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Bone marrow adipocytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331301/marrow-adipose-tissue-imaging-in-humans
#1
Vibha Singhal, Miriam A Bredella
Bone strength is affected not only by bone mineral density (BMD) and bone microarchitecture but also its microenvironment. Recent studies have focused on the role of marrow adipose tissue (MAT) in the pathogenesis of bone loss. Osteoblasts and adipocytes arise from a common mesenchymal stem cell within bone marrow and many osteoporotic states, including aging, medication use, immobility, over - and undernutrition are associated with increased marrow adiposity. Advancements in imaging technology allow the non-invasive quantification of MAT...
January 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324307/integrin-alpha5beta1-suppresses-rbmscs-anoikis-and-promotes-nitric-oxide-production
#2
Hai-Ying Chen, Li Pan, Hong-Li Yang, Peng Xia, Wan-Cheng Yu, Wen-Qiang Tang, Ying-Xin Zhang, Shuang-Feng Chen, Yu-Zeng Xue, Le-Xin Wang
BACKGROUND: Cell based therapy has been heralded as a novel, promising therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the low survival rate after transplantation due to cell death via anoikis is a major obstacle in stem cell therapy. Cells adhesion via Integrin alpha5beta1 (ITGA5B1) has a tendency to exert higher maximum forces. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effect of ITGA5B1 on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) from anoikis...
January 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321172/modest-decreases-in-endogenous-all-trans-retinoic-acid-produced-by-a-mouse-rdh10-heterozygote-provoke-major-abnormalities-in-adipogenesis-and-lipid-metabolism
#3
Di Yang, Marta G Vuckovic, Carolyn P Smullin, Myeongcheol Kim, Christabel Pui-See Lo, Emily Devericks, Hong Sik Yoo, Milena Tintcheva, Yinghua Deng, Joseph L Napoli
Pharmacological dosing of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) controls adiposity in rodents by inhibiting adipogenesis and inducing fatty acid oxidation. Retinol dehydrogenases (Rdh) catalyze the first reaction that activate retinol into atRA. This study examined post-natal contributions of Rdh10 to atRA biosynthesis and physiological functions of endogenous atRA. Embryonic fibroblasts from Rdh10 heterozygote hypomorphs or with a total Rdh10 knockout exhibit decreased atRA biosynthesis and escalated adipogenesis...
January 10, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320711/anatomical-physiological-and-functional-diversity-of-adipose-tissue
#4
REVIEW
Rachel K Zwick, Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Valerie Horsley, Maksim V Plikus
Adipose tissue depots can exist in close association with other organs, where they assume diverse, often non-traditional functions. In stem cell-rich skin, bone marrow, and mammary glands, adipocytes signal to and modulate organ regeneration and remodeling. Skin adipocytes and their progenitors signal to hair follicles, promoting epithelial stem cell quiescence and activation, respectively. Hair follicles signal back to adipocyte progenitors, inducing their expansion and regeneration, as in skin scars. In mammary glands and heart, adipocytes supply lipids to neighboring cells for nutritional and metabolic functions, respectively...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319174/chronic-high-glucose-and-insulin-stimulate-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-adipogenic-differentiation-in-young-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#5
Antonio Hernandes Chaves Neto, Victor Gustavo Balera Brito, Thamine Landim de Barros, Caril Constante Ferreira do Amaral, Dóris Hissako Sumida, Sandra Helena Penha Oliveira
We evaluated whether genetic predisposition is sufficient to induce changes due to chronic high glucose (HG; 25 mmol/L) in the presence or absence of insulin (HGI; 10 µg/mL) on osteogenic differentiation and markers in bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) from young Wistar (WBMSCs) and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SBMSCs) without hypertension. HG suppressed osteogenic differentiation in both the strains, observed by mineralization inhibition and decreased levels of the osteogenic markers Runx2, osterix, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein, compared to osteogenic medium (OM) cells...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319166/long-non-coding-rna-tcons_00041960-enhances-osteogenesis-and-inhibits-adipogenesis-of-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-by-targeting-mir-204-5p-and-mir-125a-3p
#6
Guowei Shang, Yadong Wang, Yan Xu, Shanfeng Zhang, Xiaoya Sun, Hongya Guan, Xuefeng Zhao, Yisheng Wang, Yuebai Li, Guoqiang Zhao
A growing number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to be involved in diverse biological processes such as cell cycle regulation, embryonic development, and cell differentiation. However, limited knowledge is available concerning the underlying mechanisms of lncRNA functions. In this study, we found down-regulation of TCONS_00041960 during adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of glucocorticoid-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Furthermore, up-regulation of TCONS_00041960 promoted expression of osteogenic genes Runx2, osterix, and osteocalcin, and anti-adipogenic gene glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311669/adipocyte-activated-oxidative-and-er-stress-pathways-promote-tumor-survival-in-bone-via-upregulation-of-heme-oxygenase-1-and-survivin
#7
Mackenzie K Herroon, Erandi Rajagurubandara, Jonathan D Diedrich, Elisabeth I Heath, Izabela Podgorski
Metastatic tumor cells engage the local tumor microenvironment and activate specific pro-survival mechanisms to thrive and progress in the harsh bone marrow niche. Here we show that the major contributors to the survival of carcinoma cells that have colonized the bone marrow are the adipocyte-induced oxidative stress and ER stress pathways. We demonstrate that upon exposure to adipocyte-rich environments in vitro or in vivo, bone-trophic prostate and breast tumor cells upregulate the oxidative stress enzyme, HO-1...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311623/basal-p53-expression-is-indispensable-for-mesenchymal-stem-cell-integrity
#8
Siddaraju V Boregowda, Veena Krishnappa, Jacqueline Strivelli, Christopher L Haga, Cori N Booker, Donald G Phinney
Marrow-resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) serve as a functional component of the perivascular niche that regulates hematopoiesis. They also represent the main source of bone formed in adult bone marrow, and their bifurcation to osteoblast and adipocyte lineages plays a key role in skeletal homeostasis and aging. Although the tumor suppressor p53 also functions in bone organogenesis, homeostasis, and neoplasia, its role in MSCs remains poorly described. Herein, we examined the normal physiological role of p53 in primary MSCs cultured under physiologic oxygen levels...
January 8, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306094/simultaneous-three-dimensional-visualization-of-mineralized-and-soft-skeletal-tissues-by-a-novel-microct-contrast-agent-with-polyoxometalate-structure
#9
Greet Kerckhofs, Steve Stegen, Nick van Gastel, Annelies Sap, Guillaume Falgayrac, Guillaume Penel, Marjorie Durand, Frank P Luyten, Liesbet Geris, Katleen Vandamme, Tatjana Parac-Vogt, Geert Carmeliet
Biological tissues have a complex and heterogeneous 3D structure, which is only partially revealed by standard histomorphometry in 2D. We here present a novel chemical compound for contrast-enhanced microfocus computed tomography (CE-CT), a Hafnium-based Wells-Dawson polyoxometalate (Hf-POM), which allows simultaneous 3D visualization of mineralized and non-mineralized skeletal tissues, such as mineralized bone and bone marrow vasculature and adipocytes. We validated the novel contrast agent, which has a neutral pH in solution, by detailed comparison with (immuno)histology on murine long bones as blueprint, and showed that Hf-POM-based CE-CT can be used for virtual 3D histology...
December 22, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298881/multiple-intracellular-signaling-pathways-orchestrate-adipocytic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-stromal-stem-cells
#10
Dalia Ali, Sarah Abuelreich, Nora Alkeraishan, Najla Bin Shwish, Rimi Hamam, Moustapha Kassem, Musaad Alfayez, Abdullah Aldahmash, Nehad M Alajez
Bone marrow adipocyte formation plays a role in bone homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. However, the transcriptional landscape and signaling pathways associated with adipocyte lineage commitment and maturation are not fully delineated. Thus, we performed global gene expression profiling during adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) and identified 2,589 upregulated and 2,583 down regulated mRNA transcripts. Pathway analysis on the upregulated gene list untraveled enrichment in multiple signaling pathways including insulin receptor signaling, focal Adhesion, metapathway  biotransformation, a number of metabolic pathways e...
January 3, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296822/bone-marrow-sites-differently-imprint-dormancy-and-chemoresistance-to-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#11
Xavier Cahu, Julien Calvo, Sandrine Poglio, Nais Prade, Benoit Colsch, Marie-Laure Arcangeli, Thierry Leblanc, Arnaud Petit, Frederic Baleydier, Andre Baruchel, Judith Landman-Parker, Christophe Junot, Jerome Larghero, Paola Ballerini, Eric Delabesse, Benjamin Uzan, Francoise Pflumio
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) expands in various bone marrow (BM) sites of the body. We investigated whether different BM sites could differently modulate T-ALL propagation using in vivo animal models. We observed that mouse and human T-ALL develop slowly in the BM of tail vertebrae compared with the BM from thorax vertebrae. T-ALL recovered from tail BM displays lower cell-surface marker expression and decreased metabolism and cell-cycle progression, demonstrating a dormancy phenotype. Functionally, tail-derived T-ALL exhibit a deficient short-term ex vivo growth and a delayed in vivo propagation...
September 12, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274248/stem-cell-education-for-medical-students-at-tongji-university-primary-cell-culture-and-directional-differentiation-of-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Caixia Jin, Haibin Tian, Jiao Li, Song Jia, Siguang Li, Guo-Tong Xu, Lei Xu, Lixia Lu
Stem cells are cells that can self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types under certain conditions. Stem cells have great potential in regenerative medicine and cell therapy for the treatment of certain diseases. To deliver knowledge about this frontier in science and technology to medical undergraduate students, we designed an innovative practical experiment for freshmen in their second semester. The lab exercise focused on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) isolation, cell culture and differentiation, and it aimed to help students master the aseptic techniques for cell culture, the basic methods and procedures for the primary culture and passage of BMSCs, the basic procedure for the directional differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes and their subsequent identification by oil-red-O staining...
December 23, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258874/is-fatty-acid-composition-of-human-bone-marrow-significant-to-bone-health
#13
Ana María Pino, J Pablo Rodríguez
The bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is a conserved component of the marrow microenvironment, providing storage and release of energy and stabilizing the marrow extent. Also, it is recognized both the amount and quality of BMAT are relevant to preserve the functional relationships between BMAT, bone, and blood cell production. In this article we ponder the information supporting the tenet that the quality of BMAT is relevant to bone health. In the human adult the distribution of BMAT is heterogeneous over the entire skeleton, and both BMAT accumulation and bone loss come about with aging in healthy populations...
December 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249357/il-10-signaling-remodels-adipose-chromatin-architecture-to-limit-thermogenesis-and-energy-expenditure
#14
Prashant Rajbhandari, Brandon J Thomas, An-Chieh Feng, Cynthia Hong, Jiexin Wang, Laurent Vergnes, Tamer Sallam, Bo Wang, Jaspreet Sandhu, Marcus M Seldin, Aldons J Lusis, Loren G Fong, Melanie Katz, Richard Lee, Stephen G Young, Karen Reue, Stephen T Smale, Peter Tontonoz
Signaling pathways that promote adipose tissue thermogenesis are well characterized, but the limiters of energy expenditure are largely unknown. Here, we show that ablation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 improves insulin sensitivity, protects against diet-induced obesity, and elicits the browning of white adipose tissue. Mechanistic studies define bone marrow cells as the source of the IL-10 signal and adipocytes as the target cell type mediating these effects. IL-10 receptor alpha is highly enriched in mature adipocytes and is induced in response to differentiation, obesity, and aging...
December 8, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236047/hasc-and-dfat-multipotent-stem-cells-for-regenerative-medicine-a-comparison-of-their-potential-differentiation-in-vitro
#15
Marco Saler, Laura Caliogna, Laura Botta, Francesco Benazzo, Federica Riva, Giulia Gastaldi
Adipose tissue comprises both adipose and non-adipose cells such as mesenchymal stem cells. These cells show a surface antigenic profile similar to that of bone-marrow-derived MSC. The cells derived from the dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes (DFAT) are another cell population with characteristics of stemness. The aim of this study is to provide evidence of the stemness, proliferation, and differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASC) and DFAT obtained from human subcutaneous AT and evaluate their potential use in regenerative medicine...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231967/therapeutic-potential-of-porcine-bronchoalveolar-fluid-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-a-pig-model-of-lps-induced-ali
#16
Mahesh Khatri, Levi Arthur Richardson
In this study, we isolated mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) from broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BAL) of 2-6 week-old commercial pigs. BAL-MSCs displayed fibroblastic morphology and possessed self-renewal properties. Similar to bone-marrow MSCs, BAL-MSCs expressed mesenchymal markers and both cell types lacked the expression of hematopoetic markers. BAL-MSCs, when cultured in differentiation induction media, differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. Next, we examined if BAL-MSCs have the ability to treat lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in a pig model...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230039/gli1-identifies-osteogenic-progenitors-for-bone-formation-and-fracture-repair
#17
Yu Shi, Guangxu He, Wen-Chih Lee, Jennifer A McKenzie, Matthew J Silva, Fanxin Long
Bone formation in mammals requires continuous production of osteoblasts throughout life. A common molecular marker for all osteogenic mesenchymal progenitors has not been identified. Here, by lineage-tracing experiments in fetal or postnatal mice, we discover that Gli1+ cells progressively produce osteoblasts in all skeletal sites. Most notably, in postnatal growing mice, the Gli1+ cells residing immediately beneath the growth plate, termed here "metaphyseal mesenchymal progenitors" (MMPs), are essential for cancellous bone formation...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228439/beneficial-effects-of-low-level-laser-irradiation-on-senile-osteoporosis-in-rats
#18
C-T Zhu, T Li, P Zhang, M Zou, Q Guo, X-W Qu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on bone mineral density (BMD), bone structures, bone biomechanical properties and bone metabolism in senile osteoporosis, and to explore a relatively more secure and effective way to prevent and treat osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats at different age stages (4 months old, 12 months old and 20 months old) were selected and randomly divided into six groups...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227527/m2-muscarinic-receptor-activation-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-migration-of-rat-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#19
Roberta Piovesana, Simona Melfi, Mario Fiore, Valerio Yi, Ada Maria Tata
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as stromal mesenchymal stem cells, are multipotent cells, which can be found in many tissues and organs as bone marrow, adipose tissue and other tissues. In particular MSCs derived from Adipose tissue (ADSCs) are the most frequently used in regenerative medicine because they are easy to source, rapidly expandable in culture and excellent differentiation potential into adipocytes, chondrocytes and other cell types. Acetylcholine (ACh), is one of the most important neurotransmitter in central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), playing important roles also in non-neural tissue, but its functions in MSCs are still not investigated...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211319/clinical-implications-of-bone-marrow-adiposity
#20
REVIEW
Annegreet G Veldhuis-Vlug, Clifford J Rosen
Marrow adipocytes, collectively termed marrow adipose tissue (MAT), reside in the bone marrow in close contact to bone cells and hematopoietic cells. Marrow adipocytes arise from the mesenchymal stem cell and share their origin with the osteoblastst. Shifts in the lineage allocation of the mesenchymal stromal cell could potentially explain the association between increased MAT and increased fracture risk in diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, anorexia nervosa and diabetes. Functionally, marrow adipocytes secrete adipokines, such as adiponectin, and cytokines, such as RANK-ligand and stem cell factor...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
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