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Bone marrow adipocytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436105/exercise-decreases-marrow-adipose-tissue-though-%C3%A3-oxidation-in-obese-running-mice
#1
Maya Styner, Gabriel M Pagnotti, Cody McGrath, Xin Wu, Buer Sen, Gunes Uzer, Zhihui Xie, Xiaopeng Zong, Martin A Styner, Clinton T Rubin, Janet Rubin
The relationship between marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and bone health is poorly understood. We used running exercise to ask whether obesity-associated-MAT can be attenuated via exercise and whether this correlates with gains in bone quantity and quality. C57BL/6 mice were divided into diet-induced obesity (DIO n = 14) vs. low-fat diet (LFD n = 14). After 3 months, 16-week-old mice were allocated to an exercise intervention (LFD-E, DIO-E) or a control group (LFD, DIO) for 6 week (4 groups, n = 7/group)...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432403/bone-marrow-fat-content-in-70-adolescent-girls-with-anorexia-nervosa-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessment
#2
Kirsten Ecklund, Sridhar Vajapeyam, Robert V Mulkern, Henry A Feldman, Jennifer M O'Donnell, Amy D DiVasta, Catherine M Gordon
BACKGROUND: Adolescents and women with anorexia nervosa have increased bone marrow fat and decreased bone formation, at least in part due to hormonal changes leading to preferential stem cell differentiation to adipocytes over osteoblasts. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate marrow fat content and correlate with age and disease severity using knee MRI with T1 relaxometry (T1-R) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) in 70 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 70 girls with anorexia nervosa who underwent 3-T knee MRI with coronal T1-W images, T1-R and single-voxel proton MRS at 30 and 60 ms TE...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427135/-effects-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-polarization-of-peritoneal-macrophages-in-rats-with-sepsis
#3
Y H Zheng, B Xiong, Y Y Deng, W Lai, S Y Zheng, H N Bian, Z A Liu, Z F Huang, C W Sun, H H Li, H M Luo, L H Ma, H X Chen
Objective: To explore the effects of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on polarization of peritoneal macrophages isolated from rats with sepsis induced by endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: (1) BMSCs were isolated, cultured and purified from 5 SD rats with whole bone marrow adherent method. The third passage of cells were collected for morphologic observation, detection of expressions of stem cell surface markers CD29, CD44, CD45, and CD90 with flow cytometer, and identification of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425848/the-contribution-of-bone-marrow-derived-cells-to-the-human-adipocyte-pool
#4
Peter Arner, Mikael Rydén
White adipose tissue is a remarkably expandable organ with results in the last decade showing that human white adipocytes are continuously turned over during the entire life-span. Data primarily in murine models have demonstrated that adipocytes are derived from precursors present mainly in the perivascular areas of adipose tissue but their precise origin remains unclear. Subsets of cells present in bone marrow display a multipotent differentiation capacity which has prompted the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) may also contribute to the adipocyte pool present in peripheral fat depots...
March 15, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420430/chronic-stress-induces-cd99-suppresses-autophagy-and-affects-spontaneous-adipogenesis-in-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells
#5
Zvenyslava Husak, Michael N Dworzak
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with a high constitutive level of autophagy and low expression of CD99. Under certain conditions, MSCs may develop tumorigenic properties. However, these transformation-induced conditions are largely unknown. Recently, we have identified an association between Hsp70, a main participant in cellular stress response and tumorigenesis, and CD99. Preliminary observations had revealed upregulation of both proteins in stressed long-term cultured MSCs...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414329/alternatively-activated-macrophages-do-not-synthesize-catecholamines-or-contribute-to-adipose-tissue-adaptive-thermogenesis
#6
Katrin Fischer, Henry H Ruiz, Kevin Jhun, Brian Finan, Douglas J Oberlin, Verena van der Heide, Anastasia V Kalinovich, Natasa Petrovic, Yochai Wolf, Christoffer Clemmensen, Andrew C Shin, Senad Divanovic, Frank Brombacher, Elke Glasmacher, Susanne Keipert, Martin Jastroch, Joachim Nagler, Karl-Werner Schramm, Dasa Medrikova, Gustav Collden, Stephen C Woods, Stephan Herzig, Dirk Homann, Steffen Jung, Jan Nedergaard, Barbara Cannon, Matthias H Tschöp, Timo D Müller, Christoph Buettner
Adaptive thermogenesis is the process of heat generation in response to cold stimulation. It is under the control of the sympathetic nervous system, whose chief effector is the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE). NE enhances thermogenesis through β3-adrenergic receptors to activate brown adipose tissue and by 'browning' white adipose tissue. Recent studies have reported that alternative activation of macrophages in response to interleukin (IL)-4 stimulation induces the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a key enzyme in the catecholamine synthesis pathway, and that this activation provides an alternative source of locally produced catecholamines during the thermogenic process...
April 17, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405731/reduced-bone-mass-and-preserved-marrow-adipose-tissue-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-in-long-term-remission
#7
C M Bastos, I M Araújo, M H Nogueira-Barbosa, C E G Salmon, F J A de Paula, L E A Troncon
Bone marrow adipose tissue has not been studied in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease. We found that these patients have preserved marrow adiposity even with low bone mass. Factors involved in bone loss in active disease may have long-lasting effects but do not seem to affect bone marrow adiposity. INTRODUCTION: Reduced bone mass is known to occur at varying prevalence in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) because of inflammation, malnutrition, and steroid therapy...
April 12, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402337/bone-marrow-adipose-tissue-deficiency-increases-disuse-induced-bone-loss-in-male-mice
#8
Jessica A Keune, Carmen P Wong, Adam J Branscum, Urszula T Iwaniec, Russell T Turner
Bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is negatively associated with bone mass. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same precursor cells, adipocyte differentiation may occur at the expense of osteoblast differentiation. We used MAT-deficient Kit(W/W-v) (MAT-) mice to determine if absence of MAT reduced bone loss in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) mice. Male MAT- and wild-type (WT) mice were randomly assigned to a baseline, control or HU group (n = 10 mice/group) within each genotype and HU groups unloaded for 2 weeks...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396251/gene-expression-profiling-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-osteogenesis-imperfecta-patients-during-osteoblast-differentiation
#9
Carla Martins Kaneto, Patrícia S Pereira Lima, Karen Lima Prata, Jane Lima Dos Santos, João Monteiro de Pina Neto, Rodrigo Alexandre Panepucci, Houtan Noushmehr, Dimas Tadeu Covas, Francisco José Alburquerque de Paula, Wilson Araújo Silva
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are precursors present in adult bone marrow that are able to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondroblasts that have gained great importance as a source for cell therapy. Recently, a number of studies involving the analysis of gene expression of undifferentiated MSCs and of MSCs in the differentiation into multiple lineage processes were observed but there is no information concerning the gene expression of MSCs from Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) patients. Osteogenesis Imperfecta is characterized as a genetic disorder in which a generalized osteopenia leads to excessive bone fragility and severe bone deformities...
April 7, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387755/transglutaminases-factor-xiii-a-and-tg2-regulate-resorption-adipogenesis-and-plasma-fibronectin-homeostasis-in-bone-and-bone-marrow
#10
Aisha Mousa, Cui Cui, Aimei Song, Vamsee D Myneni, Huifang Sun, Jin Jin Li, Monzur Murshed, Gerry Melino, Mari T Kaartinen
Appropriate bone mass is maintained by bone-forming osteoblast and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lineage cells control osteoclastogenesis via expression of RANKL and OPG (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand and osteoprotegerin), which promote and inhibit bone resorption, respectively. Protein crosslinking enzymes transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and Factor XIII-A (FXIII-A) have been linked to activity of myeloid and MSC lineage cells; however, in vivo evidence has been lacking to support their function...
April 7, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386120/from-skeletal-muscle-to-stem-cells-an-innovative-and-minimally-invasive-process-for-multiple-species
#11
J Ceusters, J-Ph Lejeune, C Sandersen, A Niesten, L Lagneaux, D Serteyn
Bone marrow and adipose tissue represent the two most commonly exploited sources of adult mesenchymal stem cells for musculoskeletal applications. Unfortunately the sampling of bone marrow and fat tissue is invasive and does not always lead to a sufficient number of cells. The present study describes a novel sampling method based on microbiopsy of skeletal muscle in man, pigs, dogs and horses. The process includes explant of the sample, Percoll density gradient for isolation and subsequent culture of the cells...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379384/osteocyte-protein-expression-is-altered-in-low-turnover-osteoporosis-caused-by-mutations-in-wnt1-and-pls3
#12
Katherine Wesseling-Perry, Riikka E Mäkitie, Ville-Valtteri Välimäki, Tero Laine, Christine M Laine, Matti J Välimäki, Renata C Pereira, Outi Mäkitie
Context: Osteocytes express proteins that regulate bone remodeling and mineralization as well as osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between osteocyte-specific protein expression and bone histology in patients with monogenic osteoporosis due to WNT1 or PLS3 mutations. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional cohort study at a University Hospital. Participants: 6 patients (4 males, age range 14-72 years) with a heterozygous WNT1 mutation and 5 patients (4 males, age 9-70 years) with a hetero-/hemizygous PLS3 mutation...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376564/adipogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-alters-their-immunomodulatory-properties-in-a-tissue-specific-manner
#13
Hafsa Munir, Lewis S C Ward, Lozan Sheriff, Samuel Kemble, Saba Nayar, Francesca Barone, Gerard B Nash, Helen M McGettrick
Chronic inflammation is associated with formation of ectopic fat deposits that might represent damage-induced aberrant mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. Such deposits are associated with increased levels of inflammatory infiltrate and poor prognosis. Here we tested the hypothesis that differentiation from MSC to adipocytes in inflamed tissue might contribute to chronicity through loss of immunomodulatory function. We assessed the effects of adipogenic differentiation of MSC isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue on their capacity to regulate neutrophil recruitment by endothelial cells and compared the differentiated cells to primary adipocytes from adipose tissue...
April 4, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367764/formononetin-an-isoflavone-activates-amp-activated-protein-kinase-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling-to-inhibit-adipogenesis-and-rescues-c57bl-6-mice-from-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-bone-loss
#14
Jyoti Gautam, Vikram Khedgikar, Priyanka Kushwaha, Dharmendra Choudhary, Geet Kumar Nagar, Kapil Dev, Preety Dixit, Divya Singh, Rakesh Maurya, Ritu Trivedi
Balance between adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation is the key link of disease progression in obesity and osteoporosis. We have previously reported that formononetin (FNT), an isoflavone extracted from Butea monosperma, stimulates osteoblast formation and protects against postmenopausal bone loss. The inverse relationship between osteoblasts and adipocytes prompted us to analyse the effect of FNT on adipogenesis and in vivo bone loss, triggered by high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. The anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of FNT was determined in 3T3-L1 cells and HFD-induced obese male mice...
March 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362378/combining-intravital-fluorescent-microscopy-ivfm-with-genetic-models-to-study-engraftment-dynamics-of-hematopoietic-cells-to-bone-marrow-niches
#15
Lin Wang, Malgorzata M Kamocka, Amy Zollman, Nadia Carlesso
Increasing evidence indicates that normal hematopoiesis is regulated by distinct microenvironmental cues in the BM, which include specialized cellular niches modulating critical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) functions(1)(,)(2). Indeed, a more detailed picture of the hematopoietic microenvironment is now emerging, in which the endosteal and the endothelial niches form functional units for the regulation of normal HSC and their progeny(3)(,)(4)(,)(5). New studies have revealed the importance of perivascular cells, adipocytes and neuronal cells in maintaining and regulating HSC function(6)(,)(7)(,)(8)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361877/unacylated-ghrelin-promotes-adipogenesis-in-rodent-bone-marrow-via-ghrelin-o-acyl-transferase-and-ghs-r1a-activity-evidence-for-target-cell-induced-acylation
#16
Anna L Hopkins, Timothy A S Nelson, Irina A Guschina, Lydia C Parsons, Charlotte L Lewis, Richard C Brown, Helen C Christian, Jeffrey S Davies, Timothy Wells
Despite being unable to activate the cognate ghrelin receptor (GHS-R), unacylated ghrelin (UAG) possesses a unique activity spectrum that includes promoting bone marrow adipogenesis. Since a receptor mediating this action has not been identified, we re-appraised the potential interaction of UAG with GHS-R in the regulation of bone marrow adiposity. Surprisingly, the adipogenic effects of intra-bone marrow (ibm)-infused acylated ghrelin (AG) and UAG were abolished in male GHS-R-null mice. Gas chromatography showed that isolated tibial marrow adipocytes contain the medium-chain fatty acids utilised in the acylation of UAG, including octanoic acid...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360146/resistin-induces-multidrug-resistance-in-myeloma-by-inhibiting-cell-death-and-upregulating-abc-transporter-expression
#17
Jianan Pang, Qiaofa Shi, Zhiqiang Liu, Jin He, Huan Liu, Pei Lin, Jiuwei Cui, Jing Yang
Despite advances in therapy, multiple myeloma remains incurable, with a high frequency of relapse. This suggests the need to identify additional factors that contribute to drug resistance. Our previous studies revealed that bone marrow adipocytes promote chemotherapy resistance in myeloma through adipocyte-secreted adipokines, but the mechanism underlying this effect and the specific adipokines involved are not well understood. We proposed to determine the role of resistin, an adipokine which is secreted from adipocytes, in myeloma chemotherapy resistance...
March 30, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359085/osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-lipotoxicity-exacerbation-in-msc-and-modifications-of-the-bone-marrow-fluid
#18
Celine Gillet, Antoine Dalla Valle, Nathalie Gaspard, Delphine Spruyt, Pascale Vertongen, Jessica Lechanteur, Sabrina Rigutto, Elena-Raluca Dragan, Audrey Heuschling, Valerie Gangji, Joanne Rasschaert
Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ON) is a multifactorial bone disease that can evolve to a progressive destruction of the hip joint. Different pathogenic processes have been proposed, among them, an increase of bone marrow (BM) fat resulting from adipocyte accumulation. Marrow adipocytes are active BM residents that influence the microenvironment by releasing cytokines, adipokines, and free fatty acids (FA). We explored the impact of palmitate (Palm) and oleate on function and survival of BM-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) of osteonecrotic patients (ONMSC) and healthy volunteers...
March 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350067/isopsoralen-mediated-suppression-of-bone-marrow-adiposity-and-attenuation-of-the-adipogenic-commitment-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#19
Jian Wang, Sheng-Fa Li, Ting Wang, Chun-Han Sun, Liang Wang, Min-Jun Huang, Jian Chen, Shao-Wei Zheng, Nan Wang, Ying-Jun Zhang, Tian-Yu Chen
Osteoporosis (OP) increases the risk of bone fractures and other complications, and is thus a major clinical problem. In this study, we examined the effect of isopsoralen on the differentiation of bone-derived marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into osteoblasts and adipocytes, as well as bone formation under osteoporotic conditions. Primary femoral BMSCs isolated from C57BL/6 mice were used to evaluate the isopsoralen-mediated regulation of the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) during osteogenesis 2 weeks...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344004/identification-of-three-early-phases-of-cell-fate-determination-during-osteogenic-and-adipogenic-differentiation-by-transcription-factor-dynamics
#20
Jeroen van de Peppel, Tanja Strini, Julia Tilburg, Hans Westerhoff, Andre J van Wijnen, Johannes P van Leeuwen
Age-related skeletal degeneration in patients with osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mass and occurs concomitant with an increase in bone marrow adipocytes. Using microarray expression profiling with high temporal resolution, we identified gene regulatory events in early stages of osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Data analysis revealed three distinct phases when cells adopt a committed expression phenotype: initiation of differentiation (0-3 hr, phase I), lineage acquisition (6-24 hr, phase II), and early lineage progression (48-96 hr, phase III)...
April 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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