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Bone marrow adipocytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229424/three-dimensional-printed-scaffolds-with-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-for-rabbit-mandibular-reconstruction-and-engineering
#1
Dongdong Fang, Michael Roskies, Mohamed-Nur Abdallah, Mohammed Bakkar, Jack Jordan, Li-Chieh Lin, Faleh Tamimi, Simon D Tran
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) derived from both the bone marrow and adipose tissue possess the ability to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, regulate the immune function by secreting numerous bioactive paracrine factors, and hold great potential in cell therapy and tissue engineering. When combined with three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds, MSC can be used for bone defect reconstruction and engineering. This protocol describes the isolation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSC) and adipose-tissue derived stem cells (ADSC) from rabbits for subsequent seeding on tissue-engineered 3D-printed scaffolds and transplantation into a rabbit-model with the goal of repairing large osseous mandibular defects (one quarter of the lower jaw is removed surgically)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229360/thyroid-hormone-acting-via-tr%C3%AE-induces-expression-of-browning-genes-in-mouse-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue
#2
Richard C Lindsey, Subburaman Mohan
PURPOSE: Mutant hypothyroid mouse models have recently shown that thyroid hormone is critical for skeletal development during an important prepubertal growth period. Additionally, thyroid hormone negatively regulates total body fat, consistent with the well-established effects of thyroid hormone on energy and fat metabolism. Since bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells differentiate into both adipocytes and osteoblasts and a relationship between bone marrow adipogenesis and osteogenesis has been predicted, we hypothesized thyroid hormone deficiency during the postnatal growth period increases marrow adiposity in mice...
February 22, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228268/er-stress-protein-chop-mediates-insulin-resistance-by-modulating-adipose-tissue-macrophage-polarity
#3
Toru Suzuki, Junhong Gao, Yasushi Ishigaki, Keiichi Kondo, Shojiro Sawada, Tomohito Izumi, Kenji Uno, Keizo Kaneko, Sohei Tsukita, Kei Takahashi, Atsuko Asao, Naoto Ishii, Junta Imai, Tetsuya Yamada, Seiichi Oyadomari, Hideki Katagiri
Obesity represents chronic inflammatory states promoted by pro-inflammatory M1-macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue (WAT), thereby inducing insulin resistance. Herein, we demonstrate the importance of an ER stress protein, CHOP, in determining adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarity and systemic insulin sensitivity. A high-fat diet (HFD) enhances ER stress with CHOP upregulation in adipocytes. CHOP deficiency prevents HFD-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance with ATM M2 predomination and Th2 cytokine upregulation in WAT...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218738/adipogenic-niches-for-melanoma-cell-colonization-and-growth-in-bone-marrow
#4
Juan Wang, Guang-Liang Chen, Shan Cao, Ming-Chun Zhao, Yong-Qing Liu, Xiao-Xiang Chen, Cheng Qian
Bone marrow (BM) adipocytes are abundant in BM and may be involved in the process of bone metastasis. However, their behaviors in metastatic BM niches during bone metastasis have not been fully explored. In this study, intracardiac transplantation of B16-F10 melanoma cells into immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice was performed. Tibial marrow sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) and analyzed using a histomorphometric system...
February 20, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217782/receptor-for-hyaluronan-mediated-motility-rhamm-hmmr-is-a-novel-target-for-promoting-subcutaneous-adipogenesis
#5
S B Bahrami, C Tolg, T Peart, C Symonette, M Veiseh, J U Umoh, D W Holdsworth, J B McCarthy, L G Luyt, M J Bissell, A Yazdani, E A Turley
Hyaluronan, CD44 and the Receptor for Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility (RHAMM, gene name HMMR) regulate stem cell differentiation including mesenchymal progenitor differentiation. Here, we show that CD44 expression is required for subcutaneous adipogenesis, whereas RHAMM expression suppresses this process. We designed RHAMM function blocking peptides to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis as a clinical and tissue engineering tool. Adipogenic RHAMM peptides were identified by screening for their ability to promote adipogenesis in culture assays using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, mouse pre-adipocyte cell lines and primary human subcutaneous pre-adipocytes...
February 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211481/effects-of-strength-training-on-osteogenic-differentiation-and-bone-strength-in-aging-female-wistar-rats
#6
Monique Patricio Singulani, Camila Tami Stringhetta-Garcia, Leandro Figueiredo Santos, Samuel Rodrigues Lourenço Morais, Mário Jefferson Quirino Louzada, Sandra Helena Penha Oliveira, Antonio Hernandes Chaves Neto, Rita Cássia Menegati Dornelles
The effects of strength training (ST) on the mechanical bone strength and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) from adult, aged and exercised aged rats were determined. The exercised aged animals displayed higher values of areal bone mineral density, compression test, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and biological mineralization, while oil red O staining for adipocytes was lower. ST increased gene expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx) as well as bone matrix protein expression, and reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ)...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204811/isopsoralen-mediated-suppression-of-bone-marrow-adiposity-and-attenuation-of-the-adipogenic-commitment-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Jian Wang, Sheng-Fa Li, Ting Wang, Chun-Han Sun, Liang Wang, Min-Jun Huang, Jian Chen, Shao-Wei Zheng, Nan Wang, Ying-Jun Zhang, Tian-Yu Chen
Osteoporosis (OP) increases the risk of bone fractures and other complications, and is thus a major clinical problem. In this study, we examined the effect of isopsoralen on the differentiation of bone-derived marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into osteoblasts and adipocytes, as well as bone formation under osteoporotic conditions. Primary femoral BMSCs isolated from C57BL/6 mice were used to evaluate the isopsoralen-mediated regulation of the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) during osteogenesis 2 weeks...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194019/il-25-stimulates-m2-macrophage-polarization-and-thereby-promotes-mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-and-lipolysis-in-adipose-tissues-against-obesity
#8
Juan Feng, Lingyi Li, Zhiying Ou, Qiao Li, Baoyong Gong, Zhenxian Zhao, Weiwei Qi, Ti Zhou, Jun Zhong, Weibin Cai, Xia Yang, Aiping Zhao, Guoquan Gao, Zhonghan Yang
Obesity and associated metabolic diseases are characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammatory state with the infiltration of many inflammatory cells, especially macrophages. Immune molecules, including some cytokines, have a close relationship with metabolism. Interleukin (IL)-25 is a member of the IL-17 cytokine family that can regulate macrophages and alleviate some metabolic dysfunction; however, its role and mechanisms in lipid metabolism remain to be extensively clarified. Human serum and liver biopsy specimens, high-fat diet-induced obesity mice and DB/DB (Lepr-/-) animal models were used to examine IL-25 expression in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD)...
February 13, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174669/cell-therapy-for-liver-disease-using-bioimaging-rats
#9
REVIEW
Junko Haga, Shin Enosawa, Eiji Kobayashi
Advances in stem cell research suggest that cell therapy is a potential alternative to liver transplantation. The use of individualized and minimally invasive cell therapy is desirable to avoid rejection and reduce patient burden. While allo-hepatocyte transplantation has been performed for metabolic hepatic disease, auto-bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has shifted toward mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation for liver cirrhosis. In this article, an overview of cell transplantation research for liver disease is provided through our recent rat studies...
January 8, 2017: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173811/marrow-adipocytes-inhibit-the-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-osteoblasts-via-suppressing-bmp-signaling
#10
Basem M Abdallah
BACKGROUND: Reduced bone formation is associated with increased bone marrow fat in many bone-loss related diseases including aging, post-menopause, and anorexia nervosa. Several lines of evidence suggested the regulation of osteogenesis and adipogenesis of the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal (skeletal) stem cells (BMSCs) by paracrine mediators. This study aimed to investigate the impact of adipocytes-secreted factors on the cell proliferation and osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs. METHODS: Serum free conditioned medium (CM-Adipo) was collected from stromal ST2 cells-derived adipocytes...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167238/serum-from-postmenopausal-women-treated-with-a-by-product-of-olive-oil-extraction-process-stimulates-osteoblastogenesis-and-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-msc
#11
Antonio Casado-Díaz, Isaac Túnez-Fiñana, José María Mata-Granados, María Victoria Ruiz-Méndez, Gabriel Dorado, María Concepción Romero-Sánchez, Cristina Navarro-Valverde, José Manuel Quesada-Gómez
Aging may enhance both oxidative stress and bone-marrow mesenchymal stem-cell (MSC) differentiation into adipocytes. That reduces osteoblastogenesis, thus favoring bone-mass loss and fracture, representing an important worldwide health-issue, mainly in countries with aging populations. Intake of antioxidant products may help to retain bone-mass density. Interestingly, a novel olive-pomace physical treatment to generate olive oil also yields by-products rich in functional antioxidants. Thus, diet of postmenopausal women was supplemented for two months with one of such by-products (distillate 6; D6), being rich in squalene...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163952/unintended-targeting-of-dmp1-cre-reveals-a-critical-role-for-bmpr1a-signaling-in-the-gastrointestinal-mesenchyme-of-adult-mice
#12
Joohyun Lim, Joseph Burclaff, Guangxu He, Jason C Mills, Fanxin Long
Cre/loxP technology has been widely used to study cell type-specific functions of genes. Proper interpretation of such data critically depends on a clear understanding of the tissue specificity of Cre expression. The Dmp1-Cre mouse, expressing Cre from a 14-kb DNA fragment of the mouse Dmp1 gene, has become a common tool for studying gene function in osteocytes, but the presumed cell specificity is yet to be fully established. By using the Ai9 reporter line that expresses a red fluorescent protein upon Cre recombination, we find that in 2-month-old mice, Dmp1-Cre targets not only osteocytes within the bone matrix but also osteoblasts on the bone surface and preosteoblasts at the metaphyseal chondro-osseous junction...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162997/legumain-regulates-differentiation-fate-of-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-and-is-altered-in-postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#13
Abbas Jafari, Diyako Qanie, Thomas L Andersen, Yuxi Zhang, Li Chen, Benno Postert, Stuart Parsons, Nicholas Ditzel, Sundeep Khosla, Harald Thidemann Johansen, Per Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Jean-Marie Delaisse, Basem M Abdallah, Daniel Hesselson, Rigmor Solberg, Moustapha Kassem
Secreted factors are a key component of stem cell niche and their dysregulation compromises stem cell function. Legumain is a secreted cysteine protease involved in diverse biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that legumain regulates lineage commitment of human bone marrow stromal cells and that its expression level and cellular localization are altered in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients. As shown by genetic and pharmacological manipulation, legumain inhibited osteoblast (OB) differentiation and in vivo bone formation through degradation of the bone matrix protein fibronectin...
February 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162969/parathyroid-hormone-directs-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-cell-fate
#14
Yi Fan, Jun-Ichi Hanai, Phuong T Le, Ruiye Bi, David Maridas, Victoria DeMambro, Carolina A Figueroa, Serkan Kir, Xuedong Zhou, Michael Mannstadt, Roland Baron, Roderick T Bronson, Mark C Horowitz, Joy Y Wu, John P Bilezikian, David W Dempster, Clifford J Rosen, Beate Lanske
Intermittent PTH administration builds bone mass and prevents fractures, but its mechanism of action is unclear. We genetically deleted the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R) in mesenchymal stem cells using Prx1Cre and found low bone formation, increased bone resorption, and high bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT). Bone marrow adipocytes traced to Prx1 and expressed classic adipogenic markers and high receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (Rankl) expression. RANKL levels were also elevated in bone marrow supernatant and serum, but undetectable in other adipose depots...
January 25, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148268/mesenchymal-stem-cells-key-players-in-cancer-progression
#15
REVIEW
Sarah M Ridge, Francis J Sullivan, Sharon A Glynn
Tumour progression is dependent on the interaction between tumour cells and cells of the surrounding microenvironment. The tumour is a dynamic milieu consisting of various cell types such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, cells of the immune system and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs are multipotent stromal cells that are known to reside in various areas such as the bone marrow, fat and dental pulp. MSCs have been found to migrate towards inflammatory sites and studies have shown that they also migrate towards and incorporate into the tumour...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131135/bone-fat-interaction
#16
REVIEW
Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Clifford J Rosen
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is a recently identified endocrine organ capable of modulating a host of responses. Given its intimate proximity to the bone microenvironment, the impact marrow adipocytes exert on bone has attracted much interest and scientific inquiry. Although many questions and controversies remain about marrow adipocytes, multiple conditions/disease states in which alterations occur have provided clues about their function. The consensus is that MAT is associated inversely with bone density and quality...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130569/histone-demethylase-utx-counteracts-glucocorticoid-deregulation-of-osteogenesis-by-modulating-histone-dependent-and-independent-pathways
#17
Feng-Sheng Wang, Wei-Shiung Lian, Mel S Lee, Wen-Tsan Weng, Ying-Hsien Huang, Yu-Shan Chen, Yi-Chih Sun, Shing-Long Wu, Pei-Chin Chuang, Jih-Yang Ko
: Excess glucocorticoid administration impairs osteogenic activities, which raises the risk of osteoporotic disorders. Epigenetic methylation of DNA and histone regulates the lineage commitment of progenitor cells. This study was undertaken to delineate the actions of histone lysine demethylase 6a (UTX) with regard to the glucocorticoid impediment of osteogenic differentiation. Osteogenic progenitor cells responded to supraphysiological glucocorticoid by elevating CpG dinucleotide methylation proximal to transcription start sites within Runx2 and osterix promoters and Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) expression concomitant with low UTX expression...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122918/nuclear-factor-i-c-reciprocally-regulates-adipocyte-and-osteoblast-differentiation-via-control-of-canonical-wnt-signaling
#18
Jie Zhou, Shan Wang, Qi Qi, Xiaoyue Yang, Endong Zhu, Hairui Yuan, Xuemei Li, Ying Liu, Xiaoxia Li, Baoli Wang
Nuclear factor I-C (NFIC) has recently been identified as an important player in osteogenesis and bone homeostasis in vivo However, the molecular mechanisms involved have yet to be defined. In the current study, Nfic expression was altered in primary marrow stromal cells and established progenitor lines after adipogenic and osteogenic treatment. Overexpression of Nfic in stromal cells ST2, mesenchymal cells C3H10T1/2, and primary marrow stromal cells inhibited adipogenic differentiation, whereas it promoted osteogenic differentiation...
January 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109148/-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-apoptosis-and-inhibit-proliferation-and-migration-of-rsc96-cells
#19
Yongbin Ma, Suohua Ge, Dan Zhou, Huanyan Zhang, Luyang Sun, Xuefeng Wang, Jianhua Su
Objective To investigate the effect of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the proliferation and migration of rat RSC96 Schwann cells in vitro. Methods BMSCs of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were isolated by bone marrow cell adherent method. The morphology of the third generation of BMSCs was observed by inverted microscopy. The cell surface antigen makers CD19, CD34, CD73, CD105 were detected by flow cytometry. The third-passage BMSCs differentiated into osteoblasts and adipocytes after exposed to bone-inducing and lipid-inducing media for 3 and 2 weeks, respectively, and then were identified by oil red O and alkaline phosphatase staining...
February 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108519/survival-of-acute-monocytic-leukemia-cells-is-driven-by-fatty-acid-oxidation-mediated-activation-of-ampk-in-bone-marrow-adipocytes
#20
Yoko Tabe, Shinichi Yamamoto, Kaori Saitoh, Kazumasa Sekihara, Norikazu Monma, Kazuho Ikeo, Kaoru Mogushi, Masato Shikami, Vivian R Ruvolo, Jo Ishizawa, Numsen Hail, Saiko Kazuno, Mamoru Igarashi, Hiromichi Matsushita, Yasunari Yamanaka, Hajime Arai, Isao Nagaoka, Takashi Miida, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Marina Konopleva, Michael Andreeff
Leukemia cells in the bone marrow (BM) must meet the biochemical demands of increased cell proliferation by continually adapting to fluctuations in nutrient and oxygen availability. Thus, targeting metabolic abnormalities in leukemia cells located in the BM may provide an effective therapeutic strategy. In this study, we report the discovery of a metabolic role for BM adipocytes in supporting the growth of leukemic blasts. Preventing nutrient starvation-induced apoptosis of leukemic cells by BM adipocytes, as well as the metabolic and molecular mechanisms involved in this process, were investigated using various analytical techniques...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
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