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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485670/hermeneutic-caring-conversations-in-forensic-psychiatric-caring
#1
Kenneth Rydenlund, Unni Å Lindström, Arne Rehnsfeldt
BACKGROUND: In forensic psychiatric care, a hermeneutic caring conversation between caregivers and patients can improve health outcomes. The hermeneutic approach entails starting from the whole and involves openness for what is shown as well as paying attention to the different parts. One way to deepen these conversations is to take advantage of both the caregivers' and the patients' life experiences. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: The purpose of the study is to discuss and reflect on what hermeneutic caring conversations can mean for a deepened understanding of the movement in the health processes of patients in forensic care, patients who are in deep suffering...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471575/specific-ethical-codes-for-mental-health-care-professionals-do-we-need-to-annotate
#2
Tal Bergman-Levy, Oren Asman, Eyal Dahan, Binyamin Greenberg, Shmuel Hirshmann, Rael Strous
BACKGROUND: In Israel a general code of ethics exists for physicians, drafted by the Israel Medical Association. The question arises whether psychiatrists require a separate set of ethical guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To examine the positions of Israeli psychiatrists with regard to ethics in general and professional ethics in particular, and to explore opinions regarding a code of ethics or ethical guidelines for psychiatry.  Methods: A specially designed questionnaire was compiled and completed by psychiatrists recruited for the study...
August 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429964/global-mental-health-autonomy-and-medical-paternalism-reconstructing-the-french-ethical-tradition-in-psychiatry
#3
Tiago Pires Marques
In the last few decades, the definition of deontological ethics, a well-identified ethical territory in psychiatry, has been the object of increasing concerns. This has been the case in France, where claims of a specific ethical tradition in psychiatry have accompanied the institutionalization of psychiatric ethics and the perceived globalization of an Anglo-American model of mental health care. This study traces the history of the 'French ethical tradition in psychiatry' and its relationship with establishing institutional spaces for ethical decision-making...
April 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428048/multi-center-machine-learning-in-imaging-psychiatry-a-meta-model-approach
#4
Petr Dluhoš, Daniel Schwarz, Wiepke Cahn, Neeltje van Haren, René Kahn, Filip Španiel, Jiří Horáček, Tomáš Kašpárek, Hugo Schnack
One of the biggest problems in automated diagnosis of psychiatric disorders from medical images is the lack of sufficiently large samples for training. Sample size is especially important in the case of highly heterogeneous disorders such as schizophrenia, where machine learning models built on relatively low numbers of subjects may suffer from poor generalizability. Via multicenter studies and consortium initiatives researchers have tried to solve this problem by combining data sets from multiple sites. The necessary sharing of (raw) data is, however, often hindered by legal and ethical issues...
April 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417518/what-outcomes-do-dutch-healthcare-professionals-perceive-as-important-before-participation-in-moral-case-deliberation
#5
Janine de Snoo-Trimp, Guy Widdershoven, Mia Svantesson, Riekie de Vet, Bert Molewijk
BACKGROUND: There has been little attention paid to research on the outcomes of clinical ethics support (CES) or critical reflection on what constitutes a good CES outcome. Understanding how CES users perceive the importance of CES outcomes can contribute to a better understanding, use of and normative reflection on CES outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To describe the perceptions of Dutch healthcare professionals on important outcomes of moral case deliberation (MCD), prior to MCD participation, and to compare results between respondents...
May 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366896/banning-the-soviet-lobotomy-psychiatry-ethics-and-professional-politics-during-late-stalinism
#6
Benjamin Zajicek
This article examines how lobotomy came to be banned in the Soviet Union in 1950. The author finds that Soviet psychiatrists viewed lobotomy as a treatment of "last resort," and justified its use on the grounds that it helped make patients more manageable in hospitals and allowed some to return to work. Lobotomy was challenged by psychiatrists who saw mental illness as a "whole body" process and believed that injuries caused by lobotomy were therefore more significant than changes to behavior. Between 1947 and 1949, these theoretical and ethical debates within Soviet psychiatry became politicized...
2017: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344933/precision-medicine-the-golden-gate-for-detection-treatment-and-prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
H Hampel, S E O'Bryant, J I Castrillo, C Ritchie, K Rojkova, K Broich, N Benda, R Nisticò, R A Frank, B Dubois, V Escott-Price, S Lista
During this decade, breakthrough conceptual shifts have commenced to emerge in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recognizing risk factors and the non-linear dynamic continuum of complex pathophysiologies amongst a wide dimensional spectrum of multi-factorial brain proteinopathies/neurodegenerative diseases. As is the case in most fields of medicine, substantial advancements in detecting, treating and preventing AD will likely evolve from the generation and implementation of a systematic precision medicine strategy...
December 2016: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284098/harm-reduction-as-a-strategy-for-supporting-people-who-self-harm-on-mental-health-wards-the-views-and-experiences-of-practitioners
#8
Karen James, Isaac Samuels, Paul Moran, Duncan Stewart
BACKGROUND: Harm reduction has had positive outcomes for people using sexual health and substance misuse services. Clinical guidance recommends these approaches may be appropriately adopted by mental health practitioners when managing some people who self-harm. There has, however, been very little research in this area. METHODS: We explored practitioners' views of harm reduction as a strategy for supporting people who self-harm. The Self Harm Antipathy Scale (SHAS) was administered to a random sample of 395 mental health practitioners working on 31 wards in England, semi-structured interviews were then conducted with 18 survey respondents...
May 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216770/ethics-and-medical-practice-why-psychiatry-is-unique
#9
REVIEW
Navneet Sidhu, Jagannathan Srinivasraghavan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174594/preventing-involuntary-admissions-special-needs-for-distinct-patient-groups
#10
Knut Hoffmann, I S Haussleiter, F Illes, J Jendreyschak, A Diehl, B Emons, C Armgart, A Schramm, G Juckel
BACKGROUND: Coercive measures in psychiatry are a controversial topic and raise ethical, legal and clinical issues. Involuntary admission of patients is a long-lasting problem and indicates a problematic pathway to care situations within the community, largely because personal freedom is fundamentally covered by the UN declaration of human rights and the German constitution. METHODS: In this study, a survey on a large and comprehensive population of psychiatric in-patients in the eastern part of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, was carried out for the years 2004-2009, including 230...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167747/integrated-collaborative-care-teams-to-enhance-service-delivery-to-youth-with-mental-health-and-substance-use-challenges-protocol-for-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Joanna L Henderson, Amy Cheung, Kristin Cleverley, Gloria Chaim, Myla E Moretti, Claire de Oliveira, Lisa D Hawke, Andrew R Willan, David O'Brien, Olivia Heffernan, Tyson Herzog, Lynn Courey, Heather McDonald, Enid Grant, Peter Szatmari
INTRODUCTION: Among youth, the prevalence of mental health and addiction (MHA) disorders is roughly 20%, yet youth are challenged to access evidence-based services in a timely fashion. To address MHA system gaps, this study tests the benefits of an Integrated Collaborative Care Team (ICCT) model for youth with MHA challenges. A rapid, stepped-care approach geared to need in a youth-friendly environment is expected to result in better youth MHA outcomes. Moreover, the ICCT approach is expected to decrease service wait-times, be more youth-friendly and family-friendly, and be more cost-effective, providing substantial public health benefits...
February 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162776/the-future-of-psychiatry-brain-devices
#12
REVIEW
Jorge Alberto Costa E Silva, Ricardo Ewbank Steffen
Recent advances in deep brain stimulators and brain-machine interfaces have greatly expanded the possibilities of neuroprosthetics and neuromodulation. Together with advances in neuroengineering, nanotechnology, molecular biology and material sciences, it is now possible to address fundamental questions in neuroscience in new, more powerful ways. It is now possible to apply these new technologies in ways that range from augmenting and restoring function to neuromodulation modalities that treat neuropsychiatric disorders...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155298/use-of-physical-restraint-in-hospital-patients-a-descriptive-study-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-south-africa
#13
Sebastiana Z Kalula, Sabela G Petros
BACKGROUND: The use of physical restraint in patient management is a common and emotive issue, and has legal and ethical dimensions. OBJECTIVE: To document the prevalence of physical restraint use, patient characteristics associated with physical restraint use, and nurses' and doctors' knowledge and perceptions towards the practice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 572 patients, of whom 132 were physically restrained, was conducted in acute wards of a tertiary hospital...
November 10, 2016: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093938/capacity-and-consent
#14
Scott Lamont, Cameron Stewart, Mary Chiarella
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare practitioners have a legal, ethical and professional obligation to obtain patient consent for all healthcare treatments. There is increasing evidence which suggests dissonance and variation in practice in assessment of decision-making capacity and consent processes. AIMS: This study explores healthcare practitioners' knowledge and practices of assessing decision-making capacity and obtaining patient consent to treatment in the acute generalist setting...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064175/neuroimaging-of-inflammation-in-memory-and-related-other-disorders-nimrod-study-protocol-a-deep-phenotyping-cohort-study-of-the-role-of-brain-inflammation-in-dementia-depression-and-other-neurological-illnesses
#15
W Richard Bevan-Jones, Ajenthan Surendranathan, Luca Passamonti, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Robert Arnold, Elijah Mak, Li Su, Jonathan P Coles, Tim D Fryer, Young T Hong, Guy Williams, Franklin Aigbirhio, James B Rowe, John T O'Brien
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation of the central nervous system is increasingly regarded as having a role in cognitive disorders such as dementia and depression, but it is not clear how such inflammation relates to other aspects of neuropathology, structural and functional changes in the brain and symptoms (as assessed via clinical and neuropsychological assessment and MRI). This study will explore these pathophysiological mechanisms using positron emission tomography (PET) which allows in vivo imaging of inflammation, amyloid and τ deposition, together with neuropsychological profiling, MRI and peripheral biomarker analysis...
January 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060434/participatory-bioethics-research-and-its-social-impact-the-case-of-coercion-reduction-in-psychiatry
#16
Tineke A Abma, Yolande Voskes, Guy Widdershoven
In this article we address the social value of bioethics research and show how a participatory approach can achieve social impact for a wide audience of stakeholders, involving them in a process of joint moral learning. Participatory bioethics recognizes that research co-produced with stakeholders is more likely to have impact on healthcare practice. These approaches aim to engage multiple stakeholders and interested partners throughout the whole research process, including the framing of ideas and research questions, so that outcomes are tailored to the interests and context, and the type of impact stakeholders envisage...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029436/psychiatric-psychological-forensic-report-writing
#17
Gerald Young
Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018248/clinical-relevance-of-informal-coercion-in-psychiatric-treatment-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Florian Hotzy, Matthias Jaeger
INTRODUCTION: Although informal coercion is frequently applied in psychiatry, its use is discussed controversially. This systematic review aimed to summarize literature on attitudes toward informal coercion, its prevalence, and clinical effects. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, PsycINF, and Google Scholar was conducted. Publications were included if they reported original data describing patients' and clinicians' attitudes toward and prevalence rates or clinical effects of informal coercion...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009246/locating-risk-in-the-adolescent-brain-ethical-challenges-in-the-use-of-biomarkers-for-adolescent-health-and-social-policy
#19
Suparna Choudhury, Sheehan Moore
Technological developments in neuroscience over the last 20 years have generated excitement about the potential of neuroscientific insights for the understanding of and intervention in children's and adolescents' behavior. This article introduces some ways in which new results from developmental cognitive neuroscience have been appropriated in the context of adolescent mental health. We also consider social and interpersonal factors that drive the use of neurobiological markers of mental disorders in pediatric psychiatry...
December 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005647/the-ethical-use-of-mobile-health-technology-in-clinical-psychiatry
#20
John Torous, Laura Weiss Roberts
The rapid rise of mobile health technologies, such as smartphone apps and wearable sensors, presents psychiatry with new tools of potential value in caring for patients. Novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications of these technologies have been developed in private industry and utilized in mental health, although these methods do not yet constitute standard of care. In this article, we provide an ethical perspective on the practical use of this novel modality by psychiatrists. We propose that in the present context of limited scientific research and regulatory oversight, mobile technologies should serve to enhance the psychiatrist-patient relationship, rather than replace it, to minimize potential clinical and ethical harm to vulnerable patients...
January 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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