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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630341/pig-model-mimicking-chronic-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-immunocompromised-patients-to-assess-immune-correlates-during-chronicity
#1
Dianjun Cao, Qian M Cao, Sakthivel Subramaniam, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Adam J Rogers, Scott P Kenney, Debin Tian, Shannon R Matzinger, Christopher Overend, Nicholas Catanzaro, Tanya LeRoith, Heng Wang, Pablo Piñeyro, Nicole Lindstrom, Sherrie Clark-Deener, Lijuan Yuan, Xiang-Jin Meng
Chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a significant clinical problem in immunocompromised individuals such as organ transplant recipients, although the mechanism remains unknown because of the lack of an animal model. We successfully developed a pig model of chronic HEV infection and examined immune correlates leading to chronicity. The conditions of immunocompromised patients were mimicked by treating pigs with an immunosuppressive regimen including cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone. Immunocompromised pigs infected with HEV progressed to chronicity, because 8/10 drug-treated HEV-infected pigs continued fecal virus shedding beyond the acute phase of infection, whereas the majority (7/10) of mock-treated HEV-infected pigs cleared fecal viral shedding at 8 wk postinfection...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628452/rabbit-hepatitis-e-virus-infections-in-humans-france
#2
Florence Abravanel, Sébastien Lhomme, Hicham El Costa, Betoul Schvartz, Jean-Marie Peron, Nassim Kamar, Jacques Izopet
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been detected in rabbits, but whether rabbit HEV strains can be transmitted to humans is not known. Of 919 HEV-infected patients in France during 2015-2016, five were infected with a rabbit HEV strain. None of the patients had direct contact with rabbits, suggesting foodborne or waterborne infections.
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627822/development-of-a-one-step-reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-system-for-a-highly-sensitive-detection-of-rabbit-hepatitis-e-virus
#3
Jing Wang, Hua Zhang, Shengyuan Yan, Yichao Wang, Xin Lu, Hongwei Fu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in areas with poor sanitation. Rabbit is one of important animal reservoirs of the virus. Reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) system is a novel nucleic acid amplification assay, for which the specificity and sensitivity are much higher than that of conventional PCR. However, previously reported RT-LAMP system cannot detect rabbit HEV, which was identified recently and seems to be another potential source of human HEV infection...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624102/hepatitis-e-virus-a-potential-threat-for-patients-with-liver-disease-and-liver-transplantation
#4
REVIEW
Annemiek A van der Eijk, Suzan D Pas, Robert A de Man
Immunocompromised patients are at risk of acquiring acute hepatitis E virus infection (HEV), leading to chronicity. Chronic HEV infection is associated with persistent viraemia, raised transaminase activity, histological features associated with chronic hepatitis and evidence of rapid development of cirrhosis. Extrahepatic manifestations have been associated with HEV. Most frequently reported are neurological disorders with predominantly involvement of the peripheral nervous system. In patients using immunosuppressive drugs antibody production is often delayed and HEV RNA detection is superior to serology to detect infection...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623406/nucleoside-analogue-2-c-methylcytidine-inhibits-hepatitis-e-virus-replication-but-antagonizes-ribavirin
#5
Changbo Qu, Lei Xu, Yuebang Yin, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan, Wenshi Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has emerged as a global health issue, but no approved medication is available. The nucleoside analogue 2'-C-methylcytidine (2CMC), a viral polymerase inhibitor, has been shown to inhibit infection with a variety of viruses, including hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here, we report that 2CMC significantly inhibits the replication of HEV in a subgenomic replication model and in a system using a full-length infectious virus. Importantly, long-term treatment with 2CMC did not result in a loss of antiviral potency, indicating a high barrier to drug resistance development...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619140/decreased-egg-production-in-laying-hens-associated-with-infection-with-genotype-3-avian-hepatitis-e-virus-strain-from-china
#6
Qin Zhao, Baoyuan Liu, Yani Sun, Taofeng Du, Yiyang Chen, Xinjie Wang, Huixia Li, Yuchen Nan, Gaiping Zhang, En-Min Zhou
To determine the relationship between decreased egg production and avian HEV infection, thirty healthy 23-week-old Hy-Line Variety Brown layer hens were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 hens per group. Next, a genotype 3 avian HEV strain from China was used to inoculate laying hens via oronasal or intravenous routes using a 50% chicken infectious dose of 500. All hens were necropsied at 14 weeks postinoculation (wpi). Fecal virus shedding, viremia, seroconversion, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increases and liver lesions showed that after intravenous (i...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617964/prevalence-and-genetic-features-of-rabbit-hepatitis-e-virus-in-korea
#7
Hee-Seop Ahn, Byung-Joo Park, Sang-Hoon Han, Yong-Hyun Kim, Dong-Hwi Kim, Bo-Sook Kim, Joong-Bok Lee, Seung-Yong Park, Chang-Seon Song, Sang-Won Lee, In-Soo Choi
Hepatitis caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a public health concern worldwide. HEV strains have been isolated from several animal species, some of which induce zoonosis. Recently, the isolation of HEV from rabbits was reported. Here, the partial capsid gene (320 bp) of HEV was detected in rabbit feces via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Rabbit HEV was found in two of six rabbit farms and 17 of 264 rabbit fecal samples (6.4%). A phylogenetic analysis of the partial capsid gene classified the 17 HEV isolates into the putative rabbit HEV clade...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617960/low-prevalence-of-igg-antibodies-against-antigens-of-hev-genotypes-1-and-3-in-women-with-a-high-risk-pregnancy
#8
Baptista-González Héctor, Trueba-Gómez Rocío, Rosenfeld-Mann Fanny, Roque-Álvarez Elsa, Méndez-Sánchez Nahúm
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess whether high-risk pregnant women have a higher prevalence of HEV during the perinatal period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 428 patients: Group 1, 127 women with a high-risk pregnancy; Group 2, 97 asymptomatic people with reactivity to HCV or HBV; Group 3, 94 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of HEV infection; and Group 4, 110 healthy blood donors from an urban area of Mexico City...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606414/high-prevalence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-antibodies-in-sao-paulo-southeastern-brazil-analysis-of-a-group-of-blood-donors-representative-of-the-general-population
#9
Ana Maria Passos-Castilho, Mônica Renata Reinaldo, Anne de Sena, Celso F H Granato
Brazil is a non-endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection with seroprevalence from 1% to 4% in blood donors and the general population. However, data on seroprevalence of HEV in the country are still limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection in a group of blood donors representative of the general population of the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 500 blood donors were tested from July to September 2014 by serological and molecular methods...
June 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604244/n-2-hydroxy-propyl-3-trimethylammonium-chitosan-chloride-an-immune-enhancing-adjuvant-for-hepatitis-e-virus-recombinant-polypeptide-vaccine-in-mice
#10
Wei Tao, Hai-Qun Zheng, Ting Fu, Zhuo-Jing He, Yan Hong
Adjuvants are essential for enhancing vaccine potency by improving the humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response to vaccine antigens. This study was performed to evaluate the immuno-enhancing characteristic of N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC), the cationically modified chitosan, as an adjuvant for hepatitis E virus (HEV) recombinant polypeptide vaccine. Animal experiments showed that HTCC provides adjuvant activity when co-administered with HEV recombinant polypeptide vaccine by intramuscularly route...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601688/structure-and-organization-of-paramyxovirus-particles
#11
REVIEW
Robert M Cox, Richard K Plemper
The paramyxovirus family comprises major human and animal pathogens such as measles virus (MeV), mumps virus (MuV), the parainfluenzaviruses, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and the highly pathogenic zoonotic hendra (HeV) and nipah (NiV) viruses. Paramyxovirus particles are pleomorphic, with a lipid envelope, nonsegmented RNA genomes of negative polarity, and densely packed glycoproteins on the virion surface. A number of crystal structures of different paramyxovirus proteins and protein fragments were solved, but the available information concerning overall virion organization remains limited...
June 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598352/uk-pigs-at-the-time-of-slaughter-investigation-into-the-correlation-of-infection-with-prrsv-and-hev
#12
Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sylvia Grierson, Tanya Cheney, Falko Steinbach, Bhudipa Choudhury, Susanna Williamson
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and are both globally prevalent in the pig population. While HEV does not cause clinical disease in pigs, its zoonotic potential has raised concerns in the food safety sector. PRRS has become endemic in the United Kingdom (UK) since its introduction in 1991, and continues to cause considerable economic losses to the swine industry. A better understanding of the current prevalence and diversity of PRRSV and HEV in the UK, and their potential association, is needed to assess risks and target control measures appropriately...
June 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598034/hepatitis-e-in-southern-vietnam-seroepidemiology-in-humans-and-molecular-epidemiology-in-pigs
#13
A Berto, H A Pham, T T N Thao, N H T Vy, S L Caddy, R Hiraide, N T Tue, I Goodfellow, J J Carrique-Mas, G E Thwaites, S Baker, M F Boni
Viral pathogens account for a significant proportion of the burden of emerging infectious diseases in humans. The Wellcome Trust-Vietnamese Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (WT-VIZIONS) is aiming to understand the circulation of viral zoonotic pathogens in animals that pose a potential risk to human health. Evidence suggests that human exposure and infections with hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes (GT) 3 and 4 results from zoonotic transmission. Hypothesising that HEV GT3 and GT4 are circulating in the Vietnamese pig population and can be transmitted to humans, we aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of HEV exposure in a population of farmers and the general population...
June 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596404/complete-genome-sequence-of-human-echovirus-20-strain-812-yn-chn-2010-associated-with-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#14
Yilin Zhao, Haihao Zhang, Hongbo Liu, Hao Sun, Xiaoqin Huang, Zhaoqing Yang, Shaohui Ma
Human echovirus 20 (E-20) belongs to the Human enterovirus B (HEV-B) species and is often detected in nonpolio enterovirus cases of acute flaccid paralysis. We determined the complete genome of strain 812/YN/CHN/2010, isolated from a child with severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Yunnan, China, in 2010.
June 8, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587339/orf3-as-a-sensitive-and-specific-diagnostic-index-for-hepatitis-e
#15
Lijuan Li, Min Liu, Chengrui Geng, Yunmei Zou, Tong Jiao
We explored the significance of the expression of hepatitis E virus (HEV) open reading frame 3 (ORF3) in hepatitis E rat models. We also investigated its diagnostic value. Forty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were infected with HEV and 10 uninfected rats were selected for the control group. Rats were sacrificed at 14, 21, 35 and 70 days after infection. They were divided into 4 groups: Model group 1, model group 2, model group 3 and model group 4. ORF3 protein expression level in liver tissue, level of adipokines [fatty acid synthase (FAS), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor 2 (ACE-2)], Th1/Th2 cells balance [interferon (IFN), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Th1/Th2] and the level of immune outcome (levels of CD4(+), CD8(+) T lymphocytes and CD4(+)/CD8(+)) were measured and compared among groups...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585432/full-genome-analysis-of-swine-genotype-3-hepatitis-e-virus-isolated-from-eastern-china
#16
Jiang-Bing Shuai, Lu-Huan Li, Ai-Yun Li, Yong-Qiang He, Xiao-Feng Zhang
Hepatitis E is believed to occur in both endemic and sporadic forms in developing countries, which causes a major public health problem in Asia and Africa (Meng, 2010; Wang et al., 2016a). Recent studies have documented that the disease is also endemic in many industrialized countries (Wenzel et al., 2011). The causative agent, hepatitis E virus (HEV), belonging to the genus Orthohepevirus, is a non-enveloped RNA virus with a single-stranded, positive-sense genome of approximately 7.2 kb (Smith et al., 2014)...
June 2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582320/hepatitis-e-viral-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-patients
#17
Stanley Y Fang, Hyosun Han
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature published in the past 10 years with focus to the best literatures published since 2015 regarding chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in patients who received solid organ transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Diagnosis of this disease relies primarily on identification of HEV RNA in serum and more recently in stool as way of predicting relapse and guide therapy duration. Current management focuses primarily on primary prevention and supportive care, because additional research is needed to identify efficacious pharmacologic therapy, though use of ribavirin has shown promise in case series in treatment of some genotypes...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577316/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-among-the-korean-manchu-mongol-and-han-ethnic-groups-in-eastern-and-northeastern-china
#18
Yanan Cai, Si-Yuan Qin, Aidong Qian, Peng Xu, Ying-Tian Xu, Lin-Hong Xie, Quan Zhao, Xiao-Xuan Zhang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a serious public health concern in developing countries. China is regarded as an HEV-endemic area, but epidemiological data for HEV among different nationalities is limited. This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors of HEV infection in Koreans (n = 520), Manchus (n = 303), Mongols (n = 217) and Hans (n = 802) in eastern and northeastern China between 2013 to 2015. A total of 366 (19.87%) out of 1842 samples were seropositive for IgG or IgM HEV-antibodies detected by enzyme-linked immunoassays...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576599/hepatitis-e-virus-igg-seroprevalence-in-hiv-patients-and-blood-donors-west-central-poland
#19
Maciej Bura, Malgorzata Lagiedo, Michal Michalak, Jan Sikora, Iwona Mozer-Lisewska
OBJECTIVE: To assess hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence in HIV patients and blood donors from one region in Poland. METHODS: A group of 490 persons (244 HIV patients and 246 blood donors) aged 18-55 years were examined using the anti-HEV IgG assay (Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise, Beijing, China). An analysis of the association between certain factors and the presence of this HEV exposure marker was conducted in both groups. RESULTS: An HEV seropositivity rate of 50...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570034/risk-factors-for-vertical-transmssion-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#20
Sheetal Sharma, Ashok Kumar, Premashish Kar, Sarita Agarwal, Siddhartha Ramji, Syed Akhtar Husain, Sudha Prasad, Shashi Sharma
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can be vertically transmitted but the factors that transmit the disease to fetuses are still unclear. We studied a total of 144 pregnant women with HEV infection. Cord blood and newborn samples were taken for analysis. Nutritional factors were evaluated on the basis of anthropometric parameters and biochemical factors and quantification of HEV viral load was carried out by Real Time PCR. Sequencing of HEV positive samples was performed. Approximately 14.63% (6/41) acute liver failure (ALF) pregnant patients died before delivery...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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