferase levels. The present work was undertaken to see the circulation of this virus in India. Blood samples (n=648) collected during hepatitis E outbreaks from different states (1990-2014) were screened by PCR. One anti- HEV IgM positive serum was found to be positive for two closely related viruses, one with 100% and other with 94...
September 28, 2017: Virus Research
Julie Belliere, Florence Abravanel, Marie Béatrice Nogier, Salima Martinez, Pascal Cintas, Sébastien Lhomme, Laurence Lavayssière, Olivier Cointault, Stanislas Faguer, Jacques Izopet, Nassim Kamar
This is the case of a 56-year-old man who underwent heart transplantation. Within the first postoperative days, his respiratory and limb muscles weakened, which was attributed to critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPM). At day 70 post transplantation, he had increased liver enzyme levels and acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection was diagnosed. HEV RNA was found in the serum, stools, and cerebrospinal fluid. Results of further investigations suggested a possible HEV-related polyradiculoneuropathy. At transplantation, the patient was negative for immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM, and HEV RNA...
September 29, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Claire Montpellier, Czeslaw Wychowski, Ibrahim M Sayed, Jean-Christophe Meunier, Jean-Michel Saliou, Maliki Ankavay, Anne Bull, André Pillez, Florence Abravanel, François Helle, Etienne Brochot, Hervé Drobecq, Rayan Farhat, Cécile-Marie Aliouat-Denis, Juliano G Haddad, Jacques Izopet, Philip Meuleman, Anne Goffard, Jean Dubuisson, Laurence Cocquerel
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Approximately 2 billion people live in areas endemic for HEV and are at risk of infection. The HEV genome encodes 3 proteins, including the ORF2 capsid protein. Detailed analyses of the HEV lifecycle has been hampered by the lack of an efficient viral culture system. METHODS: We performed studies with gt3 HEV cell culture-produced particles (HEVcc) and patient blood and stool samples...
September 25, 2017: Gastroenterology
Heng Wang, Weidong Zhang, Honglang Gu, Wanli Chen, Meng Zeng, Chihai Ji, Ruyue Song, Guihong Zhang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for hepatitis E, which represents a global public health problem. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are reported to be zoonotic, and animals are monitored for HEV infection in the interests of public hygiene and food safety. The development of novel diagnostic methods and vaccines for HEV in humans is thus important topics of research. Opening reading frame (ORF) 2 of HEV includes both linear and conformational epitopes and is regarded as the primary candidate for vaccines and diagnostic tests...
2017: PloS One
G La Rosa, Y T R Proroga, D De Medici, F Capuano, M Iaconelli, S Della Libera, E Suffredini
Shellfish samples (n = 384) from production areas, water samples from the same areas (n = 39) and from nearby sewage discharge points (n = 29) were analyzed for hepatitis E virus (HEV) by real-time and nested RT-PCR. Ten shellfish samples (2.6%) and five seawater samples (12.8%) tested positive for HEV; all characterized strains were G3 and showed high degree of sequence identity. An integrated surveillance in seafood and waters is relevant to reduce the risk of shellfish-associated illnesses.
September 27, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
Hugo Barragué, Bertrand Condat, Nicolas Petitdidier, Eric Champagne, Christophe Renou, Jacques Izopet, Florence Abravanel
RATIONALE: Acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are usually self-limiting in immunocompetent patients. HEV persistence has been described only in immunosuppressed patients such as solid-organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological diseases, or patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 61-year-old patient was admitted in hospital for jaundice and asthenia. DIAGNOSES: The patient had underlying cirrhosis and developed a chronic HEV infection...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Emily J Colbeck, Emma Jones, James P Hindley, Kathryn Smart, Ralph Schulz, Molly Browne, Scott Cutting, Anwen Williams, Lee Parry, Andrew Godkin, Carl F Ware, Ann Ager, Awen Gallimore
T-cell infiltration into tumors represents a critical bottleneck for immune-mediated control of cancer. We previously showed that this bottleneck can be overcome by depleting immunosuppressive Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), a process which can increase frequencies of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) through promoting development of specialized portals for lymphocyte entry, namely high endothelial venules (HEVs). In this paper, we used a carcinogen-induced tumor model, that allows for co-evolution of the tumor microenvironment and the immune response, to demonstrate that Treg depletion not only results in widespread disruption to HEV networks in lymph nodes (LNs) but activates CD8+ T cells, which then drive intratumoral HEV development...
September 25, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
B Bivigou-Mboumba, F Rouet, A Mouinga-Ondeme, L Deleplancque, J Sica, A Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, R Njouom, S François-Souquière
Access to antiretrovirals has increased the life expectancy of patients living with HIV. However, HIV-viral hepatitis coinfections in countries endemic for these infections make management more difficult. To determine the extent of these coinfections in Gabon, we investigated markers of hepatitis B, C, and E viruses in 762 adults infected with HIV-1 by ELISA. We used real-time PCR to quantify plasma HBV DNA (HBV VL) and amplified HCV and HEV RNA by nested RT-PCR and PCR.The seroprevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection was 9...
August 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
C Spahr, T Knauf-Witzens, T Vahlenkamp, R G Ulrich, R Johne
Hepatitis E is a human disease mainly characterized by acute liver illness, which is caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Large hepatitis E outbreaks have been described in developing countries; however, the disease is also increasingly recognized in industrialized countries. Mortality rates up to 25% have been described for pregnant women during outbreaks in developing countries. In addition, chronic disease courses could be observed in immunocompromised transplant patients. Whereas the HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly confined to humans, genotypes 3 and 4 are also found in animals and can be zoonotically transmitted to humans...
September 24, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
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