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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218794/examining-the-potential-for-porcine-derived-islet-cells-to-harbour-viral-pathogens
#1
Claire Crossan, Zoe O'Hara, Nizar Mourad, Pierre Gianello, Linda Scobie
With an onus on safety in the potential use of porcine islet cells as a treatment for diabetes, the use of animals lacking exogenous pathogens is clearly important and multilevel screening strategies have been presented on testing animals and the product. In this study, we wished to investigate whether islet cells indeed harboured the same viral pathogens of concern in the source animal. PMBC and islet cells from both adult and neonatal source animals were directly compared and tested for PCMV, PLHV, PCV2, PPV and HEV using both molecular and serological assays...
December 7, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214558/hepatitis-e-seroprevalence-and-genotyping-in-a-cohort-of-wild-boars-in-southern-germany-and-eastern-alsace
#2
Kilian Weigand, Kurt Weigand, Mathias Schemmerer, Martina Müller, Juergen J Wenzel
In the last few years it has been realized that the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in most industrialized countries and that it is a zoonotic disease. Potential reservoirs for HEV have been identified to be wild boars and deers, but HEV has also been found in domestic pigs and other animals. Due to the probable spread of the virus via contaminated food or contact to infected animals, HEV antibodies are present in more than 16% of the German adult population and rates are increasing with age. We collected blood from 104 wild boars in southern Germany and the border region of Alsace...
December 6, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214492/an-ethanol-extract-of-lysimachia-mauritiana-exhibits-inhibitory-activity-against-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3-replication
#3
Seong Eun Jin, Jung-Eun Kim, Sun Yeou Kim, Bang Ju Park, Yoon-Jae Song
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an etiological agent of acute hepatitis E, a self-limiting disease prevalent in developing countries. HEV can cause fulminant hepatic failure with high mortality rates in pregnant women, and genotype 3 is reported to trigger chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised individuals worldwide. Screening of plant extracts for compounds with potential anti-HEV effects led to the identification of a 70% ethanol extract of Lysimachia mauritiana (LME) that interferes with replication of the swine HEV genotype 3 replicon...
December 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208866/acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-with-acute-viral-hepatitis-a-study-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#4
M A Rahman, D K Roy, C R Debnath, A S Roy, M A Muqueet, M S Kabir, S U Ahammed, M G Rabbani, M Asadujjaman, M B Hossain, M A Islam, N C Ray, G C Borman, M S Islam, S K Das, E H Khan, J Ara
This cross sectional observational study was done in the Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Mymensingh, Bangladesh from May 2013 to April 2014 to find out the proportion of acute kidney injury among patients with acute viral hepatitis and to identify risk factors associated with development of acute kidney injury (AKI). A total of 100 patients with acute viral hepatitis were included purposively as study subjects. Among them 61 were male and 39 were female. They were divided into AKI group (n=6) and non-AKI group (n=94) on the basis of development of AKI...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201777/current-treatment-of-acute-and-chronic-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-role-of-antivirals
#5
REVIEW
Ananta Shrestha, Birendra P Gupta, Thupten K Lama
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection results in nearly 20 million new infections, resulting in 70,000 deaths globally each year. Previously thought as a disease limited to developing nations with poor sanitation and hygiene, it is increasingly recognized that even the most developed nations are not spared. A clear dichotomy in epidemiology of HEV is noted between developing and industrialized nations. The HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are common in Asia and Africa and are transmitted mainly by contaminated drinking water...
January 2017: Euroasian Journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196489/hev-infection-not-evident-in-rodents-on-english-pig-farms
#6
Sylvia Grierson, Andre Rabie, Mark Lambert, Bhudipa Choudhury, Richard P Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194722/the-rna-genome-of-hepatitis-e-virus-robustly-triggers-antiviral-interferon-response
#7
Wenshi Wang, Yijin Wang, Changbo Qu, Shan Wang, Jianhua Zhou, Wanlu Cao, Lei Xu, Buyun Ma, Mohamad S Hakim, Yuebang Yin, Tiancheng Li, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Jingmin Zhao, Qiuwei Pan
The outcomes of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection are diverse, ranging from asymptomatic carrier, self-limiting acute infection, fulminant hepatitis to persistent infection. This is closely associated with the immunological status of the host. This study aims to understand the innate cellular immunity as the first-line defense mechanisms in response to HEV infection. Phosphorylation of STAT1, a hallmark of the activation of antiviral interferon (IFN) response, was observed in the liver tissues of majority of HEV infected patients, but not in the liver of uninfected individuals...
December 1, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192575/-current-dilemmas-on-the-transmission-of-hepatitis-e-virus
#8
E de Weerd-de Jong, A M Peters, J C Rahamat-Langendoen, N M A Blijlevens
Immunocompromised patients are especially at risk for developing chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, which may result in progressive liver disease and cirrhosis. In addition, treatment of chronic HEV infection in these patients often includes dose reduction of immunosuppressive therapy and this may lead to severe flare-ups of the underlying condition or even rejection of transplant material. Therefore prevention of HEV transmission is being more and more recognised as an essential step to stop increasing HEV seroprevalence...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186448/hepatitis-e-virus-seroprevalence-and-correlates-of-anti-hev-igg-antibodies-in-the-rakai-district-uganda
#9
Denali Boon, Andrew D Redd, Oliver Layendecker, Ronald Engle, Hanh Nguyen, Ponsiano Ocama, Iga Boaz, Anthony Ndyanabo, Valerian Kiggundu, Steven J Reynolds, Ronald H Gray, Maria Wawer, Robert H Purcell, Gregory D Kirk, Thomas C Quinn, Lara Stabinski
A cross-sectional study was conducted of 500 HIV-infected adults frequency matched on age, sex, and community to 500 HIV-uninfected individuals in the Rakai District, Uganda to evaluate seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG antibodies. HEV seroprevalence was 47%, and one individual was actively infected with a genotype 3 virus. Using modified Poisson regression, male sex (PRR=1.247 [95%CI: 1.071-1.450]) and chronic HBV infection (PRR=1.377 [95%CI: 1.090-1.738]) were associated with HEV seroprevalence...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176816/a-large-outbreak-of-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-1-infection-in-an-urban-setting-in-chad-likely-linked-to-household-level-transmission-factors-2016-2017
#10
Alexander Spina, Annick Lenglet, David Beversluis, Marja de Jong, Larissa Vernier, Craig Spencer, Fred Andayi, Charity Kamau, Simone Vollmer, Boris Hogema, Andrea Irwin, Roger Ngueremi Yary, Açyl Mahamat Ali, Ali Moussa, Prince Alfani, Sibylle Sang
BACKGROUND: In September 2016, three acutely jaundiced (AJS) pregnant women were admitted to Am Timan Hospital, eastern Chad. We described the outbreak and conducted a case test-negative study to identify risk factors for this genotype of HEV in an acute outbreak setting. METHODS: Active case finding using a community based surveillance network identified suspected AJS cases. Pregnant or visibly ill AJS cases presenting at hospital were tested with Assure® IgM HEV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and some with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in Amsterdam; confirmed cases were RDT-positive and controls were RDT-negative...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173594/serological-evidence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-zoo-animals-and-identification-of-a-rodent-borne-strain-in-a-syrian-brown-bear
#11
Carina Spahr, René Ryll, Tobias Knauf-Witzens, Thomas W Vahlenkamp, Rainer G Ulrich, Reimar Johne
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, an emerging infectious disease of humans. HEV infections have also been described in various animal species. Whereas domestic pigs and wild boars are well-known animal reservoirs for HEV, the knowledge on natural HEV infection in zoo animals is scarce so far. Here, we analysed 244 sera from 66 mammal species derived from three zoos in Germany using a commercial double antigen sandwich ELISA. HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 16 animal species, with the highest detection rates in suids (33...
December 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173588/a-comprehensive-study-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-pigs-entering-a-slaughterhouse-in-slovenia
#12
Petra Raspor Lainšček, Ivan Toplak, Andrej Kirbiš
Hepatitis E is a zoonotic viral disease of pigs with increasing public health concern in industrialized countries. Presented broad study of hepatitis E virus (HEV) presence in pigs in Slovenia is the first attempt to overview the HEV situation in pigs entering a slaughterhouse and, further, to analyse the possibility of HEV entering into the food supply chain. 2433 samples from 811 clinically healthy pigs were collected at four slaughterhouses in Slovenia. Sampling covered three different age groups of pigs and three different types of samples (faeces, bile and liver) important for tracing HEV in a pig population...
December 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168441/detection-of-hev-specific-antibodies-in-four-non-human-primate-species-including-great-apes-from-different-zoos-in-germany
#13
C Spahr, T Knauf-Witzens, L Dähnert, M Enders, M Müller, R Johne, R G Ulrich
The hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described in humans and various animal species in different regions of the world. However, the knowledge on natural HEV infection in non-human primates and the corresponding risk of zoonotic transmission is scarce. To determine whether primates in captivity are affected by HEV infection, we investigated 259 individual sera of clinically healthy non-human primates of 14 species from nine German zoos. Using a commercial double-antigen-sandwich ELISA and a commercial IgG ELISA, 10 animals (3·9%) reacted positive in at least one assay...
November 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167341/novel-synthesis-and-phenotypic-analysis-of-mutant-clouds-for-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-1
#14
Shubhra Agarwal, Prasith Baccam, Rakesh Aggarwal, Naga Suresh Veerapu
Many RNA viruses exist as an ensemble of genetically-diverse, replicating populations, known as mutant cloud. The genetic diversity (cloud size) and composition of this mutant cloud may influence several important phenotypic features of the virus, including its replication capacity. We applied a straightforward, bacterium-free approach using error-prone PCR coupled with reverse genetics to generate infectious mutant RNA clouds of varying genetic diversity from a genotype 1 strain of hepatitis E virus (HEV)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162935/hepatitis-e-virus-advances-and-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Ila Nimgaonkar, Qiang Ding, Robert E Schwartz, Alexander Ploss
At least 20 million hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections occur annually, with >3 million symptomatic cases and ∼60,000 fatalities. Hepatitis E is generally self-limiting, with a case fatality rate of 0.5-3% in young adults. However, it can cause up to 30% mortality in pregnant women in the third trimester and can become chronic in immunocompromised individuals, such as those receiving organ transplants or chemotherapy and individuals with HIV infection. HEV is transmitted primarily via the faecal-oral route and was previously thought to be a public health concern only in developing countries...
November 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162143/prevalence-and-risk-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-the-hiv-population-of-nepal
#16
Ananta Shrestha, Anurag Adhikari, Manjula Bhattarai, Ramanuj Rauniyar, Jose D Debes, André Boonstra, Thupten K Lama, Mamun Al Mahtab, Amna Subhan Butt, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle Akbar, Nirmal Aryal, Sapana Karn, Krishna Das Manandhar, Birendra Prasad Gupta
BACKGROUND: Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause acute hepatitis in endemic areas in immune-competent hosts, as well as chronic infection in immune-compromised subjects in non-endemic areas. Most studies assessing HEV infection in HIV-infected populations have been performed in developed countries that are usually affected by HEV genotype 3. The objective of this study is to measure the prevalence and risk of acquiring HEV among HIV-infected individuals in Nepal. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 459 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-positive individuals from Nepal, an endemic country for HEV, for seroprevalence of HEV and assessed risk factors associated with HEV infection...
November 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160516/hepatitis-e-seroprevalence-and-associated-factors-in-rural-settlers-in-central-brazil
#17
Nara Rubia de Freitas, Sheila Araújo Teles, Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Marcos Andre de Matos, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos Carneiro, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Marcelo Alves Pinto, Regina Maria Bringel Martins
INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and associated factors were investigated in rural settlements in Central Brazil. METHODS: A total of 464 settlers were interviewed, and serum samples were tested for anti-HEV IgG/IgM. Positive samples were tested for HEV RNA. RESULTS: Sixteen participants (3.4%; 95% CI 2.0-5.7) were positive for anti-HEV IgG. None was positive for anti-HEV IgM. HEV RNA was not detected. Dwelling in a rural settlement for >5 years was associated with HEV seropositivity...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158182/confirmation-of-specificity-of-reactivity-in-a-solid-phase-elisa-for-the-detection-of-hepatitis-e-viral-antigen-improves-utility-of-the-assay
#18
M J Ankcorn, S Ijaz, B Haywood, J Neuberger, A M Elsharkawy, J Maggs, R S Tedder
Genotype 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV) can lead to persistent infections in immunocompromised hosts. A recently available commercial assay for the detection of HEV antigen (HEV-Ag ELISA, Wantai diagnostics) may enable the study of HEV-Ag dynamics in such persistent infections, however currently there is no confirmatory test available. We generated a putative neutralising reagent from a pool of four convalescent blood donor samples and explored neutralising activity against HEV antigens from clinical samples, HEV tissue-culture and virus-like particles...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157309/recent-knowledge-on-hepatitis-e-virus-in-suidae-reservoirs-and-transmission-routes-to-human
#19
REVIEW
Nicole Pavio, Virginie Doceul, Eugénie Bagdassarian, Reimar Johne
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans that can eventually result in acute liver failures or progress to chronic infections. While in tropical and sub-tropical areas, HEV infections are associated with important waterborne epidemics, in Northern countries, HEV infections are autochthonous with a zoonotic origin. In the past decade, it has become clear that certain HEV genotypes are zoonotic and that swine, and more generally Suidae, are the main reservoir. Zoonotic transmissions of the virus may occur via direct contact with infected pigs, wild boars or consumption of contaminated meat...
November 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154369/hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#20
REVIEW
Nassim Kamar, Jacques Izopet, Nicole Pavio, Rakesh Aggarwal, Alain Labrique, Heiner Wedemeyer, Harry R Dalton
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can lead to acute and chronic hepatitis as well as to extrahepatic manifestations such as neurological and renal disease; it is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Four genotypes are responsible for most infection in humans, of which HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are obligate human pathogens and HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are mostly zoonotic. Until quite recently, HEV was considered to be mainly responsible for epidemics of acute hepatitis in developing regions owing to contamination of drinking water supplies with human faeces...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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