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Wanyun Gong, Lin Liu, Manyu Li, Lin Wang, Mingyu Zhang, Zhengxin Luo, Siddharth Sridhar, Patrick C Y Woo, Ling Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis. Patients with chronic hepatitis B superinfected with HEV may progress to liver failure. Babao Dan (BD) is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used as an auxiliary option for the treatment of chronic hepatitis and liver cancer in China. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of BD on the management of HEV infection in a rabbit model. Sixty-two specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits were divided randomly into five groups and treated with BD or placebo for 2 weeks...
June 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Andreza Lemos Salvio, Amanda de Oliveira Lopes, Adilson José de Almeida, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Lyana Ribeiro Pinto Lima, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Fernando Samuel Sion, Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro, Marcelo Alves Pinto, Vanessa Salete de Paula
AIMS: To improve RT-qPCR with an internal control and a synthetic standard curve to detect HEV in HIV coinfected patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) synthetic curve were designed, compared to the international reference panel for HEV genotypes, and tested to quantify and detect a reference panel for HEV genotypes. The detection limit of the RNA synthetic curve (50 copies/mL) was better than the DNA synthetic curve (100 copies/mL) and the WHO standard curve (250 copies/mL)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Eleonora Savi, Marcello Montagni, Silvia Peveri
Molecular diagnostic is a new therapeutic approach that - allows to valuate sensitization towards a single molecule in a allergenic source and to obtain relevant information on clinical features: sensitization towards molecules as alfa amylase of wheat or lipocalins of pets, Alt a 1 of alternaria spores and Hev b 6 of latex correlates with the risk to develop asthma - has a greater sensitivity in the serum IgE identification than the whole source.
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Hélène Blasco-Perrin, Jean-Marie Péron
All patients with elevated transaminases in France should be tested for HEV infection. HEV can cause severe hepatitis, in particular in patients with chronic liver disease, pregnant women and the elderly. Extra-hepatic manifestations including a number of neurologic syndromes, thrombopenia and renal injury have been described. HEV can cause chronic infection in immunosuppressed patients, in particular in organ-transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancies and individuals with HIV. In patients with hematological malignancies, viral clearance can occur at the time of remission, with a risk of acute cytolysis and acute liver failure...
June 13, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Nidhi Kaushik, Saumya Anang, Krishna Priya Ganti, Milan Surjit
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. Owing to its feco oral transmission route, sporadic as well as epidemic outbreaks recurrently occur. No specific antiviral therapy is available against the disease caused by HEV. Broad spectrum antivirals such as ribavirin and interferon alfa are prescribed in severe and chronic HEV cases. However, the side effects, cost, and limitations of usage render the available treatment unsuitable for several categories of patients. We recently reported the ability of zinc to inhibit viral replication in mammalian cell culture models of HEV infection...
June 13, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
J-H Zhou, Y-N Wang, X-R Li, Y-S Liu, Q Pan, X Lan
The prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in domestic swine threats the public health, due to the risk of zoonotic transmission. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and genetic features of HEV in swine, in Gansu, which is geographically an important province in China. 377 fecal samples were collected from pig farms in Gansu province of China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-PCR. The prevalence rate is about 23% in pig farms of Gansu province. By RT-nPCR, 5' and 3' RACE methods, a whole genome with 7,284 nt in length, termed as swCH189, was obtained and investigated by nucleotide, codon and amino acid usage analyses...
2018: Acta Virologica
Mauricio Realpe-Quintero, Oliver Viera-Segura, Nora A Fierro
Based on high seroprevalence, null surveillance, and lack of diagnostics, Mexico is a high-risk region for hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection. However, few local news on infection are available. Clinicians and general population are in need of increasing awareness, and preventive measures should be emphasized.
July 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Aysha Aslam, Ammu Susheela, Sentia Iriana, Suzanne S Chan, Daryl Lau
Reactivation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are many different causes of hepatitis B reactivation. This case describes an Asian woman with stable CHB presenting with significant hepatitis flare with markedly elevated serum aminotransferases and hepatitis B virus DNA level. The clinical symptoms were subtle with fatigue and vague right upper quadrant tenderness. We ruled out drug-associated hepatotoxicity and screened for common causes of acute hepatitis...
June 10, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Morgane Salines, Mathieu Andraud, Florence Terrade, Nicolas Rose
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen mainly transmitted via food in developed countries, and for which domestic pigs are recognised as the main reservoir. To implement an efficient HEV surveillance and control plan in the pig production sector, it is first necessary to assess the level of knowledge of pig-farming main actors about this pathogen. To this aim, an online survey was conducted between September and October 2017 to evaluate pig farmers' and veterinarians' knowledge about HEV epidemiology and its zoonotic potential...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Silvia E Tritz, Vilaysone Khounvisith, Sisavath Pommasichan, Khampasong Ninnasopha, Amphone Keosengthong, Vannaphone Phoutana, Margot Camoin, Judith M Hübschen, Antony P Black, Claude P Muller, Chantal J Snoeck, Maude Pauly
Although pigs are the main reservoir, ruminants have also been shown to be susceptible to hepatitis E virus (HEV). We investigated zoonotic transmission of HEV in rural settings of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) where humans are in close contacts with ruminants and where pigs are rare. Villagers with (n = 171, risk group) and without (n = 155, control group) cattle were recruited in seven villages in Vientiane Capital. Owners of pigs were excluded. Blood, as well as information on socio-demographics, animal contact, dietary habits and awareness of zoonoses were collected to assess risk factors...
June 10, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Jialiang Xu, Xiaohong Chen, Muhui Lin
BACKGROUND MRI FLAIR hyperintense vessels sign (FHVs) is a special imaging marker that plays a key role in acute infarction imaging and diagnosis. However, FHVs have not been studied in the context of progressive posterior circulation infarction (PPCI), and little is known about the association of hyperintense endo-vessels sign (HEVs) on transverse section MRI with infarction. Thus, our objective here was to investigate the clinical significance of transverse MRI T2 HEVs in patients with PPCI. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this retrospective, case-control study, we enrolled 100 consecutive posterior circulation infarction patients...
June 8, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Roberto Bruni, Umbertina Villano, Michele Equestre, Paola Chionne, Elisabetta Madonna, Dilyana Trandeva-Bankova, Maria Peleva-Pishmisheva, Tencho Tenev, Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi, Giulio Pisani, Elitsa Golkocheva-Markova, Anna Rita Ciccaglione
BACKGROUND: In industrialized areas of the world, including Europe, Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is considered an emerging pathogen. In fact, autochthonous cases caused by HEV genotype 3 (HEV-3) are increasingly reported. Several studies described the human HEV-3 subtypes and strains circulating in West Europe countries; in contrast, very little is known about the HEV strains responsible for acute hepatitis E in countries of East Europe/Balkans, such as Bulgaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Anti-HEV IgM positive serum samples (n = 103) from acute hepatitis cases (2013-2015) from all over Bulgaria were analysed for HEV RNA by Real-Time PCR...
2018: PloS One
Lucas Treps
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly vascularized and aggressive brain tumor. Despite aggressive standard care, GBM remains predominantly fatal; hence new innovative therapies are required. Recent research published in The Journal of Pathology has identified the CGKRK peptide as a promising tool to specifically target tumor vasculature from high grade glioma. This tumor vessel homing peptide was fused to the TNF superfamily member LIGHT/TNFSF14 and injected intravenously to murine orthotopic GBM models...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Qingsong Lei, Lin Li, Shujun Zhang, Tianju Li, Xiaomei Zhang, Xiaolin Ding, Bo Qin
Hepatitis E is the most common type of acute hepatitis prevalent worldwide. The open reading frame 3 protein of HEV (HEV ORF3) is proposed to create a favorable environment for viral replication and pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which HEV overcomes the effects of host immunity, particularly the role of ORF3, remain to be established. Expression of IFNα and IFNβ in supernatant and cell samples was examined via ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. The protein levels of specific signaling factors in cells overexpressing HEV ORF3 were examined via western blot...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mirco Glitscher, Kiyoshi Himmelsbach, Kathrin Woytinek, Reimar Johne, Andreas Reuter, Jelena Spiric, Luisa Schwaben, Arnold Grünweller, Eberhard Hildt
Every year, there are about 20 Mio hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections and 60,000 deaths that are associated with HEV worldwide. At the present, there exists no specific therapy for HEV. The natural compound silvestrol has a potent antiviral effect against the (-)-strand RNA-virus Ebola virus, and also against the (+)-strand RNA viruses Corona-, Picorna-, and Zika virus. The inhibitory effect on virus spread is due to an inhibition of the DEAD-box RNA helicase eIF4A, which is required to unwind structured 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs)...
June 2, 2018: Viruses
Christian Kraef, Christian Schlein, Jens Hiller, Dirk Westhölter, Ulrike Denzer, Thomas Horvatits, Sven Peine, Ansgar W Lohse, Marc Lütgehetmann, Susanne Polywka, Sven Pischke
BACKGROUND: Globally, an estimated 20 million Hepatitis E infections occur every year. The course of viremia and antibody response has been investigated in patients with symptomatic hepatitis E. However, the majority of HEV infections in industrialized countries take a subclinical course. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the course of HEV viremia and epitope specific anti-HEV IgM/IgG response in asymptomatic blood donors in order to understand the immune response and viral clearance in asymptomatic blood donors with HEV infections...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Ann-Sofie Vercouter, Ibrahim M Sayed, Zyncke Lipkens, Koen De Bleecker, Sarne De Vliegher, Roos Colman, Marco Koppelman, Karlien Supré, Philip Meuleman
Recently, infectious HEV particles were discovered in milk and fecal samples of dairy cows in China. Given the recent increase of autochthonous HEV infections in Europe, we wanted to assess whether cows constitute an HEV reservoir in this region and hence may be responsible for the advance of HEV through consumption of cow produce. To verify the zoonotic risk cows potentially pose towards European consumers, we screened >10% of dairy milk farms in Flanders, Belgium for the presence of HEV. A quarter of these housed both cows and pigs, the latter a well-known reservoir for HEV...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Fatemeh Farshadpour, Sakineh Taherkhani, Reza Taherkhani
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one the leading causes of maternal and fetal mortality. Nevertheless, in some geographical locations, especially Egypt, despite having high frequency of HEV seropositivity, HEV infection follows an asymptomatic or mild course during pregnancy. These anomalous observations have distracted attention from the importance of HEV infection in pregnant women. While tragic cases of HEV-infected pregnant women cannot be neglected any longer. These circumstances create a strong demand for the increasing awareness of HEV infection through training programs, appropriate management of HEV infection among pregnant women, routine screening of pregnant women for timely diagnosis of HEV infection, proper treatment of HEV-infected patients, optimal preventive measures, and development of a prophylactic vaccine against HEV infection...
May 29, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Olivier Marion, Florence Abravanel, Arnaud Del Bello, Laure Esposito, Sebastien Lhomme, Bénédicte Puissant-Lubrano, Laurent Alric, Stanislas Faguer, Jacques Izopet, Nassim Kamar
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: An association between hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and cryoglobulinemia has been suggested. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of cryoglobulinemia during HEV infection in solid-organ-transplant (SOT) recipients, to describe its outcomes under ribavirin therapy, and to evaluate its effects on kidney function and histology. METHODS: Between November 2005 and June 2016, 128 cases of HEV infection were diagnosed among SOT recipients followed in our institution...
May 30, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Tomoya Kobayashi, Shin Murakami, Terumasa Yamamoto, Ko Mineshita, Muneki Sakuyama, Reiko Sasaki, Ken Maeda, Taisuke Horimoto
Several recent studies have reported that various bat species harbor bat hepatitis E viruses (BatHEV) belonging to the family Hepeviridae, which also contains human hepatitis E virus (HEV). The distribution and ecology of BatHEV are not well known. Here, we collected and screened 81 bat fecal samples from nine bat species in Japan to detect BatHEV RNA by RT-PCR using HEV-specific primers, and detected three positive samples. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these three viruses were BatHEVs belonging to genus Orthohepevirus D like other BatHEV strains reported earlier in various countries...
May 29, 2018: Virus Genes
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