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Bone marrow adipocytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146005/bone-marrow-adipocytes-in-haematological-malignancies
#1
Ewa Frączak, Mateusz Olbromski, Aleksandra Piotrowska, Natalia Glatzel-Plucińska, Piotr Dzięgiel, Jarosław Dybko, Kazimierz Kuliczkowski, Tomasz Wróbel
Bone marrow adipocytes (BMAs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are an active and significant element of the bone marrow microenvironment. They are involved in metabolic functions, complex interactions with other stromal cells, and in the development and progression of tumours. Currently, there is little data regarding the role of BMAs in haematological malignancies. Due to this, we have attempted to characterise the BMAs in these malignancies in terms of quantity and morphology. Our study included 30 patients aged 22-76 with myelo- (n=17) and lymphoproliferative malignancies (n=13), both with and without bone marrow infiltration...
November 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138456/prep1-prevents-premature-adipogenesis-of-mesenchymal-progenitors
#2
Giorgia Maroni, Vsevolod A Tkachuk, Alexander Egorov, Marco J Morelli, Raffaele Luongo, Elena Levantini, Francesco Blasi, Maria Cristina Magli, Dmitry Penkov
Transcriptional regulators are crucial in adipocyte differentiation. We now show that the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Prep1 is a repressor of adipogenic differentiation since its down-regulation (DR) in both ex vivo bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly increases their adipogenic differentiation ability. Prep1 acts at a stage preceding the activation of the differentiation machinery because its DR makes cells more prone to adipogenic differentiation even in the absence of the adipogenic inducers...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134302/nuclear-organization-during-in-vitro-differentiation-of-porcine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-into-adipocytes
#3
Joanna Stachecka, Agnieszka Walczak, Beata Kociucka, Błażej Ruszczycki, Grzegorz Wilczyński, Izabela Szczerbal
Differentiation of progenitor cells into adipocytes is accompanied by remarkable changes in cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and gene expression profile. Mature adipocytes are filled with a large lipid droplet and the nucleus tends to move to the cell periphery. It was hypothesized that the differentiation process is also associated with changes of nuclear organization. The aim of this study was to determine the number and distribution of selected components of nuclear architecture during porcine in vitro adipogenesis...
November 13, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131029/rapid-induction-of-osteogenic-markers-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-adipose-derived-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells
#4
Jung-Won Choi, Sunhye Shin, Chang Youn Lee, Jiyun Lee, Hyang-Hee Seo, Soyeon Lim, Seahyoung Lee, Il-Kwon Kim, Hoon-Bum Lee, Sang Woo Kim, Ki-Chul Hwang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells are a mixed cell population, and their regenerative capacity has been validated in various therapeutic models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the regenerative mechanisms utilized by implanted SVF cells. Using an in vitro co-culture system, we sought to determine whether SVF implantation into impaired tissue affects endogenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation; MSCs can differentiate into a variety of cell types, and they have a strong regenerative capacity despite their low numbers in impaired tissue...
November 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128580/reduction-of-protein-phosphatase-2a-c%C3%AE-promotes-in-vivo-bone-formation-and-adipocyte-differentiation
#5
Kaya Yoshida, Jumpei Teramachi, Kenta Uchibe, Mika Ikegame, Lihong Qiu, Di Yang, Hirohiko Okamura
Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulates diverse physiological processes such as cell cycle, growth, apoptosis, and signal transduction. Previously, we demonstrated that silencing of the α-isoform of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2A Cα) in osteoblasts accelerated osteoblast differentiation, whereas its overexpression suppressed differentiation. In this study, we examined the role of PP2A Cα in in vivo bone formation by generating transgenic mice (PP2A-Tg), in which the dominant negative form of PP2A Cα was specifically expressed in osteoblasts...
November 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120093/imbalanced-osteogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-mice-deficient-of-the-chemokine-cxcl12-sdf1-in-the-bone-mesenchymal-stem-progenitor-cells
#6
Yi-Shiuan Tzeng, Ni-Chun Chung, Yu-Ren Chen, Hsin-Yi Huang, Wen-Po Chunang, Dar-Ming Lai
Bone and bone marrow serve as an imperative ecosystem to various types of cells participating in critical body functions. The chemokine Cxcl12, also known as stromal cell-derived factor 1 (Sdf1), is one of the communication factors in the marrow microenvironment that regulate hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell homeostasis. However, the function of Cxcl12 in other bone marrow cells in vivo is yet to be discovered. Here we report a novel function of Cxcl12 in postnatal bone development and homeostasis. Targeted deletion of Cxcl12 in Prx1- or Osx-expressing mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs), but not in mature osteoblasts, resulted in marrow adiposity and reduced trabecular bone content...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118937/isolation-differentiation-and-characterization-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-human-bone-marrow
#7
Kaveh Baghaei, Seyed Mohmoud Hashemi, Samaneh Tokhanbigli, Ali Asadi Rad, Hamid Assadzadeh-Aghdaei, Abdolhamid Sharifian, Mohammad Reza Zali
Aim: We describe the minimum requirements and a simplified method for isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human bone marrow. Background: MSCs are well known adult stem cells present in many tissues such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and neurons. Many isolations and characterization methods have emerged to apply MSCs in the clinical applications, which many of them are expensive and time-consuming. Methods: MSC isolation was carried out from human bone marrow, and cultured in defined medium...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107124/genetic-inhibition-of-ppar%C3%AE-s112-phosphorylation-reduces-bone-formation-and-stimulates-marrow-adipogenesis
#8
Chunxi Ge, Guisheng Zhao, BinBin Li, Yan Li, William P Cawthorn, Ormond A MacDougald, Renny T Franceschi
A common feature of many skeletal diseases is the accumulation of marrow fat. A reciprocal relationship exists between osteogenesis and adipogenesis in bone marrow that is mediated by the relative activity of PPARγ and RUNX2 transcription factors. The ERK/MAPK pathway is an important inducer of MSC differentiation to osteoblasts and an inhibitor of adipogenesis that functions by phosphorylating RUNX2 and PPARγ. To begin to assess the importance of this regulation in vivo, we examined the consequences of blocking one arm of this pathway, PPARγ S112 phosphorylation, by evaluating the bone phenotype of PPARγ S112A mutant mice...
October 26, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101431/the-emerging-role-of-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue-in-bone-health-and-dysfunction
#9
REVIEW
Thomas H Ambrosi, Tim J Schulz
Replacement of red hematopoietic bone marrow with yellow adipocyte-rich marrow is a conserved physiological process among mammals. The extent of this conversion is influenced by a wide array of pathological and non-pathological conditions. Of particular interest is the observation that some marrow adipocyte-inducing factors seem to oppose each other, for instance obesity and caloric restriction. Intriguingly, several important molecular characteristics of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) are distinct from the classical depots of white and brown fat tissue...
December 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096593/energy-metabolism-of-bone
#10
Katherine J Motyl, Anyonya R Guntur, Adriana Lelis Carvalho, Clifford J Rosen
Biological processes utilize energy and therefore must be prioritized based on fuel availability. Bone is no exception to this, and the benefit of remodeling when necessary outweighs the energy costs. Bone remodeling is important for maintaining blood calcium homeostasis, repairing micro cracks and fractures, and modifying bone structure so that it is better suited to withstand loading demands. Osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes are the primary cells responsible for bone remodeling, although bone marrow adipocytes and other cells may also play an indirect role...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096320/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-parkinsonian-mesenchymal-stem-cells-impairs-differentiation
#11
Plamena R Angelova, Mario Barilani, Christopher Lovejoy, Marta Dossena, Mariele Viganò, Agostino Seresini, Daniela Piga, Sonia Gandhi, Gianni Pezzoli, Andrey Y Abramov, Lorenza Lazzari
Sporadic cases account for 90-95% of all patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD). Atypical Parkinsonism comprises approximately 20% of all patients with parkinsonism. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) belongs to the atypical parkinsonian diseases and is histopathologically classified as a tauopathy. Here, we report that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of patients with PSP exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction in the form of decreased membrane potential and inhibited NADH-dependent respiration...
October 20, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094257/the-effects-of-exendin-4-on-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-cells
#12
Paola Luciani, Benedetta Fibbi, Benedetta Mazzanti, Cristiana Deledda, Lara Ballerini, Alessandra Aldinucci, Susanna Benvenuti, Riccardo Saccardi, Alessandro Peri
PURPOSE: GLP-1 receptor agonists are antidiabetic drugs currently used in the therapy of type 2 diabetes. Despite several in vitro and in vivo animal studies suggesting a beneficial effect of GLP-1 analogues on bone, in humans their skeletal effects are not clear and clinical studies report conflicting results. METHODS: We differentiated human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) toward the adipogenic and the osteoblastic lineages, analysing the effect of Exendin-4 (EXE) before, during and after specific differentiations...
November 1, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077147/melatonin-promotes-osteoblast-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-aged-rats
#13
Z-M Chu, H-B Li, S-X Sun, Y-C Jiang, B Wang, Y-F Dong
OBJECTIVE: The current study was to explore the effect of melatonin on osteoporosis and relevant mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed micro-CT to detect bone microstructure and ELISA to detect the contents of osteocalcin (OCN) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) in serum. Double fluorescence labeling of calcein and tetracycline and toluidine blue staining were used to determine morphological indexes of bone tissues. Alizarin red staining and Oil Red O staining were performed to recognize bone cells and adipocytes...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073887/effects-of-osteoglycin-ogn-on-treating-senile-osteoporosis-by-regulating-mscs
#14
Xia Chen, Junsong Chen, Dongliang Xu, Shuangxia Zhao, Huaidong Song, Yongde Peng
BACKGROUND: Significant amount of bone mass is lost during the process of aging due to an imbalance between osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in bone marrow microenvironment, which leads to net bone loss in the aging population, resulting in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. METHODS: Firstly, differences in proliferative capacity of adipocyte or adipogenic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and senile mouse model-derived bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (SMMSCs), as well as mRNA expression of OGN and PPARγ2 were observed...
October 26, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065700/murine-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-respond-efficiently-to-oxidative-stress-despite-the-low-level-of-heme-oxygenases-1-and-2
#15
Witold Norbert Nowak, Hevidar Taha, Neli Kachamakova-Trojanowska, Jacek Stepniewski, Joanna Agata Markiewicz, Anna Kusienicka, Krzysztof Szade, Agata Szade, Karolina Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina Hajduk, Damian Klóska, Aleksandra Kopacz, Anna Grochot-Przeczek, Kathrin Barthenheier, Camille Cauvin, Jozef Dulak, Alicja Jozkowicz
AIMS: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous cells from adult tissues, able to differentiate in vitro into adipocytes, osteoblasts or chondrocytes. Such cells are widely studied in regenerative medicine. However, the success of cellular therapy depends on the cell survival. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by the Hmox1 gene), an enzyme converting heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and Fe2+, is cytoprotective and can affect stem cell performance. Therefore, our study aimed to assess if Hmox1 is critical for survival and functions of murine bone marrow MSCs...
October 25, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051282/small-bone-marrow-adipocytes-predict-poor-prognosis-in-acute-myeloid-leukaemia
#16
Wei Lu, Wei Weng, Qi Zhu, Yuanmei Zhai, Yun Wan, Haiyan Liu, Shaoxin Yang, Yehua Yu, Yanyu Wei, Jun Shi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036224/immortalized-porcine-mesenchymal-cells-derived-from-nasal-mucosa-lungs-lymph-nodes-spleen-and-bone-marrow-retain-their-stemness-properties-and-trigger-the-expression-of-siglec-1-in-co-cultured-blood-monocytic-cells
#17
Abubakar Garba, Lowiese M B Desmarets, Delphine D Acar, Bert Devriendt, Hans J Nauwynck
Mesenchymal stromal cells have been isolated from different sources. They are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into many different cell types, including osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. They possess a therapeutic potential in the management of immune disorders and the repair of damaged tissues. Previous work in our laboratory showed an increase of the percentages of CD172a+, CD14+, CD163+, Siglec-1+, CD4+ and CD8+ hematopoietic cells, when co-cultured with immortalized mesenchymal cells derived from bone marrow...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035359/acute-myeloid-leukaemia-disrupts-endogenous-myelo-erythropoiesis-by-compromising-the-adipocyte-bone-marrow-niche
#18
Allison L Boyd, Jennifer C Reid, Kyle R Salci, Lili Aslostovar, Yannick D Benoit, Zoya Shapovalova, Mio Nakanishi, Deanna P Porras, Mohammed Almakadi, Clinton J V Campbell, Michael F Jackson, Catherine A Ross, Ronan Foley, Brian Leber, David S Allan, Mitchell Sabloff, Anargyros Xenocostas, Tony J Collins, Mickie Bhatia
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is distinguished by the generation of dysfunctional leukaemic blasts, and patients characteristically suffer from fatal infections and anaemia due to insufficient normal myelo-erythropoiesis. Direct physical crowding of bone marrow (BM) by accumulating leukaemic cells does not fully account for this haematopoietic failure. Here, analyses from AML patients were applied to both in vitro co-culture platforms and in vivo xenograft modelling, revealing that human AML disease specifically disrupts the adipocytic niche in BM...
November 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034841/ppar-%C3%AE-and-wnt-regulate-the-differentiation-of-mscs-into-adipocytes-and-osteoblasts-respectively
#19
Yue Li, Daxiang Jin, Weixing Xie, Longfei Wen, Weijian Chen, Jixi Xu, Jinyong Ding, Dongcheng Ren
Under the transcriptional control of numerous factors and intracellular signals, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into various cell types, including adipocytes and osteoblasts. However, the precise cellular signaling factors that determine the cell fate of MSCs in bone marrow remain largely unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is well established as a prime inducer of adipogenesis, while the Wnt pathway is regarded as the master moderator of osteogenesis. A theoretical inverse relationship exists between adipogenic and osteogenic lineage commitment and differentiation: the differentiation toward an osteoblast phenotype occurs at the expense of an adipocyte phenotype...
October 12, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032175/the-effect-of-raloxifene-on-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue-and-bone-turnover-in-postmenopausal-women-with-osteoporosis
#20
Kerensa Beekman, Annegreet G Veldhuis-Vlug, Martin den Heijer, Mario Maas, Ania M Oleksik, Michael W Tanck, Susan M Ott, Rob J Van't Hof, Paul Lips, Peter H Bisschop, Nathalie Bravenboer
In patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis low bone volume is associated with high bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT). Moreover, high MAT is associated with increased fracture risk. This suggests an interaction between MAT and bone turnover, however literature remains equivocal. Estrogen treatment decreases MAT, but the effect of raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) registered for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, on MAT is not known. The aim of this study is 1] to determine the effect of raloxifene on MAT and 2] to determine the relationship between MAT and bone turnover in patients with osteoporosis...
October 11, 2017: Bone
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