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psychiatry ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771102/-reclusion-and-physical-restraint-in-psychiatry-influencing-factors-and-alternatives
#1
Jérôme Morisset
Introduction and context: The use of reclusion and restraint is neither a recent practice nor a rare practice in psychiatric services. In France, the Controller General of Places of Deprivation of Liberty reported certain drifts in 2015. Since then, the public authorities have sought to frame this practice with the aim of limiting its use. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: The purpose of this study is to examine how, through a literature review, the topic of limitation of constraint measures and the definition of a future direction of research is discussed...
March 2018: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754706/ethics-committees-and-mental-health
#2
Carlos Enrique Yepes Delgado, Andrea Ocampo Montoya
Although research processes are covered by the objectivity of science, they are still influenced by the interests of those who conduct them. This is why high level committees have been tasked with defining the scope of the studies and performing a thorough assessment of them, since these imply great dilemmas. This premise leads to the emergence of Ethics Committees, where liaison psychiatry has an important place due to its communication abilities and knowledge of the human behavior. This paper attempts to provide some observations to take into account when discussing the link between ethics and mental health...
April 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724513/forensic-psychiatry-and-neurolaw-description-developments-and-debates
#3
Gerben Meynen
Neuroscience produces a wealth of data on the relationship between brain and behavior, including criminal behavior. The research field studying the possible and actual impact of neuroscience on the law and legal practices, is called neurolaw. It is a new and rapidly developing domain of interdisciplinary research. Since forensic psychiatryhas to do with both neuroscience and the law, neurolaw is of specific relevance for this psychiatric specialty. In this contribution, I will discuss three main research areas in neurolaw - revision, assessment, and intervention - and explore their relevance for forensic psychiatry...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708023/textbook-descriptions-of-people-with-psychosis-some-ethical-aspects
#4
Terje Emil Fredwall, Inger Beate Larsen
BACKGROUND: Textbooks are central for the education of professionals in the health field and a resource for practitioners already in the field. OBJECTIVES: This article focuses on how 12 textbooks in psychiatric nursing and psychiatry, published in Norway between 1877 and 2012, describe and present people with psychosis. RESEARCH DESIGN: We used qualitative content analysis. Ethical considerations: The topic is published textbooks, made available to be read by students, teachers and professionals, and no ethical approval was required...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675415/practical-and-ethical-aspects-of-advance-research-directives-for-research-on-healthy-aging-german-and-israeli-professionals-perspectives
#5
Perla Werner, Silke Schicktanz
Background: Healthy aging is the development and maintenance of optimal cognitive, social and physical well-being, and function in older adults. Preventing or minimizing disease is one of the main ways of achieving healthy aging. Dementia is one of the most prevalent and life-changing diseases of old age. Thus, dementia prevention research is defined as one of the main priorities worldwide. However, conducting research with persons who lack the capacity to give consent is a major ethical issue...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665608/-level-of-development-of-clinical-ethics-consultation-in-psychiatry-results-of-a-survey-among-psychiatric-acute-clinics-and-forensic-psychiatric-hospitals
#6
Jakov Gather, Sarah Kaufmann, Ina Otte, Georg Juckel, Jan Schildmann, Jochen Vollmann
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to assess the level of development of clinical ethics consultation in psychiatric institutions in North Rhine-Westphalia. METHODS: Survey among medical directors, directors of nursing and administrative directors of all psychiatric acute clinics and forensic psychiatric hospitals in North Rhine-Westphalia. RESULTS: 113 persons working in psychiatric acute clinics responded (reponse rate: 48 %) and 13 persons working in forensic psychiatric hospitals (response rate 54 %)...
April 17, 2018: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659068/evolving-standards-of-care-in-the-age-of-cybertechnology
#7
Frederic G Reamer
Behavioral health professionals are making increased use of cybertechnology to deliver services to patients, communicate with patients, gather information about patients, and communicate with colleagues. The advent of cybertechnology - included the Internet, text (SMS), email, video, cloud storage of electronic records, and other forms of electronic communication and documentation - has introduced novel and unprecedented ethical and risk-management challenges. This article provides an overview of emerging issues related to informed consent; delivery of services; privacy, confidentiality, and privileged communication; boundary issues and dual relationships; documentation; and practitioners' relationships with colleagues...
March 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603509/translational-neuroscience-and-psychiatry-a-conceptual-analysis
#8
Ivana S Marková
As rapidly developing research disciplines and enterprises, the translational sciences have made significant impact on research direction in medicine. Psychiatry has likewise been affected, and in this regard, the translational neurosciences have been the major drivers. This paper explores the conceptual underpinnings of this enterprise in relation to psychiatry. It shows that translation is used in a metaphorical sense in this context but that this can be misleading because of the resultant connotation that there is equivalence between neurobiological states and mental states...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593578/mental-disorder-the-need-for-an-accurate-definition
#9
Diogo Telles-Correia, Sérgio Saraiva, Jorge Gonçalves
There are several reasons why a definition for mental disorder is essential. Among these are not only reasons linked to psychiatry itself as a science (nosology, research) but also to ethical, legal, and financial issues. The first formal definition of mental disorder resulted from a deep conceptual analysis led by Robert Spitzer. It emerged to address several challenges that psychiatry faced at the time, namely to serve as the starting point for an atheoretical and evidence-based classification of mental disorders, to justify the removal of homosexuality from classifications, and to counter the arguments of antipsychiatry...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571072/european-psychiatric-association-epa-guidance-on-forensic-psychiatry-evidence-based-assessment-and-treatment-of-mentally-disordered-offenders
#10
Birgit A Völlm, Martin Clarke, Vicenç Tort Herrando, Allan O Seppänen, Paweł Gosek, Janusz Heitzman, Erik Bulten
Forensic psychiatry in Europe is a specialty primarily concerned with individuals who have either offended or present a risk of doing so, and who also suffer from a psychiatric condition. These mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) are often cared for in secure psychiatric environments or prisons. In this guidance paper we first present an overview of the field of forensic psychiatry from a European perspective. We then present a review of the literature summarising the evidence on the assessment and treatment of MDOs under the following headings: The forensic psychiatrist as expert witness, risk, treatment settings for mentally disordered offenders, and what works for MDOs...
March 20, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532465/voluntary-stopping-eating-and-drinking
#11
John W Wax, Amy W An, Nicole Kosier, Timothy E Quill
Voluntary stopping of eating and drinking (VSED) is a deliberate, self-initiated attempt to hasten death in the setting of suffering refractory to optimal palliative interventions or prolonged dying that a person finds intolerable. Individuals who consider VSED tend to be older, have a serious but not always imminently terminal illness, place a high value on independence, and have significant illness burden. VSED can theoretically be performed independent of clinician assistance and therefore avoids many of the ethical and legal concerns associated with physician-assisted dying or other palliative measures of last resort, However, VSED is an intense process fraught with new sources of somatic and emotional suffering for individuals and their caregivers, so VSED is best supervised by an experienced, well-informed clinician who can provide appropriate pre-intervention assessment, anticipatory guidance, medical treatment of symptoms, and emotional support...
March 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506557/attitudes-of-stakeholders-in-psychiatry-towards-the-inclusion-of-children-in-genomic-research
#12
Anna Sundby, Merete Watt Boolsen, Kristoffer Sølvsten Burgdorf, Henrik Ullum, Thomas Folkmann Hansen, Ole Mors
BACKGROUND: Genomic sequencing of children in research raises complex ethical issues. This study aims to gain more knowledge on the attitudes towards the inclusion of children as research subjects in genomic research and towards the disclosure of pertinent and incidental findings to the parents and the child. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected from interviews with a wide range of informants: experts engaged in genomic research, clinical geneticists, persons with mental disorders, relatives, and blood donors...
March 5, 2018: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497184/how-patients-characteristics-influence-the-use-of-coercive-measures
#13
Tomasz Pawlowski, Piotr Baranowski
Background: Coercive measures are applied in psychiatry as a last resort to control self- and hetero-aggressive behaviors in situations where all other possible strategies have failed. For ethical and clinical reasons, the number of instances of coercion should be reduced as far as possible. Aim: The aim of the study was to identify sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients that were associated with coercion during hospital treatment. Materials and Methods: The study has a descriptive, longitudinal design, based on a 1 year prospective observation of patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital consisting of six inpatient psychiatric wards with a total of 236 beds...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496535/refractory-schizophrenia-attempted-suicide-and-withdrawal-of-life-support-a-clinical-ethics-case-report
#14
Cory Taylor, Jamie C Fertal, Solomon Liao
BACKGROUND: Withdrawal of life support for an individual with refractory schizophrenia after attempted suicide remains controversial. Discussion regarding prognosis of mental illness and the distinction between somatic and mental illness brings out many ethical issues. This article will examine the role and weight of severe persistent mental illness in the withdrawal of life support after attempted suicide. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 30-year-old gentleman with deafness and schizophrenia was admitted with multiple self-inflicted visceral stab wounds...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486741/intensive-home-treatment-for-patients-in-acute-psychiatric-crisis-situations-a-multicentre-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Jurgen Cornelis, Ansam Barakat, Jack Dekker, Tessy Schut, Sandra Berk, Hans Nusselder, Nikander Ruhl, Jeroen Zoeteman, Rien Van, Aartjan Beekman, Matthijs Blankers
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization is a common method to intensify care for patients experiencing a psychiatric crisis. A short-term, specialised, out-patient crisis intervention by a Crisis Resolution Team (CRT) in the Netherlands, called Intensive Home Treatment (IHT), is a viable intervention which may help reduce hospital admission days. However, research on the (cost-)effectiveness of alternatives to hospitalisation such as IHT are scarce. In the study presented in this protocol, IHT will be compared to care-as-usual (CAU) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT)...
February 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433605/chaining-culture-and-values-ethical-issues-in-research-in-middle-and-low-income-countries
#16
Julian C Hughes
A paper in this month's British Journal of Psychiatry reports on research from Ghana where some participants were exposed to chaining, which raises ethical concerns. Strict boundaries need to exist between researchers and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Nevertheless, there may be things we can learn from other cultures about our own values. Declaration of interest None.
January 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423828/standardized-patients-in-clinical-psychology-and-psychotherapy-a-scoping-review-of-barriers-and-facilitators-for-implementation
#17
REVIEW
Franziska Kühne, Destina Sevde Ay, Mara Jasmin Otterbeck, Florian Weck
OBJECTIVES: The use of simulated and standardized patients (SP) is widely accepted in the medical field and, from there, is beginning to disseminate into clinical psychology and psychotherapy. The purpose of this study was therefore to systematically review barriers and facilitators that should be considered in the implementation of SP interventions specific to clinical psychology and psychotherapy. METHODS: Following current guidelines, a scoping review was conducted...
February 8, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415803/ethical-considerations-in-bipolar-disorders
#18
S Richa, R Chammay, A Dargél, C Henry, M Masson
The implications of biomedical ethics principles extend to both medical care and biomedical research. They are particularly relevant for psychiatry in which pathologies are often chronic and disabling. Bipolar disorders impact the ability to make judgements and to take decisions during mood episodes and remain a stigmatised condition. Early interventions, even those in the prodromal phase, pose ethical questions for both clinicians and researchers. The degree of patients' autonomy in their clinical care must also now be considered from a biomedical ethics perspective...
February 4, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412284/the-free-spirit-spiritualism-meanings-by-a-nursing-team-on-psychiatry
#19
Gabriel Lavorato-Neto, Larissa Rodrigues, Egberto Ribeiro Turato, Claudinei José Gomes Campos
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the meanings attributed by nursing professionals in psychiatry to spirituality and its relationship with care. METHOD: Clinical-qualitative, with appreciation of symbolic meanings. We interviewed 18 individuals for a semi-structured script of open questions and the data were analyzed in the light of psychoanalytic hermeneutics. The discussion was undertaken with the overlap of understanding of the sacred symbol, psychological and the meaning of life...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400548/civil-forensic-psychiatry-part-1-an-overview
#20
Anthony H Samuels
Objectives This paper provides an overview for general and forensic psychiatrists of the complexity and challenge of working in the civil medico-legal arena. It covers expert evidence, ethics, core concepts in civil forensic psychiatry and report writing. Conclusions Civil forensic psychiatry is an important sub-speciality component of forensic psychiatry that requires specific skills, knowledge and the ability to assist legal bodies in determining the significance of psychiatric issues.
February 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
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