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Bone marrow adipocytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805158/pp2a-regulatory-subunit-b55%C3%AE-is-a-gatekeeper-of-osteoblast-maturation-and-lineage-maintenance
#1
Anastassia Serguienko, Robert Hanes, Iwona Grad, Meng-Yu Wang, Ola Myklebost, Else Munthe
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM MSCs) mediate skeletal remodeling by differentiating into osteoblasts. However, this remodeling is impaired with aging as well as following long-term glucocorticoid treatment, resulting in osteoporosis. Here we report a novel factor of osteoblast differentiation - PP2A regulatory subunit B55γ. We show that B55γ is induced by glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in human primary BM MSCs during differentiation to osteoblast, but not to adipocytes, and is required for osteoblast morphogenesis and mineralization...
August 12, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795956/physical-signals-may-affect-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation-via-epigenetic-controls
#2
Janet Rubin, Maya Styner, Gunes Uzer
Marrow mesenchymal stem cells supply bone osteoblasts and adipocytes. Exercise effects to increase bone and decrease fat involve transfer of signals from the cytoplasm into the nucleus to regulate gene expression. We propose that exercise control of stem cell fate relies on structural connections that terminate in the nucleus and involve intranuclear actin structures that regulate epigenetic gene expression.
August 8, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791835/ifn-%C3%AE-induces-senescence-like-characteristics-in-mouse-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Zhou Xin Yang, Gen Xiang Mao, Jing Zhang, Xiao Lin Wen, Bing Bing Jia, Yi Zhong Bao, Xiao Ling Lv, Ya Zhen Wang, Guo Fu Wang
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are considered promising in tissue repair and regeneration medicine due to their proliferation and differentiation ability. Many properties of MSC are affected by cytokines, and IFN-γ has been shown to regulate MSC in many aspects. Senescence affects the proliferation, differentiation and cytokine secretion of MSC. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of IFN-γ on the senescence-associated properties of MSC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The MSC used in our study were isolated from the bone marrow (BM) of mice...
March 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790502/actin-up-in-the-nucleus-regulation-of-actin-structures-modulates-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation
#4
Janet Rubin, Buer Sen
Stem cells respond to environmental signals that induce their differentiation to cells that make up specialized tissues and organs. Our laboratory has focused on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that supply bone osteoblasts and marrow adipocytes, an output that appears to be reciprocal. Case in point: exercise promotes osteogenesis and bone formation, and inhibits marrow adipose accrual. A mechanically induced signal pathway concentrating on preserving β-catenin also causes increased structure of the actin cytoskeleton, both of which inhibit adipogenesis...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771086/exposure-to-low-dose-x-ray-radiation-alters-bone-progenitor-cells-and-bone-microarchitecture
#5
Florence Lima, Joshua M Swift, Elisabeth S Greene, Matthew R Allen, David A Cunningham, Leslie A Braby, Susan A Bloomfield
Exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation during medical treatment exerts well-documented deleterious effects on bone health, reducing bone density and contributing to bone growth retardation in young patients and spontaneous fracture in postmenopausal women. However, the majority of human radiation exposures occur in a much lower dose range than that used in the radiation oncology clinic. Furthermore, very few studies have examined the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on bone integrity and results have been inconsistent...
August 3, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765650/implication-of-redd1-in-the-activation-of-inflammatory-pathways
#6
Faustine Pastor, Karine Dumas, Marie-Astrid Barthélémy, Claire Regazzetti, Noémie Druelle, Pascal Peraldi, Mireille Cormont, Jean-François Tanti, Sophie Giorgetti-Peraldi
In response to endotoxemia, the organism triggers an inflammatory response, and the visceral adipose tissue represents a major source of proinflammatory cytokines. The regulation of inflammation response in the adipose tissue is thus of crucial importance. We demonstrated that Regulated in development and DNA damage response-1 (REDD1) is involved in inflammation. REDD1 expression was increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) and in epidydimal adipose tissue...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758904/parathyroid-hormone-regulates-fates-of-murine-osteoblast-precursors-in-vivo
#7
Deepak H Balani, Noriaki Ono, Henry M Kronenberg
Teriparatide, a recombinant form of parathyroid hormone (PTH), is the only approved treatment for osteoporosis that increases the rate of bone formation. Teriparatide increases osteoblast numbers by suppressing osteoblast apoptosis and activating bone-lining cells. No direct evidence for teriparatide's actions on early cells of the osteoblast lineage has been demonstrated. Here, we have employed a lineage-tracing strategy that uses a tamoxifen-dependent, promoter-driven cre to mark early cells of the osteoblast lineage in adult mice...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736532/a-memory-of-early-life-physical-activity-is-retained-in-bone-marrow-of-male-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#8
Dharani M Sontam, Mark H Vickers, Elwyn C Firth, Justin M O'Sullivan
Studies have reported opposing effects of high-fat (HF) diet and mechanical stimulation on lineage commitment of the bone marrow stem cells. Yet, how bone marrow modulates its gene expression in response to the combined effects of mechanical loading and a HF diet has not been addressed. We investigated whether early-life (before onset of sexual maturity at 6 weeks of age) voluntary physical activity can modulate the effects of a HF diet on male Sprague Dawley rats. In the bone marrow, early-life HF diet resulted in adipocyte hypertrophy and a pro-inflammatory and pro-adipogenic gene expression profile...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733136/unexpected-bone-formation-produced-by-rankl-blockade
#9
REVIEW
Sergio Portal-Núñez, Aranzazu Mediero, Pedro Esbrit, Olga Sánchez-Pernaute, Raquel Largo, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont
Denosumab (Dmab) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks RANKL (receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand), thereby exerting a potent bone antiresorptive action. Dmab treatment leads to a dramatic and sustained increase in bone mass through mechanisms that are currently under debate. It is also a matter of controversy whether this potent action of Dmab could lead to intrabone dystrophic mineralization. Recent research has uncovered a possible anabolic role of Dmab involving RANKL-dependent reverse signaling in osteoblasts, and that bone marrow adipocytes can modulate osteoclastogenesis through the production of RANKL...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732776/rad-gtpase-is-essential-for-the-regulation-of-bone-density-and-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#10
Catherine N Withers, Drew M Brown, Innocent Byiringiro, Matthew R Allen, Keith W Condon, Jonathan Satin, Douglas A Andres
The small GTP-binding protein Rad (RRAD, Ras associated with diabetes) is the founding member of the RGK (Rad, Rem, Rem2, and Gem/Kir) family that regulates cardiac voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel function. However, its cellular and physiological functions outside of the heart remain to be elucidated. Here we report that Rad GTPase function is required for normal bone homeostasis in mice, as Rad deletion results in significantly lower bone mass and higher bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) levels. Dynamic histomorphometry in vivo and primary calvarial osteoblast assays in vitro demonstrate that bone formation and osteoblast mineralization rates are depressed, while in vitro osteoclast differentiation is increased, in the absence of Rad...
July 18, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714970/bone-marrow-adipocytes-promote-the-regeneration-of-stem-cells-and-haematopoiesis-by-secreting-scf
#11
Bo O Zhou, Hua Yu, Rui Yue, Zhiyu Zhao, Jonathan J Rios, Olaia Naveiras, Sean J Morrison
Endothelial cells and leptin receptor(+) (LepR(+)) stromal cells are critical sources of haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche factors, including stem cell factor (SCF), in bone marrow. After irradiation or chemotherapy, these cells are depleted while adipocytes become abundant. We discovered that bone marrow adipocytes synthesize SCF. They arise from Adipoq-Cre/ER(+) progenitors, which represent ∼5% of LepR(+) cells, and proliferate after irradiation. Scf deletion using Adipoq-Cre/ER inhibited haematopoietic regeneration after irradiation or 5-fluorouracil treatment, depleting HSCs and reducing mouse survival...
August 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714548/role-of-the-protease-corin-in-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Haibin Zhou, Jinsong Zhu, Meng Liu, Qingyu Wu, Ningzheng Dong
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potency to differentiate into chondrocytes, osteocytes and adipocytes. Corin is a cardiac protease that activates the natriuretic peptides, thereby regulating blood volume and pressure. In addition to the heart, corin gene up-regulation was reported in bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs that underwent osteogenic differentiation. To date, the biological significance of corin expression in MSC differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we isolated and cultured human bone marrow-derived MSCs that were capable of undergoing chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineage differentiation...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664842/difference-between-biomarkers-of-tibial-bone-marrow-and-adipose-tissue
#13
Ersin Kuyucu, Mehmet Erdil, Adnan Kara, Murat Bülbül
BACKGROUND: Stem cells, with their regeneration capacity, long-term viability, and differentiation characteristics, have indispensable biological properties. As described by Hauner and Grigoradis et al., mesenchymal stem cell originating from adipose or bone marrow can be differentiated into many tissues such as adipocyte, chondrocyte, myeloblast, and osteoblast. The aim of our study is to compare the use of adipose and tibial bone marrow derived stem cells for therapeutic purposes in orthopedic surgery, which has not been clearly evaluated in the literature to our knowledge and to also evaluate their use...
2017: SICOT-J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608812/quantification-of-bone-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-its-regulation-by-adipocyte-lipoprotein-lipase
#14
Alexander Bartelt, Till Koehne, Klaus Tödter, Rudolph Reimer, Brigitte Müller, Friederike Behler-Janbeck, Joerg Heeren, Ludger Scheja, Andreas Niemeier
Adipocytes are master regulators of energy homeostasis. Although the contributions of classical brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively) to glucose and fatty acid metabolism are well characterized, the metabolic role of adipocytes in bone marrow remains largely unclear. Here, we quantify bone fatty acid metabolism and its contribution to systemic nutrient handling in mice. Whereas in parts of the skeleton the specific amount of nutrients taken-up from the circulation was lower than in other metabolically active tissues such as BAT or liver, the overall contribution of the skeleton as a whole organ was remarkable, placing it among the top organs involved in systemic glucose as well as fatty acid clearance...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598385/the-roles-of-long-non-protein-coding-rnas-in-osteo-adipogenic-lineage-commitment
#15
REVIEW
Hirotaka Yoshioka, Yuji Yoshiko
Osteoblasts and adipocytes share a common mesenchymal progenitor in the bone marrow. This implies that a reciprocal relationship exists between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Further, cells of osteoblast lineage transdifferentiate into adipocytes under some circumstances. Dysregulation of osteo-adipogenic fate-determination leads to bone diseases such as osteoporosis, accompanied by an increase in bone marrow adipose tissue. Thus, the fine-tuning of osteo-adipogenesis is necessary for bone homeostasis...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583105/characteristics-and-potentials-of-stem-cells-derived-from-human-degenerated-nucleus-pulposus-potential-for-regeneration-of-the-intervertebral-disc
#16
Xiao-Chuan Li, Yong Tang, Jian-Hong Wu, Pu-Shan Yang, De-Li Wang, Di-Ke Ruan
BACKGROUND: Eliminating the symptoms during treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is only a temporary solution that does not cure the underlying cause. A biological method to treat this disorder may be possible by the newly discovered nucleus pulposus derived stem cells (NPDCs). However, the uncertain characteristics and potential of NPDCs calls for a comprehensive study. METHODS: In the present study, nucleus pulposus samples were obtained from 5 patients with IVDD undergoing discectomy procedure and NPDCs were harvested using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) by the co-expression of GD2(+) and Tie2(+)...
June 5, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579880/expression-of-cd44-standard-form-and-variant-isoforms-in-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells
#17
Xiaofeng Wang, Zhenwu Du, Xiaojun Liu, Yang Song, Guizhen Zhang, Zhitao Wang, Qingyu Wang, Zhongli Gao, Yajun Wang, Wei Wang
Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (hBMSCs) can migrate from bone marrow to injured tissues, where they may differentiate into different types of new cells for replacement of dysfunctional cells. CD44 plays an important role in stem cell movement. The expression distribution of CD44 standard form (CD44S) and CD44 variants (CD44V) is closely related to cell movement and tissue migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expressions of CD44S and CD44V in hBMSCs. The hBMSCs from four human subjects were cultured in vitro...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579235/haematopoietic-tlr4-deletion-attenuates-perivascular-brown-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-atherosclerotic-mice
#18
Penghao Liu, Gaojian Huang, Zhiyong Cao, Qihai Xie, Tong Wei, Chenglin Huang, Qun Li, Mengwei Sun, Weili Shen, Pingjin Gao
AIMS: To investigate whether haematopoietic TLR4 deletion attenuates perivascular brown adipose tissue inflammation in atherosclerotic mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Experiments were performed using irradiated LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice with marrow from either TLR4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) or age-matched wild-type (WT) mice. After 12 weeks of being fed a high-cholesterol diet, TLR4(-/-)→LDLR(-/-) mice developed fewer atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta compared to WT→LDLR(-/-) mice...
June 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578832/a-biophysical-approach-to-quantify-skeletal-stem-cells-trans-differentiation-as-a-model-for-the-study-of-osteoporosis
#19
L Petecchia, F Viti, F Sbrana, M Vassalli, P Gavazzo
The stroma of human bone marrow contains a population of skeletal stem cells (hBM-MSC) which are common ancestors, among the others, of osteoblasts and adipocytes. It has been proposed that the imbalance between hBM-MSC osteogenesis and adipogenesis, which naturally accompanies bone marrow senescence, may contribute to the development of bone-associated diseases, like osteoporosis. The possibility to reproduce this mechanism in vitro has been demonstrated, providing a good model to disclose the details of the complex bone-fat generation homeostasis...
May 26, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575686/adipocytes-at-the-core-of-bone-function
#20
Gerald Grandl, Christian Wolfrum
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is a specialized adipose tissue with endocrine function found in bone marrow. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Ambrosi et al. (2017) identify a stem cell population in the bone marrow that can give rise to both osteogenic and adipogenic MAT precursors and is regulated by diet and aging and affects bone functionality.
June 1, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
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